Publications by authors named "Ji Dai"

55 Publications

Naturally Occurring Parkinson's Disease Raises the Need for Nonhuman Primates in Neurodegenerative Diseases Research.

Authors:
Yuxuan Yao Ji Dai

Neurosci Bull 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Connectome and Manipulation, The Brain Cognition and Brain Disease Institute, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science-Shenzhen Fundamental Research Institutions, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00708-6DOI Listing
May 2021

LncRNA MAFG-AS1 affects the tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells via the miR-574-5p/SOD2 axis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 11;560:119-125. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of No.1 General Surgery, People's Hospital of Zhenhai, 315211, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Amounting evidence suggested that long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) played vital roles in the progression of various cancers. The aim of this study is to examine the biological roles and underlying mechanisms of lncRNA MAFG-AS1 in the tumorigenesis of breast cancer (BC) cells. Here we showed that downregulation of MAFG-AS1 inhibited the viability, migration, and invasion of BC cells. Mechanism investigation showed that inhibition of MAFG-AS1 induced apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and overexpression of Bcl-2 could inhibited it. Further, MAFG-AS1 acts as a sponge of miR-574-5p which directly binds to SOD2 mRNA. Re-expression of SOD2 using a 3'-UTR mutant SOD2 reversed the effects of silencing of MAFG-AS1 on BC cells. Finally, downregulation of MAFG-AS1 inhibited the growth of tumour in vivo. Together, MAFG-AS1 acts as an oncogene via regulation of miR-574-5p/SOD2 axis in BC cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.04.133DOI Listing
June 2021

Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory in Chinese College Students.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 29;16:2579-2589. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Clinical Psychology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, People's Republic of China.

Background: Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is considered to be associated with emotional disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and social anxiety. Therefore, a comprehensive instrument to measure IU is needed. The purposes of the present study were as follows: 1) developing a Chinese version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory (CIUI) and 2) measuring the reliability and validity of CIUI.

Methods: We translated the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory (IUI) into Chinese. A sample consisting of Chinese college students from three universities was used to evaluate the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity of the CIUI. Participants answered the CIUI, IUS-12, GAD-7, BDI-II, and PSWQ. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were run to explore the factor structure of CIUI.

Results: The results demonstrated an acceptable internal consistency for CIUI (Part A of CIUI [CIUIA]: α = 0.920; Part B of CIUI [CIUIB]: α = 0.947) and test-retest reliability (CIUIA: ICC = 0.788; CIUIB: ICC = 0.859). The results of EFA and CFA all supported a two-factor structure for CIUIA (Intolerance of the unexpected and difficulty waiting in an uncertain situation and Intolerance of uncertainty and of uncertain situations) and a four-factor structure for CIUIB (Overestimation, Control, Uncertainty makes one feel stressful, and Reassurance), and acceptable validity was obtained.

Conclusion: The CIUI is an appropriate instrument for measuring IU in Chinese populations. Future studies should confirm the psychometric properties using a comprehensive sample.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S268313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605939PMC
October 2020

An Open Resource for Non-human Primate Optogenetics.

Neuron 2020 12 19;108(6):1075-1090.e6. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience & Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.

Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience in small laboratory animals, but its effect on animal models more closely related to humans, such as non-human primates (NHPs), has been mixed. To make evidence-based decisions in primate optogenetics, the scientific community would benefit from a centralized database listing all attempts, successful and unsuccessful, of using optogenetics in the primate brain. We contacted members of the community to ask for their contributions to an open science initiative. As of this writing, 45 laboratories around the world contributed more than 1,000 injection experiments, including precise details regarding their methods and outcomes. Of those entries, more than half had not been published. The resource is free for everyone to consult and contribute to on the Open Science Framework website. Here we review some of the insights from this initial release of the database and discuss methodological considerations to improve the success of optogenetic experiments in NHPs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.09.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962465PMC
December 2020

Investigation of the short-term effects of extracellular polymeric substance accumulation with different backwashing strategies in an anaerobic self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactor.

Water Res 2020 Oct 8;185:116283. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Center, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

The optimum operation strategy for a side-stream external anaerobic self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnSFDMBR) was investigated by coupling such a system with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Time-based backwashing with different intervals and transmembrane pressure (TMP)-based backwashing were compared as the operation strategies of the AnSFDMBR. The system performance, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) accumulation in the dynamic layer and on the membrane mesh of the AnSFDMBR, and the physical properties of the dynamic layer were closely monitored. Both operation strategies achieved stable operation with effluent turbidity less than 5 nephelometric turbidity units with a slowly increasing TMP. However, with the time-based backwashing strategy, the EPS accumulation rate in the dynamic layer was more than 20 times higher than that on the mesh, indicating that frequent backwashing might have a negative impact on the AnSFDMBR. The impacts of EPS accumulation on the membrane mesh were negligible considering the small amount of EPS residual and the large pore size of the mesh. On the contrary, the EPS accumulation in the dynamic layer changed the layer's physical properties and further impacted on the performance of the AnSFDMBR. The accumulation of polysaccharides in the dynamic layer was the main reason for the layer's compactness, which was negatively correlated with the specific surface area and further led to the TMP increase. The polysaccharides in the dynamic layer-to-sludge ratio increased to around 1.6 with only 5 days of time-base operation. With TMP-based operation, it took more than 10 days for polysaccharides in the dynamic layer-to-sludge ratio reaching 1.6. The low TMP increase rate, high effluent quality, and slow EPS accumulation with TMP-based backwashing indicated TMP-based operation is applicable in the studied AnSFDMBR. Nevertheless, the correlation between TMP and the accumulation of polysaccharides should be further investigated to find the optimum TMP for backwashing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116283DOI Listing
October 2020

