Publications by authors named "Ji Chen"

764 Publications

Formation of volatile flavor compounds, maillard reaction products and potentially hazard substance in China stir-frying beef sao zi.

Food Res Int 2022 Sep 22;159:111545. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China. Electronic address:

The effects of stir-frying stages on the formation of flavor volatile compounds, Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and potentially hazardous substances with time in stir-fried beef sao zi were investigated. A total of 122 volatile compounds were identified in beef sao zi after stir-frying. Most of the volatile compounds were produced in the stir-frying fat (SFF) process of beef sao zi. Furosine, fluorescence intensity, Nε-(1-Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML), Nε-(1-Carboxyethyl)-L-lysine (CEL) polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) and acrylamides (AA) are mainly presented in stir-fried beef sao zi. The furosine peaked at MSF 120 s as the Maillard reaction progressed. The fluorescent compound gradually increased with time during the stir-frying process. The CML and CEL peaked at MSF 120 s. AA reached its maximum in MSF 90 s and then decreased. The quantities and content of HAAs and PAHs were increased by prolonging the stir-frying time, but ended up far lower than the maximum permissible value specified by the Commission of the European Communities. The extended stir-frying promoted MRPs and some hazardous substances, but the content of potentially hazardous substances was still within the safety range for stir-frying beef sao zi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111545DOI Listing
September 2022

Artificial Intelligence Model for Antiinterference Cataract Automatic Diagnosis: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 22;10:906042. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Health Management Institute, The Second Medical Center & National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. In order to achieve large-scale cataract screening and remarkable performance, several studies have applied artificial intelligence (AI) to cataract detection based on fundus images. However, the fundus images they used are original from normal optical circumstances, which is less impractical due to the existence of poor-quality fundus images for inappropriate optical conditions in actual scenarios. Furthermore, these poor-quality images are easily mistaken as cataracts because both show fuzzy imaging characteristics, which may decline the performance of cataract detection. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate an antiinterference AI model for rapid and efficient diagnosis based on fundus images. The datasets (including both cataract and noncataract labels) were derived from the Chinese PLA general hospital. The antiinterference AI model consisted of two AI submodules, a quality recognition model for cataract labeling and a convolutional neural networks-based model for cataract classification. The quality recognition model was performed to distinguish poor-quality images from normal-quality images and further generate the pseudo labels related to image quality for noncataract. Through this, the original binary-class label (cataract and noncataract) was adjusted to three categories (cataract, noncataract with normal-quality images, and noncataract with poor-quality images), which could be used to guide the model to distinguish cataract from suspected cataract fundus images. In the cataract classification stage, the convolutional-neural-network-based model was proposed to classify cataracts based on the label of the previous stage. The performance of the model was internally validated and externally tested in real-world settings, and the evaluation indicators included area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SEN), and specificity (SPE). In the internal and external validation, the antiinterference AI model showed robust performance in cataract diagnosis (three classifications with AUCs >91%, ACCs >84%, SENs >71%, and SPEs >89%). Compared with the model that was trained on the binary-class label, the antiinterference cataract model improved its performance by 10%. We proposed an efficient antiinterference AI model for cataract diagnosis, which could achieve accurate cataract screening even with the interference of poor-quality images and help the government formulate a more accurate aid policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.906042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355278PMC
July 2022

Targeted inhibition of osteoclastogenesis reveals the pathogenesis and therapeutics of bone loss under sympathetic neurostress.

Int J Oral Sci 2022 Aug 1;14(1):39. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi International Joint Research Center for Oral Diseases, Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Sympathetic cues via the adrenergic signaling critically regulate bone homeostasis and contribute to neurostress-induced bone loss, but the mechanisms and therapeutics remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we reveal an osteoclastogenesis-centered functionally important osteopenic pathogenesis under sympatho-adrenergic activation with characterized microRNA response and efficient therapeutics. We discovered that osteoclastic miR-21 was tightly regulated by sympatho-adrenergic cues downstream the β2-adrenergic receptor (βAR) signaling, critically modulated osteoclastogenesis in vivo by inhibiting programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4), and mediated detrimental effects of both isoproterenol (ISO) and chronic variable stress (CVS) on bone. Intriguingly, without affecting osteoblastic bone formation, bone protection against ISO and CVS was sufficiently achieved by a (D-Asp)-lipid nanoparticle-mediated targeted inhibition of osteoclastic miR-21 or by clinically relevant drugs to suppress osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these results unravel a previously underdetermined molecular and functional paradigm that osteoclastogenesis crucially contributes to sympatho-adrenergic regulation of bone and establish multiple targeted therapeutic strategies to counteract osteopenias under stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41368-022-00193-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343357PMC
August 2022

Erratum: Resveratrol counteracts bone loss via mitofilin-mediated osteogenic improvement of mesenchymal stem cells in senescence-accelerated mice: Erratum.