Boosting Feature Matching Accuracy with Pairwise Affine Estimation.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2020 Aug 6;PP. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Local image feature matching lies in the heart of many computer vision applications. Achieving high matching accuracy is challenging when significant geometric difference exists between the source and target images. The traditional matching pipeline addresses the geometric difference by introducing the concept of support region. Around each feature point, the support region defines a neighboring area characterized by estimated attributes like scale, orientation, affine shape, etc. To correctly assign support region is not an easy job, especially when each feature is processed individually. In this paper, we propose to estimate the relative affine transformation for every pair of to-be-compared features. This "tailored" measurement of geometric difference is more precise and helps improve the matching accuracy. Our pipeline can be incorporated into most existing 2D local image feature detectors and descriptors. We comprehensively evaluate its performance with various experiments on a diversified selection of benchmark datasets. The results show that the majority of tested detectors/descriptors gain additional matching accuracy with proposed pipeline.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3013384DOI Listing
August 2020

Integrated food waste management with wastewater treatment in Hong Kong: Transformation, energy balance and economic analysis.

Water Res 2020 Oct 6;184:116155. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Center, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Diversion of food waste (FW) away from the solid waste stream into the wastewater stream is proved viable through the use of food waste disposers (FWDs). However, this may cause unwanted influences on the wastewater treatment system. In this context, this study has comprehensively evaluated integrated food waste and wastewater management on a city scale for the first time. A plant-wide COD-based transformation model was first established to assess the impacts of the use of FWDs on the networks of biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Hong Kong. The biological WWTPs can remove about 78% of solids and 58% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in FW. Moreover, the diversion of FW poses limited impacts on treatment capacity and effluent quality in WWTPs with the FWDs penetration rate up to 30%. The increases in energy consumption and operational cost are highly dependent on the treatment processes and the FWDs penetration rates, while municipal solid waste treatment can benefit from the diversion of FW. This study suggests that upgrading treatment processes (e.g., with less aeration) and optimizing the operation of WWTPs (e.g., reduce sludge retention time) may be required with the use of FWDs to achieve an energy-efficient and cost-effective goal. More importantly, this study not only provides a methodology for effectively evaluating the impacts of diverting FW into wastewater treatment in Hong Kong but also facilitates FW management in similar metropolises.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116155DOI Listing
October 2020

Feasibility study on applying the iron-activated persulfate system as a pre-treatment process for clofibric acid selective degradation in municipal wastewater.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 6;739:140020. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Lab, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Clofibric acid (CFA) was selected as an example of the widespread micropollutants in municipal wastewater to investigate the feasibility of the application of an iron-activated persulfate (Fe-PS) system for selective micropollutants removal prior to biological wastewater treatment. In pure CFA solution, the CFA degradation rate was accelerated with an increase in oxidant dosage and 2.15 mg·L (0.01 mM) CFA could be completed removed within 30 min with 270 mg·L (1 mM) potassium persulfate (PS) activated by 56 mg·L iron powder (Fe). Although both sulfate radicals (SO) and hydroxyl radicals (HO) were generated in the Fe-PS system, SO was identified as the dominant oxidant for CFA degradation. To investigate the interference from model compounds in the municipal wastewater, CFA degradation in different concentrations of ammonia or/and glucose solutions, the synthetic municipal wastewater, and real municipal wastewater systems were investigated. A complete removal of CFA was achieved with ammonia or/and glucose interferences. Less than 3% ammonia was removed due to the formation of aminopropyl radicals. About 15% degradation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was mainly attributed to the oxidation of glucose by HO, Indicating the excellent selective oxidation ability of the Fe-PS system targeting at CFA over glucose. Even though the alkalinity significantly hindered the oxidation of CFA in both synthetic and real municipal wastewater system, the removal efficiency of CFA was significantly higher than that of DOC. The decrease of CFA removal efficiency in municipal wastewater system comparing to the other tests was due to the slow degradation of PS in the system and further hindered the SO generation. Therefore, the impacts of other impurities in municipal wastewater on the oxidation activities of Fe-PS system should be further investigated. In general, this study confirmed the feasibility of using the Fe-PS system for selective degrading resistant CFA in municipal wastewater.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140020DOI Listing
October 2020

Denitrifying sulfur conversion-EBPR (DS-EBPR) process for treatment of seawater-based highly saline wastewater: Evaluation on performance, kinetics and microbial community structure.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Oct 23;313:123574. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering and Hong Kong Branch of the Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

DS-EBPR is an alternative to the conventional activated sludge process which face great challenge for treatment of seawater-based highly saline wastewater. This study aims to investigate the impacts of long-term (248 days) 20% and 30% seawater fractions and short-term shock of 30%, 40%, 70% and 100% seawater fractions (corresponding to 1.0, 1.4, 2.5 and 3.5% of salinity) on the DS-EBPR performance, kinetics and microbial community structure. Long-term operation with high fraction (30%) of seawater marginally decreased the sulfur conversion and phosphorus uptake, which correlated well with the microbial dynamics. Temporal salinity shock from 1.0% (30% seawater) to 3.5% (100% seawater) remarkably reduced the phosphorus release/uptake by 36-44%, which was partly due to the decrease in the abundance of functional bacteria and chlorapatite (Ca[PO]Cl) forming as P precipitates with 70-100% seawater addition. The formed chlorapatite contributed to approximately 8-26% of total P removal estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123574DOI Listing
October 2020

Test of transformation mechanism of food waste and its impacts on sulfide and methane production in the sewer system.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Feb;81(4):845-852

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Hong Kong Branch) and Water Technology Center, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China E-mail:

Food waste (FW) management has become an important issue worldwide. Diverting FW into the sewer system is considered promising to tackle the FW issue. However, the transformation of FW in sewers and its impact on the sewer process have not received adequate attention due to the overlooked sewer networks. In this study, a laboratory-scale sewer reactor system was established to investigate the transformation of FW and the production of sulfide and methane under anaerobic conditions. The transformation of FW in the sewer reactor could result in an increase in the substrate level through hydrolyzing and converting biodegradable substances into preferred substrates. Moreover, the generated substrates from the addition of FW were preferable for the metabolism of key microbes in sewer biofilms. As a result, methane production from the sewer reactor could be enhanced from the addition of FW, whereas sulfide production was not affected at a low sulfate concentration. The findings of this study suggest that the diversion of FW may exert an adverse impact on sewers and the environment in terms of greenhouse gas emission. Hence, more research is necessary to clarify the detailed impacts on FW management and wastewater treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.175DOI Listing
February 2020

Adjustable Graphene/Polyolefin Elastomer Epsilon-near-Zero Metamaterials at Radiofrequency Range.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 May 4;12(19):22019-22028. Epub 2020 May 4.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, PR China.

While epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials have marvelously shown various application prospects, the way to construct intrinsic ENZ metamaterials and adjust their ENZ properties precisely is still uncovered. The realization of stable and broadband ENZ properties at the radiofrequency range is of great significance. Herein graphene/polyolefin elastomer (POE) intrinsic ENZ metamaterials are initially constructed via the nanohybrid process. The metamaterials possess excellent adjustable ENZ properties by adjusting the content and reduction methods of graphene. The permittivities maintain between -1 and 1 steadily with increasing graphene content, which is attributed to the moderated carrier concentration of the conductive networks in the nanohybrids. Besides, different reduction methods also have significant impacts on ENZ properties. The hydrazine hydrate reduction method increases the maximum ENZ frequency region to 126 MHz. Lorentz type resonance is reasonable for the positive-negative transition in the ENZ frequency regions. As a significant indicator of the emergence of ENZ property, the sudden peak of dielectric loss tangent is observed. This work offers novel routes to construct intrinsic ENZ metamaterials with excellent adjustability in both values of permittivity and ENZ frequency regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c02979DOI Listing
May 2020

Ground food waste discharge to sewer enhances methane gas emission: A lab-scale investigation.

Water Res 2020 May 12;174:115616. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Hong Kong Branch) and Water Technology Center, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Emission of sulfide and methane from sewerage system has been a major concern for a long time. Sewers are now facing emerging challenges, such as receiving food waste (FW) to relieve the burdens on solid waste treatment. However, the knowledge of the direct impact of FW addition on sulfide and methane production in and emission from sewers is still lacking. In this study, two lab-scale sewer reactors, one without and one with FW addition, were continuously operated to investigate the production of sulfide and methane and microbial communities arising from FW discharge to freshwater sewerage system. The 190-day long-term monitoring and the batch tests on days 69 and 124 suggest that the FW addition has little impact on sulfide production possibly due to the limited sulfate concentration (40 mg S/L) but enhanced methane production by up to 60%. Moreover, cryosection-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the FW addition significantly stimulated the accumulation of methanogenic archaea (MA) in sewer biofilms and altered the spatial distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and MA. Moreover, the relative abundance of MA in biofilms with FW addition was higher than that without FW addition, whereas the relative abundance of SRB was similar. Metabolic pathway analysis for sulfidogenesis and methanogenesis indicates that sufficient substrates derived from the FW addition were biodegraded during fermentation to produce acetate and hydrogen, and consequently facilitate methanogenesis. These findings shed light on the impacts of changes in wastewater compositions (e.g., FW addition) on sulfide and methane production in the freshwater sewerage system for improved policy-making on sewer management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115616DOI Listing
May 2020

Probing the reaction mechanism of Al/CuO nanocomposites doped with ammonium perchlorate.

Nanotechnology 2020 Apr 3;31(25):255401. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, People's Republic of China. Micro-Nano Energetic Devices Key Laboratory of MIIT, Nanjing 210094, People's Republic of China.