Theranostics 2022 8;12(12):5334. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.7150/thno.23620.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.74941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330530PMC
July 2022

Belowground Root Competition Alters the Grass Seedling Establishment Response to Light by a Nitrogen Addition and Mowing Experiment in a Temperate Steppe.

Front Plant Sci 2022 14;13:801343. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

International Joint Research Laboratory of Global Change Ecology, School of Life Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

Predicting species responses to climate change and land use practices requires understanding both the direct effects of environmental factors as well as the indirect effects mediated by changes in belowground and aboveground competition. Belowground root competition from surrounding vegetation and aboveground light competition are two important factors affecting seedling establishment. However, few studies have jointly examined the effect of belowground root and light competition on seedling establishment, especially under long-term nitrogen addition and mowing. Here, we examined how belowground root competition from surrounding vegetation and aboveground light competition affect seedling establishment within a long-term nitrogen addition and mowing experiment. Seedlings of two grasses ( and ) were grown with and without belowground root competition under control, nitrogen addition, and mowing treatments, and their growth characteristics were monitored. The seedlings of the two grasses achieved higher total biomass, height, mean shoot and root mass, but a lower root/shoot ratio in the absence than in the presence of belowground root competition. Nitrogen addition significantly decreased shoot biomass, root biomass, and the survival of the two grasses. Regression analyses revealed that the biomass of the two grass was strongly negatively correlated with net primary productivity under belowground root competition, but with the intercept photosynthetic active radiation in the absence of belowground root competition. This experiment demonstrates that belowground root competition can alter the grass seedling establishment response to light in a long-term nitrogen addition and mowing experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.801343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331913PMC
July 2022

Correction: Impaired autophagy triggered by HDAC9 in mesenchymal stem cells accelerates bone mass loss.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2022 Jul 27;13(1):360. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Biodiagnosis and Biotherapy, Precision Medicine Institute, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710004, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-022-03080-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9327254PMC
July 2022

MicroRNA-125b Accelerates and Promotes PML-RARa-driven Murine Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.

Biomed Environ Sci 2022 Jun;35(6):485-493

Department of Hematology, The Second Medical Centre & National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China.

Objective: Most acute promyelocytic leukemia cases are characterized by the PML-RARa fusion oncogene and low white cell counts in peripheral blood.

Methods: Based on the frequent overexpression of miR-125-family miRNAs in acute promyelocytic leukemia, we examined the consequence of this phenomenon by using an inducible mouse model overexpressing human miR-125b.

Results: MiR-125b expression significantly accelerates PML-RARa-induced leukemogenesis, with the resultant induced leukemia being partially dependent on continued miR-125b overexpression. Interestingly, miR-125b expression led to low peripheral white cell counts to bone marrow blast percentage ratio, confirming the clinical observation in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients.

Conclusion: This study suggests that dysregulated miR-125b expression is actively involved in disease progression and pathophysiology of acute promyelocytic leukemia, indicating that targeting miR-125b may represent a new therapeutic option for acute promyelocytic leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2022.067DOI Listing
June 2022

Visualizing Eigen/Zundel cations and their interconversion in monolayer water on metal surfaces.

Science 2022 07 14;377(6603):315-319. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The nature of hydrated proton on solid surfaces is of vital importance in electrochemistry, proton channels, and hydrogen fuel cells but remains unclear because of the lack of atomic-scale characterization. We directly visualized Eigen- and Zundel-type hydrated protons within the hydrogen bonding water network on Au(111) and Pt(111) surfaces, using cryogenic qPlus-based atomic force microscopy under ultrahigh vacuum. We found that the Eigen cations self-assembled into monolayer structures with local order, and the Zundel cations formed long-range ordered structures stabilized by nuclear quantum effects. Two Eigen cations could combine into one Zundel cation accompanied with a simultaneous proton transfer to the surface. Moreover, we revealed that the Zundel configuration was preferred over the Eigen on Pt(111), and such a preference was absent on Au(111).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abo0823DOI Listing
July 2022

Selective detection of sulfasalazine antibiotic and its controllable photodegradation into 5-aminosalicylic acid by visible-light-responsive metal-organic framework.

Dalton Trans 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

School of Chemistry and Materials Science & Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Green Synthetic Chemistry for Functional Materials, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, 221116, PR China.