The oxide shell of Al nanoparticles (Al NPs) prevents further reaction of Al/CuO nanothermites which reduces Al utilization efficiency and the performance of the nanothermites. However, the performance of Al/CuO nanothermites can be improved by adding ammonium perchlorate (AP). In this work, in order to confirm and explain the enhancement mechanism of AP on Al/CuO nanothermites, Al/CuO/NC and Al/CuO/NC/AP composites were prepared using the electrospray method. The composites were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry/thermogravimetric, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the ignition temperature and the time-resolved analysis of the rapid pyrolysis chemistry of the composites were tested using T-jump and time-of-flight mass spectrometry, respectively. The results show that Al NPs of Al/CuO/NC/AP composite are hollow compared to Al/CuO/NC composite after reaction. Al NPs and CuO NPs reduce the decomposition temperature and facilitate the rapid decomposition of the AP, and the decomposition products of the AP can destroy the oxidation layer of Al NPs. This result facilitates the further conduct of the thermite reaction. A mutually reinforcing relationship exists between the Al/CuO/NC composites and AP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab7c43DOI Listing
April 2020

What Do You Think About Your Dreams? The Construction of a Belief About Dreams Questionnaire.

Nat Sci Sleep 2019 13;11:411-421. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Clinical Psychology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, People's Republic of China.

Background And Purpose: Nightmare distress (ND) is associated with a broad spectrum of psychopathological conditions such as anxiety, depression and bipolar disorder. Some studies have indicated that dream beliefs play an important role in the occurrence and treatment of nightmare distress. However, existing instruments used to assess dream beliefs either fail to satisfy the requirements of the psychometrics or fail to capture the essence of dream beliefs. This research pursued two objectives: (1) to develop a questionnaire, called the Beliefs About Dreams Questionnaire (BADQ), to measure beliefs people hold about their dreams and (2) to describe the dream beliefs of Chinese college students.

Methods: The structure and items on the BADQ were based on the previous literature and were the result of an open questionnaire. Some items were deleted through expert review and the result of predict test. To evaluate its validity and reliability, a sample of 1408 Chinese college students from two universities answered the BADQ, the Chinese version of Van Dream Anxiety Scale (CVDAS), the Dream Survey Questionnaire (DSQ), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7(GAD-7) Questionnaire. After two weeks, 95 of them answered the BADQ again. Exploratory factor analysis (n=704) and confirmatory factor analysis (n=704) were conducted to explore and verify the structure of BADQ. The correlation between the CVDAS and the BADQ was calculated to evaluate the divergent validity.

Results: The BADQ contains 26 items. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure: Dream omen and health, Dream superstitions, Dream meaninglessness, Dream reality, and Dream attitude. The result of the confirmatory factor analysis also supported the five-factors structure. Acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α of all subscales exceeded 0.80) and ordinary to moderate test-retest reliability (the intraclass correlation coefficient of all subscales ranged from 0.467 to 0.713) of the BADQ were presented. Low degree correlation between the CVDAS and the BADQ (ranged from to -0.052 to 0.219) showed that they were two different variables, indicating a good divergent validity.

Conclusion: The present investigation revealed moderate to high construct validity and reliability of the BADQ.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S227154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6917598PMC
December 2019

From nanoparticles to on-chip 3D nanothermite: electrospray deposition of reactive Al/[email protected] onto semiconductor bridge and its application for rapid ignition.

Nanotechnology 2020 May 24;31(19):195712. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, People's Republic of China. Institute of Chemical Materials, CAEP, Mianyang 621999, People's Republic of China.

Nanothermites composed of nano-fuels and oxidants are attractive energetic materials, which have potential applications in microscale energy-demanding systems. Herein, nano-Al/CuO with nitrocellulose (NC) binder have been bottom-up assembled on semiconductor bridge (SCB) chip by electrospray, from nanoparticles to three-dimensional (3D) deposited structure. The morphological and compositional characterization confirms the constituents in Al/[email protected] are homogeneously mixed at nano scale and the 3D structure at micro scale is tunable. The as-deposited Al/[email protected] exhibits excellent energy output and superior chemical reactivity. Specifically, the heat release of Al/[email protected] (1179.5 J g) is higher than that of random mixed Al/CuO (730.9 J g). Benefiting from outstanding exothermic properties, the material integrated with SCB initiator chip (Al/[email protected]) for potential ignition application was investigated. The Al/[email protected] micro energetic initiator can be functioned rapidly (with delay time of 2.8 μs) and exhibits superb ignition performances with violent explosion process, high combustion temperature (4636 °C) and successful ignition of B/KNO propellant, in comparison to SCB initiator. The strategy provides promising route to introduce nano reactive particles into various functional energy-demanding systems for potential energetic applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab6fd8DOI Listing
May 2020

Impact of low-thermal pretreatment on physicochemical properties of saline waste activated sludge, hydrolysis of organics and methane yield in anaerobic digestion.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Feb 23;297:122423. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Center, Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Hong Kong Branch) and FYT Research Institute (Guangzhou), The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

This work studied the influence of low-thermal pretreatment (60-120 °C) on anaerobic digestion of saline waste activated sludge. The findings showed higher temperature and longer pretreatment time considerably improve organics hydrolysis (soluble chemical oxygen demand increased by 4.2-11.9 times) and volatile solid reduction (maximum 24.6%). Carbohydrate and proteins solubilization accelerated by 5.6-43.8 times and 8.9-35.9 times, respectively by temperature rose from 60 to 120 °C. Low temperature (60 °C) promotes faster release of ammonia and phosphate. Thermal treatment had positive effect on biogas production because methane yield was enhanced by 13.7, 27.0, 29.0 and 29.6% when pretreated at 60, 80, 100 and 120 °C, respectively. Significant positive relationships observed between pretreatment temperature/duration and sludge properties. Energy and economic assessment displayed anaerobic digestion of 80 °C pretreated sludge is more economically feasible. Thus, low-thermal pretreatment technology could be useful for improvement of methane yield in anaerobic digestion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122423DOI Listing
February 2020

Evaluation of potential environmental benefits from seawater toilet flushing.