The extensive use of sulfasalazine (SSZ) antibiotics has brought potential threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Thus, necessary measures for the removal of SSZ must be taken to prevent arbitrary antibiotic exposure to the aquatic environment. However, not all the recent photocatalysts that have been used for the degradation of SSZ could not achieve the controlled release of SSZ and hence are losing their medicinal values. Herein, by utilizing an Eosin Y moiety as an efficient light-harvesting and emission site, an Eosin Y-based visible-light-responsive metal-organic framework has been synthesized and characterized, which exhibits high selectivity for detecting the antibiotic SSZ in water and simulated physiological conditions, with a detection limit of below 1 μM (0.4 μg mL). It also represents the first example of a MOF-based photocatalyst for the controllable degradation of SSZ into 5-aminosalicylic acid with excellent catalytic activity and recyclability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2dt01270gDOI Listing
July 2022

Model building of protein complexes from intermediate-resolution cryo-EM maps with deep learning-guided automatic assembly.

Nat Commun 2022 Jul 13;13(1):4066. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

School of Physics and Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of MOE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China.

Advances in microscopy instruments and image processing algorithms have led to an increasing number of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) maps. However, building accurate models into intermediate-resolution EM maps remains challenging and labor-intensive. Here, we propose an automatic model building method of multi-chain protein complexes from intermediate-resolution cryo-EM maps, named EMBuild, by integrating AlphaFold structure prediction, FFT-based global fitting, domain-based semi-flexible refinement, and graph-based iterative assembling on the main-chain probability map predicted by a deep convolutional network. EMBuild is extensively evaluated on diverse test sets of 47 single-particle EM maps at 4.0-8.0 Å resolution and 16 subtomogram averaging maps of cryo-ET data at 3.7-9.3 Å resolution, and compared with state-of-the-art approaches. We demonstrate that EMBuild is able to build high-quality complex structures that are comparably accurate to the manually built PDB structures from the cryo-EM maps. These results demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of EMBuild in automatic model building.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-31748-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9279371PMC
July 2022

Genome-Wide Identification of 6-Methyladenosine Associated SNPs as Potential Functional Variants for Type 1 Diabetes.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 16;13:913345. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objectives: N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is essential in the regulation of the immune system, but the role that its single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unknown. This study demonstrated the association between genetic variants in m6A regulators and T1D risk based on a case-control study in a Chinese population.

Methods: The tagging SNPs in m6A regulators were genotyped in 1005 autoantibody-positive patients with T1D and 1257 controls using the Illumina Human OmniZhongHua-8 platform. Islet-specific autoantibodies were examined by radioimmunoprecipitation in all the patients. The mixed-meal glucose tolerance test was performed on 355 newly diagnosed patients to evaluate their residual islet function. The functional annotations for the identified SNPs were performed in silico. Using 102 samples from a whole-genome expression microarray, key signaling pathways associated with m6A regulators in T1D were comprehendingly evaluated.

Results: Under the additive model, we observed three tag SNPs in the noncoding region of the PRRC2A (rs2260051, rs3130623) and YTHDC2 (rs1862315) gene are associated with T1D risk. Although no association was found between these SNPs and islet function, patients carrying risk variants had a higher positive rate for ZnT8A, GADA, and IA-2A. Further analyses showed that rs2260051[T] was associated with increased expression of PRRC2A mRNA ( = 7.0E-13), and PRRC2A mRNA was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from patients with T1D compared to normal samples ( = 0.022). Enrichment analyses indicated that increased PRRC2A expression engages in the most significant hallmarks of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion and chemotaxis, and neurotransmitter regulation pathways. The potential role of increased PRRC2A in disrupting immune homeostasis is through the PI3K/AKT pathway and neuro-immune interactions.

Conclusion: This study found intronic variants in PRRC2A and YTHDC2 associated with T1D risk in a Chinese Han population. PRRC2A rs2260051[T] may be implicated in unbalanced immune homeostasis by affecting the expression of PRRC2A mRNA. These findings enriched our understanding of m6A regulators and their intronic SNPs that underlie the pathogenesis of T1D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.913345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9243540PMC
June 2022

Comparative effectiveness and acceptability of different ACT delivery formats to treat depression: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Affect Disord 2022 09 25;313:196-203. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Nursing, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of acute depression. However, whether ACT can be effectively delivered in individual, group, internet, and combined delivery format remain unclear. We aimed to examine the most effective delivery format for ACT via a network meta-analysis (NMA).