Water Res 2019 Oct 9;162:505-515. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; Water Technology Center, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Water scarcity has become a global issue that has forced many communities to seek alternative water resources. The majority of water on the earth's surface comes from the sea. Seawater has the potential to mitigate water stress after proper treatment. In Hong Kong, seawater has been used directly for toilet flushing for more than 50 years and the seawater toilet flushing (SWTF) system serves 80% of the residents. However, its environmental feasibility remains unknown. This study is a pioneer evaluating the environmental performances of the SWTF system by comparing SWTF with other alternative water resources including desalinated seawater, desalinated wastewater effluent, centralized wastewater reclamation and on-site greywater reclamation systems, while the conventional long-distance imported water scenario is set as the baseline for comparison. This evaluation is first conducted in the Southern District and North New Territory in Hong Kong, demonstrating SWTF is significantly more environmentally-friendly than other alternative water resources, which is the only alternative water resource application approach with environmental impacts comparable with the conventional long-distance imported water scenario. On the contrary, other alternative water resources application approaches would result in additional environmental impacts. Seaside distances and effective population density are two major geographical impact factors effecting the environmental impacts of different water systems in these two districts. The benefits obtained from SWTF in fourteen cities in South China are further investigated. It is confirmed that SWTF can significantly relieve water stress with the lowest environmental impacts comparing with other alternative options in these cities if alternative water resources must be applied for domestic usage. However, the assessment from different aspects should be further conducted to compare these alternative water resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.07.016DOI Listing
October 2019

A new sulfidogenic oxic-settling anaerobic (SOSA) process: The effects of sulfur-cycle bioaugmentation on the operational performance, sludge properties and microbial communities.

Water Res 2019 Oct 22;162:30-42. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Hong Kong Branch) and Water Technology Center, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong; HKUST Shenzhen Research Institute, Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

In-situ sludge reduction can be achieved by inserting an anaerobic side-stream reactor in the sludge return line of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process. This modified oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process can reduce sludge production by 30-50% through feast-fast alternating conditions. This paper proposes a new bioprocess called the sulfidogenic oxic-settling anaerobic (SOSA) process with OSA configuration and the addition of sulfate in side-stream reactor. The new bioprocess augments the conventional anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic feast-fast bioconversions with sulfur biochemical transformations (i.e. sulfate reduction and sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification). A lab-scale SOSA process was operated for 260 days in parallel with the anoxic/oxic (AO) CAS process and the conventional OSA process as control systems. Based on the experimental results, the feasibility of the new SOSA process was evaluated, and the effects of sulfur bioaugmentation on the effluent quality, sludge reduction, sludge physico-chemical properties and microbial communities were examined. The SOSA process i) removed 98% of the organics (chemical oxygen demand, COD) and 99% of the ammonia present with a lower observed sludge yield (0.204 g TSS/g COD) than those of the OSA and AO processes (0.292 and 0.473 g TSS/g COD respectively), ii) denitrified 18% and 6% more nitrogen to dinitrogen gas than did the CAS and OSA processes respectively, iii) produced sludge with improved settleability and dewaterability, iv) encouraged sludge decomposition with greater destruction of extracellular polymeric substances and v) enriched sulfur-cycle related and hydrolytic/fermentative bacteria. The possible mechanisms of sulfur augmentation and limitations of the present study are also discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.06.051DOI Listing
October 2019

Quantum Dots-Based Point-of-Care Measurement of Procalcitonin in Finger-Prick Blood and Venous Whole Blood Specimens.

Lab Med 2020 Jan;51(1):34-40

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Yixing People's Hospital, Affiliated Jiangsu University, China.

Objective: To determine whether the performance of a new quantum dots-based point-of-care test (POCT) devices is qualified for procalcitonin testing.

Methods: Finger-prick and venous blood specimens from 153 patients were measured with a quantum dots-based POCT device; the results were compared with those from the reference method.

Results: The quantum dots-based POCT device correlated well with the reference method in measuring plasma, venous whole blood, and finger-prick blood. No significant bias was observed (-0.08 ng/mL). At 0.5 ng per mL cutoff value, the concordances were 96.6%, 94.6%, and 90.5% for plasma, venous whole blood, and finger-prick blood, respectively. And at 2 ng per mL cutoff value, the concordances were 98.0%, 96.6%, and 95.3%, respectively.

Conclusions: The quantum dots-based POCT device measured procalcitonin with multiple specimen types, high sensitivity, wide detection range, and short turnaround time. It would allow a more widespread use of procalcitonin and help lessen the burden of overcrowding in healthcare facilities in China.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/labmed/lmz025DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of food waste addition on biofilm formation and sulfide production in a gravity sewer.

Water Res 2019 Jun 29;157:74-82. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Center, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong; Fok Ying Tung Research Institute, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong.