Methods: An electronic literature search was conducted by two reviewers in the Pubmed, Cochrane library, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CNKI, Wangfang databases to identify relevant studies that were published up to March 21th, 2021. We conducted pairwise and NMA to evaluate the relative effectiveness and rank the probability of different ACT delivery formats. A series of analyses and assessments, such as the risk of bias, and GRADE were performed concurrently.

Results: A total of 23 studies were included in our analysis based on a series of rigorous screenings, which comprised 690 depressed patients. The effectiveness of individual, group, internet, and combine ACT did not differ statistically significantly from each other. Compared with control group, individual delivery format (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -1.44, confidence interval (CI) = -2.11 to -0.76 GRADE low), group delivery format (SMD = -1.34, 95 % CI = -1.91 to -0.78 GRADE moderate), and internet delivery format (SMD = -0.66, 95 % CI = -1.25 to -0.06 GRADE low) showed the largest improvement on depressive symptoms, whereas the combined group and individual ACT was less effective. In terms of acceptability (dropout for any reason), all delivery formats did not differ statistically significantly from each other.

Conclusions: For depression symptoms, individual, group, and internet treatment formats appeared to be effective interventions. Applying effective and acceptable ACT in a range of different formats will make ACT easier to implement, disseminate, and deliver across different settings and diverse patient populations. More research is needed to verify the ACT in telephone and combined formats for the management of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2022.06.017DOI Listing
September 2022

Comparative efficacy and acceptability of cognitive behavioral therapy delivery formats for insomnia in adults: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Sleep Med Rev 2022 May 31;64:101648. Epub 2022 May 31.

Evidence-Based Medicine Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Evidence-based Medicine and Knowledge Translation of Gansu Province, Lanzhou, China. Electronic address:

This review compared the efficacy and acceptability of different delivery formats for cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in insomnia. We searched five databases for randomized clinical trials that compared one CBT-I delivery format against another format or control conditions for insomnia in adults. We used pairwise meta-analyses and frequentist network meta-analyses with the random-effects model to synthesize data. A total of 61 unique trials including 11,571 participants compared six CBT-I delivery formats with four control conditions. At post-intervention, with low to high certainty evidence, individual, group, guided self-help, digital assisted, and unguided self-help CBT-I could significantly increase sleep efficiency and total sleep time (TST) and reduce sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and insomnia severity compared with treatment as usual (MD range for sleep efficiency: 7.81%-12.45%; MD range for TST: 16.14-33.96 min; MD range for SOL: -22.42 to -13.81 min; MD range for WASO: -40.84 to -19.48 min; MD range for insomnia severity: -6.40 to -3.93) and waitlist (MD range for sleep efficiency: 7.68%-12.32%; MD range for TST: 12.67-30.49 min; MD range for SOL: -19.07 to -10.46 min; MD range for WASO: -47.10 to -19.15 min; MD range for insomnia severity: -7.59 to -5.07). The effects of different CBT-I formats persisted at short-term follow-up (4 wk-6 mo). Individual, group, and digital assisted CBT-I delivery formats would be the more appropriate choices for insomnia in adults, based on post-intervention and short-term effects. Further trials are needed to investigate the long-term effects of different CBT-I formats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2022.101648DOI Listing
May 2022

Depth-dependent responses of soil organic carbon stock under annual and perennial cropping systems.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 23;119(28):e2203486119. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, 8830 Tjele, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2203486119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9282382PMC
July 2022

Construction and Application of YOLOv3-Based Diatom Identification Model of Scanning Electron Microscope Images.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):46-52

Department of Forensic Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211126, China.

Objectives: To construct a YOLOv3-based model for diatom identification in scanning electron microscope images, explore the application performance in practical cases and discuss the advantages of this model.

Methods: A total of 25 000 scanning electron microscopy images were collected at 1 500× as an initial image set, and input into the YOLOv3 network to train the identification model after experts' annotation and image processing. Diatom scanning electron microscopy images of lung, liver and kidney tissues taken from 8 drowning cases were identified by this model under the threshold of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 respectively, and were also identified by experts manually. The application performance of this model was evaluated through the recognition speed, recall rate and precision rate.

Results: The mean average precision of the model in the validation set and test set was 94.8% and 94.3%, respectively, and the average recall rate was 81.2% and 81.5%, respectively. The recognition speed of the model is more than 9 times faster than that of manual recognition. Under the threshold of 0.4, the mean recall rate and precision rate of diatoms in lung tissues were 89.6% and 87.8%, respectively. The overall recall rate in liver and kidney tissues was 100% and the precision rate was less than 5%. As the threshold increased, the recall rate in all tissues decreased and the precision rate increased. The 1 score of the model in lung tissues decreased with the increase of threshold, while the 1 score in liver and kidney tissues with the increase of threshold.