The conversion of food waste (FW) into the sewage system is regarded as a promising method of relieving the burden of solid waste management. However, knowledge about its effects on sewer processes is limited, particularly in terms of biofilm formation and sulfide production. In this study, a gravity sewer system was set up to investigate the effects of the addition of FW on biofilm formation, the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) population, and the sulfide production potential. The sewer biofilm characteristics changed with long-term FW addition, and a greater thickness (by 32%), an increased dry density (by 13%), and more extracellular polymeric substance (by 141%) were observed. The thicker and denser biofilm limited oxygen diffusion, enlarged the anaerobic area in the sewer biofilm, promoted an increase in the SRB population, and enhanced the sulfide production potential in the gravity sewer. Substantial differences in the HS profiles in the biofilm samples with and without the addition of FW were observed via microelectrode analysis. A model-based investigation of sewer biofilm formation with and without the addition of FW was conducted with a dynamic sewer biofilm model to gain further insights into sewer biofilm processes. The results suggest that the addition of FW can promote sulfide production and SRB growth in a sewer biofilm, which can be significantly affected by the ratio of FW to sewage. It is worth further investigations of the impacts of FW addition on the potential sulfide production in pressure sewers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.03.061DOI Listing
June 2019

Advances in sulfur conversion-associated enhanced biological phosphorus removal in sulfate-rich wastewater treatment: A review.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Aug 30;285:121303. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering; Hong Kong Branch of the Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China; Wastewater Treatment Laboratory, FYT Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Nansha, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Recently an innovative sulfur conversion-associated enhanced biological phosphorus removal (S-EBPR) process has been developed for treating sulfate-rich wastewater. This process has successfully integrated sulfur (S), carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P cycles for simultaneous metabolism or removal of C, N and P; moreover this new process relies on the synergy among the slow-growing sulfate-reducing bacteria and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, hence generating little excess sludge. To elucidate this new process, researchers have investigated the microorganisms proliferated in the system, identified the biochemical pathways and assessed the impact of operational and environmental factors on process performance as well as trials on process optimization. This paper for the first time reviews the recent advances that have been achieved, particularly relating to the areas of S-EBPR microbiology and biochemistry, as well as the effects of environmental factors (e.g., electron donors/acceptors, pH, temperature, etc.). Moreover, future directions for researches and applications are proposed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.03.142DOI Listing
August 2019

Investigation of multiple polymers in a denitrifying sulfur conversion-EBPR system: The structural dynamics and storage states.

Water Res 2019 Jun 20;156:179-187. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Hong Kong Branch of the Chinese, National Engineering Research Center for Control, Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China; Wastewater Treatment Laboratory, FYT Graduate School, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Nansha, Guangzhou, China.

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), polyphosphate (poly-P) and polysulfide or elemental sulfur (poly-S) are the key functionally relevant polymers involved in the recently reported Denitrifying Sulfur conversion-associated Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (DS-EBPR) process. However, little is known about the structural dynamics and storage states of these polymers. In particular, investigating the poly-S generated in this process is quite a superior challenge. This study was thus aimed at simultaneously qualitative-quantitative investigating poly-S and associated poly-P and PHAs through the integrated chemical analysis and Raman micro-spectroscopy coupled with multiple microscopic methods (i.e. optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and differential interference contrast microscopy). The chemical analytical results displayed a stable DS-EBPR phenotype in terms of sulfur conversion, P release/uptake and the dynamics of relevant polymers. The multiple microscopic images and Raman spectrum profiles further clearly demonstrated the existence of the polymers and their dynamic changes under alternating anaerobic-anoxic conditions, consistent with the chemical analytical results. In particular, Raman analysis for the first time unraveled the co-existence of S/S species stored either intracellularly or extracellularly; and the dynamic conversions between S/S and other sulfur species suggest that there might be a universal pool of bioavailable sulfur. The results reveal the mechanisms underlying the structural dynamics and changes in storage states of the relevant polymers that are functionally relevant to the carbon/phosphorus/sulfur-cycles during different metabolic phases. These mechanisms would otherwise not be obtained only using a traditional chemical analysis-based approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.03.025DOI Listing
June 2019

Elucidating the effects of starvation and reactivation on anaerobic sulfidogenic granular sludge: Reactor performance and granular sludge transformation.

Water Res 2019 03 15;151:44-53. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution (Hong Kong Branch), and Water Technology Center, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China; Wastewater Treatment Laboratory, FYT Graduate School, and Shenzhen Institute, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Guangdong, China.

In biological wastewater treatment, the bacteria starvation always challenges the stability of system operation. Yet, the effects of starvation and possibility of reactivation are less understood for anaerobic sulfidogenic system. Sulfidogenic systems use sulfate as electron acceptor for organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation, so it will encounter two kind of starvations: (i) complete stoppage of wastewater flow (named complete food starvation) and (ii) remaining organic COD but with very low level sulfate in the influent (named sulfate starvation). In this study, the relative long-term starvation (over 30-day) and subsequent reactivation were studied in two lab-scale continuous gas recirculation sulfate-reducing upflow sludge bed (CGR-SRUSB) reactors. It was observed that the complete food starvation and sulfate starvation decreased the COD removal rate (in the similar range of 60-65%) and the specific sulfidogenic activity (about 45% and 61% respectively), as well as increasing the sludge flotation potential (SFP) from <15% to 58% and 35% respectively. Moreover, the following restoration experiments proved that the perturbed systems could be reactivated within 10-15 days for both cases. The results of investigating the mechanisms showed the performance deterioration were highly attributed to the starvation-induced granular sludge transitions, with respect to the changing of sludge physico-chemical properties (permeability, porosity, hydrophobicity and viscocity) and microbial stuctures (sulfate-reducting bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances). The outcomes of this study can provide useful information for dealing with the prolonged starvation problems in sulfidogenesis-based systems in industrial and municipal wastewater treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.12.008DOI Listing
March 2019

Changes in the physical properties of the dynamic layer and its correlation with permeate quality in a self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactor.