Conclusions: The YOLOv3-based diatom electron microscope images automatic identification model works at a rapid speed and shows high recall rates in all tissues and high precision rates in lung tissues under an appropriate threshold. The identification model greatly reduces the workload of manual recognition, and has a good application prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410903DOI Listing
February 2022

Identification and Validation of Genomic Subtypes and a Prognostic Model Based on Antigen-Presenting Cells and Tumor Microenvironment Infiltration Characteristics in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2022 3;12:887008. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Hernia and Abdominal Wall Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Currently, the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poor, and there is a lack of effective targeted therapy. As key mediators of the immune response, the prognostic value of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in HCC still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify APC-related genomic subtypes and develop a novel prognostic model in HCC. Our results indicated that overall survival (OS) and the level of immune infiltration significantly differed between different APC clusters. By analyzing the gene expression profile between APC clusters, APC-related genomic subtypes were identified. There was a significant difference in OS and tumor microenvironment infiltration in HCC patients with different genomic subtypes. With the aid of genomic subtypes, significantly differentially expressed genes were screened to generate a novel prognostic model. The risk score of the model had a significant positive correlation with APCs and was associated with immune checkpoint expressions. Through the clinical cohort collected from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, the prognostic value of the risk score was further validated. Moreover, after the risk score and clinical characteristics were combined, a nomogram was constructed to evaluate the prognosis for HCC patients. In conclusion, we mainly identified the APC-related genomic subtypes and generated a novel prognostic model to improve the prognostic prediction and targeted therapy for HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.887008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9205444PMC
June 2022

Elevational shifts in foliar-soil δ N in the Hengduan Mountains and different potential mechanisms.

Glob Chang Biol 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Soil Ecology and Health in Universities of Yunnan Province, School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, P.R. China.

The natural abundance of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ N) provides insights into the N dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, the determination of which is considered an effective approach for gaining a better understanding ecosystem N cycling. However, there is currently little information available regarding the patterns and mechanisms underlying the variation in foliar-soil δ N among mountain ecosystems. In this study, we examined the determinants of foliar-soil δ N in association with N transportation rates along an elevational gradient in the Hengduan Mountains. Despite the relatively high levels of available N produced from high N fixation and mineralization, we detected the lowest levels of foliar δ N at 3500 m a.s.l., reflecting the stronger vegetation N limitation at medium high elevations. The enhanced vegetation N limitation was driven by the combined effects of higher microbial immobilization and inherent plant dynamic (the shifts of δ N in vegetation preference, including vegetation community) with changing climate along the elevational gradient. Unexpectedly, we established that soil δ N was characterized by an undulating rise and uncoupled correlation with foliar δ N with increasing elevation, thereby indicating that litter input might not be a prominent driver of soil δ N. Conversely, soil nitrification and denitrification were found to make a more pronounced contribution to the pattern of soil δ N along the elevational gradient. Collectively, our results serve to highlight the importance of microbial immobilization in soil N dynamics and provide novel insights that will contribute to enhancing our understanding of N cycling as indicated by foliar-soil δ N along elevational gradients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16306DOI Listing
June 2022

Effect of moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise on blood pressure in young adults: The TEPHRA open, two-arm, parallel superiority randomized clinical trial.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Jun 13;48:101445. Epub 2022 May 13.

Radcliffe Department of Medicine, Oxford Cardiovascular Clinical Research Facility Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Background: Exercise is advised for young adults with elevated blood pressure, but no trials have investigated efficacy at this age. We aimed to determine whether aerobic exercise, self-monitoring and motivational coaching lowers blood pressure in this group.

Methods: The study was a single-centre, open, two-arm, parallel superiority randomized clinical trial with open community-based recruitment of physically-inactive 18-35 year old adults with awake 24 h blood pressure 115/75mmHg-159/99 mmHg and BMI<35 kg/m. The study took place in the Cardiovascular Clinical Research Facility, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. Participants were randomized (1:1) with minimisation factors sex, age (<24, 24-29, 30-35 years) and gestational age at birth (<32, 32-37, >37 weeks) to the intervention group, who received 16-weeks aerobic exercise training (three aerobic training sessions per week of 60 min per session at 60-80% peak heart rate, physical activity self-monitoring with encouragement to do 10,000 steps per day and motivational coaching to maintain physical activity upon completion of the intervention. The control group were sign-posted to educational materials on hypertension and recommended lifestyle behaviours. Investigators performing statistical analyses were blinded to group allocation. The primary outcome was 24 h awake ambulatory blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) change from baseline to 16-weeks on an intention-to-treat basis. Clinicaltrials.gov registered on March 30, 2016 (NCT02723552).