Water Res 2018 09 18;140:67-76. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Lab, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

The self-forming dynamic membrane bioreactor (SFDMBR) is a biological wastewater treatment technology based on the conventional membrane bioreactor (MBR) with membrane material modification to a large pore size (30-100 μm). This modification requires a dynamic layer formed by activated sludge to provide effective filtration function for high-quality permeate production. The properties of the dynamic layer are therefore important for permeate quality in SFDMBRs. The interaction between the structure of the dynamic layer and the performance of SFDMBRs is little known but understandably complex. To elucidate the interaction, a lab-scale SFDMBR system coupled with a nylon woven mesh as the supporting material was operated. After development of a mature dynamic layer, excellent solid-liquid separation was achieved, as evidenced by a low permeate turbidity of less than 2 NTU. The permeate turbidity stayed below this level for nearly 80 days. In the fouling phase, the dynamic layer was compressed with an increase in the trans-membrane pressure and the quality of the permeate kept deteriorating until the turbidity exceeded 10 NTU. The investigation revealed that the majority of permeate particles were dissociated from the dynamic layer on the back surface of the supporting material, which is caused by the compression, breakdown, and dissociation of the dynamic layer. This phenomenon was observed directly in experiment instead of model prediction or conjecture for the first time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.04.041DOI Listing
September 2018

Contrast coding in the primary visual cortex depends on temporal contexts.

Authors:
Ji Dai Yi Wang

Eur J Neurosci 2018 04 1;47(8):947-958. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Contrast response function in the primary visual cortex (V1) has long been described as following a sigmoid curve. However, this is mainly based on measuring neural responses to drifting contrast grating in a stable stimulation, a model that does not consider the effects of motion or length of stimulus presentation. During natural viewing, the visual system can obtain sufficient information for identifying the shapes defined by contrast from a single glance; acquiring greater knowledge of the neuronal response properties to contrast in such a short timescale is necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms. We investigated responses of cat V1 neurons to contrast presented by static grating for 40 ms without pause compared to drifting grating presented continuously for 2000 ms. The neuronal response to transiently presented contrast could be well described by a linear function. Further examination of the effects of motion and presentation duration on contrast responses demonstrated that motion increased response sensitivity in the low-contrast range, while brief presentation increased response sensitivity in the high-contrast range. Motion and prolonged presentation (adaptation) together resulted in an asymptotic sigmoid curve with a saturation response in the high-contrast range. These results suggest that motion mainly enhance the neural response sensitivity to low-contrast objects, while short and rapid presentation mainly enhance the neural sensitivity to high-contrast stimulus. Our findings indicate that multiple factors influence the properties of contrast response functions, suggesting that V1 neuron contrast coding is flexible and depends on the temporal contexts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13893DOI Listing
April 2018

The characteristics of household food waste in Hong Kong and their implications for sewage quality and energy recovery.

Waste Manag 2018 Apr 6;74:63-73. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Center, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong; Fok Ying Tung Research Institute, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong.

Food waste (FW) is a worldwide environmental issue due to its huge production amount. FW separation from municipal solid waste followed by different treatment strategies has been widely accepted. Food waste disposer (FWD) is a promising approach to separate and collect household food waste (HFW), which has been widely applied in many countries. However, the feasibility of FWD application in many countries is still being debated due to the major concerns over the impact of FWD on the wastewater treatment plants. In order to investigate the feasibility of FWD application, FW characterization is a key work to be conducted in advance. Since the FW characteristics largely vary by region, reliable and representative FW characteristics in different countries should be investigated. To provide such information for further studies on FW management for Hong Kong, HFW was collected from Hong Kong typical households over one year and analyzed systemically in this study. The FW composition varied little from place to place or season to season, and the values observed were comparable with results reported from other countries and regions. Based on the reliable HFW characteristics obtained from one-year survey coupled with statistical analysis, simulated HFW for Hong Kong consisting of 50% fruits, 20% vegetables, 20% starchy food and 10% meat was proposed for future studies. On the other hand, the FWD treatment caused more than 50% of the biodegradable organic content in HFW to dissolve. With a ratio of 1 g food waste to 1 L sewage, total solids in the wastewater stream were predicted to increase by 73%, total chemical oxygen demand by 61%, soluble chemical oxygen demand by 110%, nitrogen by 6% and phosphorus by 16%. Theoretically, 22 million m/year of additional methane could be generated if 50% of Hong Kong residential buildings equipped with FWD. That would certainly increase pollutant loading on the wastewater treatment plants, but also energy recovery potential.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2017.11.051DOI Listing
April 2018

NeoAnalysis: a Python-based toolbox for quick electrophysiological data processing and analysis.