Findings: Enrolment occurred between 30/06/2016-26/10/2018. Amongst the 203 randomized young adults ( = 102 in the intervention group;  = 101 in the control group), 178 (88%;  = 76 intervention group,  = 84 control group) completed 16-week follow-up and 160 (79%;  = 68 intervention group,  = 69 control group) completed 52-weeks follow-up. There were no group differences in awake systolic (0·0 mmHg [95%CI, -2·9 to 2·8];  = 0·98) or awake diastolic ambulatory blood pressure (0·6 mmHg [95%CI, -1·4. to 2·6];  = 0·58). Aerobic training increased peak oxygen uptake (2·8 ml/kg/min [95%CI, 1·6 to 4·0]) and peak wattage (14·2watts [95%CI, 7·6 to 20·9]) at 16-weeks. There were no intervention effects at 52-weeks follow-up.

Intepretation: These results do not support the exclusive use of moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise training for blood pressure control in young adults.

Funding: Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9112102PMC
June 2022

Polyetheretherketone Framework for Implant-supported Full-arch Fixed Dental Prostheses in a Periodontitis Patient with a 6-year Follow-up: a Case Report.

Chin J Dent Res 2022 Jun;25(2):149-158

Dental implants are widely used in the rehabilitation of patients with edentulous jaws caused by periodontitis. The success of implants is closely related to their framework material and patients' periodontal health. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a kind of high polymer material that has broad prospects as the framework for full-arch dental prostheses, but long-term follow-up data are lacking. The present clinical report demonstrates the use of a PEEK framework for the construction of an implant-supported full-arch fixed dental prosthesis for a patient diagnosed with periodontitis. With the guidance of biological width, a provisional retained restoration was achieved to create the emergence profile, resulting in a 3D printed PEEK framework with good aesthetics and biological functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.cjdr.b3086345DOI Listing
June 2022

Directed evolution and selection of biostable L-DNA aptamers with a mirror-image DNA polymerase.

Nat Biotechnol 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, Beijing Frontier Research Center for Biological Structure, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Mirror-image aptamers made from chirally inverted nucleic acids are nuclease-resistant and exceptionally biostable, opening up opportunities for unique applications. However, the directed evolution and selection of mirror-image aptamers directly from large randomized L-DNA libraries has, to our knowledge, not been demonstrated previously. Here, we developed a 'mirror-image selection' scheme for the directed evolution and selection of biostable L-DNA aptamers with a mirror-image DNA polymerase. We performed iterative rounds of enrichment and mirror-image polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of L-DNA sequences that bind native human thrombin, in conjunction with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to isolate individual aptamers and L-DNA sequencing-by-synthesis to determine their sequences. Based on the selected L-DNA aptamers, we designed biostable thrombin sensors and inhibitors, which remained functional in physiologically relevant nuclease-rich environments, even in the presence of human serum that rapidly degraded D-DNA aptamers. Mirror-image selection of biostable L-DNA aptamers directly from large randomized L-DNA libraries greatly expands the range of biomolecules that can be targeted, broadening their applications as biostable sensors, therapeutics and basic research tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41587-022-01337-8DOI Listing
June 2022

A Dynamic Thermal Camouflage Metadevice with Microwave Scattering Reduction.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 Aug 5;9(22):e2201054. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

State Key Laboratory of Optical Technologies on Nano-Fabrication and Micro-Engineering, Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610209, China.

With rapid development of radar and infrared (IR) surveillance technologies, the need for microwave-IR compatible camouflage is now more than ever. Here, a novel multispectral metadevice is proposed to simultaneously achieve microwave scattering reduction, dynamic IR camouflage, and low IR reflection. This metadevice is constructed by the coding thermoelectric elements with the properly designed phase arrangement, and the incident microwave energy can be redirected to the nonthreatening directions for specular reflection reduction. The dynamic IR camouflage with low IR reflection is realized by using the thermoelectric cooling and heating effect and high-IR-absorptivity surface. The above three functionalities are demonstrated by experimental measurement. The 10 dB scattering reduction can be realized at the microwave band of 10-16.1 GHz. In the IR region, the designed metadevice can not only dynamically modulate the surface temperature for matching different background temperatures, but also realize the pixel temperature control for adapting to a spatially varying thermal background. In addition, it reflects almost no surrounding thermal signals compared with the traditional low-emissivity IR stealth material. This study paves an effective way to achieve microwave-IR compatible camouflage, which may inspire the future researches and applications in multispectral camouflage and stealth fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202201054DOI Listing
August 2022

Clinical characteristics of pneumonia patients of long course of illness infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Open Med (Wars) 2022 18;17(1):947-954. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Geriatrics, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported in the last two years. A few studies reported clinical course of illness of median 22 days, including viral shedding of median 20 days, but there are several cases with a longer time of viral shedding. In this study, we included four cases with a longer illness course of more than 40 days who had been discharged or still in hospital by March 15, 2020. Demographic, clinical treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records. We described the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and the course of viral shedding. Two patients had comorbidity, one with hypertension and the other with diabetes. We found smoking was not an independent risk factor. D-dimer maybe related to the severity of illness but not to the course of the illness. Nucleic acid detection suggested that maybe more sampling sites represented more virus replication sites and longer course of illness. In this study we found some non-critical severe relatively young patients whose character was different from former studies described to provide a basis for reference to assess the risk of transmission and the isolation duration of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2022-0465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9123299PMC
May 2022

Zeolite application increases grain yield and mitigates greenhouse gas emissions under alternate wetting and drying rice system.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 21;838(Pt 4):156067. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele 8830, Denmark.

Clinoptilolite zeolite (Z) has been widely used for reducing nutrient loss and improving crop productivity. However, the impacts of zeolite addition on CH and NO emissions in rice fields under various irrigation regimes are still unclear. Therefore, a three-year field experiment using a split-plot design evaluated the effects of zeolite addition and irrigation regimes on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, grain yield, water productivity and net ecosystem economic profit (NEEP) in a paddy field. The field experiment included two irrigation regimes (CF: continuous flooding irrigation; AWD: alternate wetting and drying irrigation) as the main plots, and three zeolite additions (0, 5 and 10 t ha) as the subplots. The results indicated that AWD regime decreased seasonal cumulative CH emissions by 54%-71% while increasing seasonal cumulative NO emissions by 14%-353% across the three years, compared with CF regime. Consequently, the yield-scaled global warming potential under AWD regime decreased by 10%-60% while grain yield, water productivity and NEEP improving by 4.9%-7.9%, 19%-27% and 12%-14%, respectively, related to CF regime. Furthermore, 5 t ha zeolite addition mitigated seasonal cumulative CH emissions by an average of 36%, but did not significantly affect NO emissions compared with non-zeolite treatment. In addition, zeolite addition at 5 and 10 t ha significantly increased grain yield, water productivity and NEEP by 11%-21%, 13%-20% and 13%-24%, respectively, related to non-zeolite treatment across the three years. Therefore, zeolite addition at 5 t ha coupled with AWD regime could be an eco-economic strategy to mitigate GHG emissions and water use while producing optimal grain yield with high NEEP in rice fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156067DOI Listing
September 2022

Proteomics and metabolomics combined study on endopathic changes of water-soluble precursors in Tan lamb during postmortem aging.

Food Sci Nutr 2022 May 15;10(5):1564-1578. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

School of Agriculture Ningxia University Yinchuan China.

Tan lamb is highly recommended breed in China. It is of great significance to understand the underlying mechanism of how water-soluble flavor precursors metabolize in Tan lamb muscles during the postmortem aging period. In this study, we investigated the muscle pH, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and the variations in water-soluble flavor-related metabolites. The proteome changes were profiled to provide insights into the biochemical changes affecting accumulation of water-soluble flavor precursors in different aging stages (days 0, 4, and 8). The results indicated that pH value considerably decreased from day 0 to day 4, and increased from day 4 to day 8 ( < .05). The activity of LDH significantly increased from day 0 to day 4, and decreased from day 4 to day 8 ( < .05). Postmortem glycolysis was activated in 4 days, which directly affected the variations in metabolic enzymes and triggered the accumulation of flavor-related carbohydrates. The free amino acids accumulated due to hydrolysis of structural proteins, with 3-hydroxy-L-proline, aspartic acid, and methionine increasing from day 0 to day 4, and aspartic acid, serine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and D-phenylalanine from day 4 to day 8. The inosine and hypoxanthine accumulated due to the degradation of ATP. The results of the present study provide insightful information, revealing the differences in biochemical attributes in Tan lamb muscles caused by postmortem aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094463PMC
May 2022

Synergistic Inactivation of African Swine Fever Virus by a Highly Complexed Iodine Combined with Compound Organic Acids.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2022 06 19;88(11):e0045222. Epub 2022 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, National High-Containment Facilities for Animal Diseases Control and Prevention, Harbin Veterinary Research Institutegrid.38587.31, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.