Biomed Eng Online 2017 Nov 13;16(1):129. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Background: In a typical electrophysiological experiment, especially one that includes studying animal behavior, the data collected normally contain spikes, local field potentials, behavioral responses and other associated data. In order to obtain informative results, the data must be analyzed simultaneously with the experimental settings. However, most open-source toolboxes currently available for data analysis were developed to handle only a portion of the data and did not take into account the sorting of experimental conditions. Additionally, these toolboxes require that the input data be in a specific format, which can be inconvenient to users. Therefore, the development of a highly integrated toolbox that can process multiple types of data regardless of input data format and perform basic analysis for general electrophysiological experiments is incredibly useful.

Results: Here, we report the development of a Python based open-source toolbox, referred to as NeoAnalysis, to be used for quick electrophysiological data processing and analysis. The toolbox can import data from different data acquisition systems regardless of their formats and automatically combine different types of data into a single file with a standardized format. In cases where additional spike sorting is needed, NeoAnalysis provides a module to perform efficient offline sorting with a user-friendly interface. Then, NeoAnalysis can perform regular analog signal processing, spike train, and local field potentials analysis, behavioral response (e.g. saccade) detection and extraction, with several options available for data plotting and statistics. Particularly, it can automatically generate sorted results without requiring users to manually sort data beforehand. In addition, NeoAnalysis can organize all of the relevant data into an informative table on a trial-by-trial basis for data visualization. Finally, NeoAnalysis supports analysis at the population level.

Conclusions: With the multitude of general-purpose functions provided by NeoAnalysis, users can easily obtain publication-quality figures without writing complex codes. NeoAnalysis is a powerful and valuable toolbox for users doing electrophysiological experiments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12938-017-0419-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5683334PMC
November 2017

Behavioral Manipulation by Optogenetics in the Nonhuman Primate.

Neuroscientist 2018 10 5;24(5):526-539. Epub 2017 Sep 5.

1 State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Given their neuroanatomical similarities to humans and their ability to perform complex behaviors, the nonhuman primate has been an important model for understanding complex systems such as sensory processing, motor control, social interaction, and nervous system disorders. Optogenetics offers cell-type specific neural control with millisecond precision, making it a powerful neural modulation technique. Combining optogenetics with the nonhuman primate model promises to lead to significant advances in both basic and applied research. In the past few years, optogenetics has made considerable progress in the nonhuman primate. Here, we systematically review the current state-of-art of optogenetics in the nonhuman primate with an emphasis on behavioral manipulation. Given its recent successes, we believe that the progress in the nonhuman primate will boost the translation of optogenetics to clinical applications in the near future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073858417728459DOI Listing
October 2018

Neutrophil CD64 as a diagnostic marker for neonatal sepsis: Meta-analysis.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Mar-Apr;26(2):327-332

Department of Critical Care Medicine, the Affiliated Yixing Hospital of Jiangsu University, Yixing, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) is a promising marker for diagnosing bacterial infections. Several studies have investigated the performance of nCD64 for diagnosing neonatal sepsis and the results are variable. Interest in nCD64 for detecting serious bacterial infections is increasing rapidly.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to carry out a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of nCD64 in neonatal sepsis. As far as the authors know, no previous studies have undertaken this.

Material And Methods: A review of studies from Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane Library, from inception through June 2015, found 7 studies (involving 2213 neonates) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. These 7 studies were subjected to a bivariate meta-analysis of sensitivity and specificity and a summary receiveroperating characteristic (SROC) curve; I2 was used to test heterogeneity, and the source of heterogeneity was investigated by influence analysis and meta-regression.

Results: The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 80% (95%CI, 69-88%) and 83% (95%CI, 71-90%), respectively. The area under the SROC curve (AUC) was 0.88 (95%CI, 0.85-0.91). The studies had substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 87.1%).

Conclusions: The results showed that nCD64 is a reliable biomarker for diagnosing neonatal sepsis (AUC = 0.88).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/58782DOI Listing
September 2017

The feasibility study of autotrophic denitrification with iron sludge produced for sulfide control.

Water Res 2017 10 1;122:226-233. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Water Technology Lab, Hong Kong Branch of Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control & Treatment of Heavy Metal Pollution, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China; Fok Ying Tung Research Institute, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Ferric iron is widely dosed in wastewater treatment plants dealing with sulfide for septicity control, which generates a great amount of iron-rich chemical sludge that is challenging and costly to dispose. This study investigates the feasibility of using this iron sludge as the electron donor for autotrophic denitrification, not only realizing high nitrogen removal efficiency without additional carbon source requirement, but also partially mitigating iron-rich chemical sludge disposal and reduce sludge production by enriching low-yield autotrophic denitrifiers in the system. Both batch tests and performance monitoring of a lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor with a more than 300 days of operation were conducted. All the results confirmed the feasibility of using iron sludge as electron donor for autotrophic denitrification. The nitrate reduction rate with iron sludge was highly influenced by the type of ferrous electron donor and the electron donor/acceptor ratio. Ferrous hydroxide had significantly higher nitrate reduction rate than ferrous sulfide at the same electron donor/acceptor ratio. The nitrate reduction rate also accelerated with the increase of the electron donor/acceptor ratio. However, if the total surface area of the iron sludge is considered for comparison, it was shown that ferrous hydroxide and ferrous sulfide provided similar nitrate reduction rates of around 0.02 mmol N/m/d in this study, indicating total surface area would be the key parameter for denitrification efficiency for the solid phase electron donor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.05.073DOI Listing
October 2017