African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease of domestic pigs and wild boar with high morbidity and mortality caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Due to the lack of commercial vaccines and treatments for ASF, cleaning and disinfection remain one of the most effective biosecurity measures to control ASF. Our previous studies have shown that ASFV can be inactivated by 0.25 to 5% highly complexed iodine (HPCI) in 5 to 30 min. This study evaluated the synergistic inactivation effects of HPCI combined with compound organic acids (COAs) against ASFV. The results showed that the inactivation rates of HPCI, COAs, and HPCI+COAs on the reporter ASFV expressing the green fluorescent protein increased in dose- and time-dependent manners. The best inactivation effects were obtained when the compatibility ratio of HPCI and COAs was 5:1, and the ideal temperature was 25°C. Furthermore, there were no significant differences when comparing the efficacy of HPCI combined with COAs (HPCI+COAs) in inactivating wild-type ASFV and the reporter ASFV (> 0.05). ASFV of 10 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID)/mL was completely inactivated by 0.13% HPCI (0.0065% effective iodine), 0.06% COAs, or 0.13% HPCI+COAs (approximately 0.0054% effective iodine), respectively, while 10 TCID/mL ASFV was completely inactivated by 1.00% HPCI (0.05% effective iodine), 0.50% COAs, or 1.00% HPCI+COAs (0.042% effective iodine), respectively. It was found that the combination index (CI) of HPCI and COAs was less than 1 under different conditions. This study demonstrated that HPCI+COAs could synergistically inactivate ASFV and represent an effective compound disinfectant for the control of ASF. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease of swine with high morbidity and mortality caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Due to the lack of commercial vaccines and treatment available for ASF, effective disinfectants and the proper use of them are essential to inactivate ASFV. The significance of this research is in searching for an ideal disinfectant that has the advantages of low toxicity and nonpollution and can inactivate ASFV efficiently. In this study, we demonstrated that HPCI+COAs had synergistic effects on inactivating ASFV. Thus, HPCI+COAs could be used as an effective disinfectant for the control of ASF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/aem.00452-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9195939PMC
June 2022

Effects of Composite Accelerators on the Formation of Carbon Dioxide Hydrates.

ACS Omega 2022 May 29;7(18):15359-15368. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China.

To improve the rate of formation of carbon dioxide hydrates, tetra--butylammonium bromide (TBAB) was compounded with different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and nanographite, and the effects of these mixtures on carbon dioxide hydrate formation were studied. The addition of TBAB alone, as well as mixtures of TBAB and SDS or nanographite, shortened the induced nucleation time, and the induction times of the TBAB-2.5 g/L nanographite and TBAB-0.24 g/L SDS systems were the shortest and longest, respectively. Further, on mixing TBAB and SDS, the induced nucleation time first increased and then decreased with the increase in the SDS concentration. When TBAB and nanographite were mixed together, the induced nucleation time first decreased, then increased, and again decreased with the increase in the nanographite concentration. In addition, the hydrate formation rate and conversion were highest for the TBAB-0.48 g/L SDS system and lowest for the TBAB-0.06 g/L SDS system; in the first 35 min, from the end of gas charging, the TBAB-10 g/L nanographite and TBAB-5 g/L nanographite systems yielded the highest and lowest hydrate formation rates and conversions, respectively. For the composite systems, obvious effects were observed in the initial stages of reaction, but the effects varied over the course of the reaction. Overall, the use of different accelerators resulted in little differences in the total production, conversion, and formation rate of carbon dioxide hydrates over the course of the reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c06834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9096828PMC
May 2022

Multi-ancestry genetic study of type 2 diabetes highlights the power of diverse populations for discovery and translation.

Nat Genet 2022 05 12;54(5):560-572. Epub 2022 May 12.

Public Health Informatics Unit, Department of Integrated Health Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

We assembled an ancestrally diverse collection of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in 180,834 affected individuals and 1,159,055 controls (48.9% non-European descent) through the Diabetes Meta-Analysis of Trans-Ethnic association studies (DIAMANTE) Consortium. Multi-ancestry GWAS meta-analysis identified 237 loci attaining stringent genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10), which were delineated to 338 distinct association signals. Fine-mapping of these signals was enhanced by the increased sample size and expanded population diversity of the multi-ancestry meta-analysis, which localized 54.4% of T2D associations to a single variant with >50% posterior probability. This improved fine-mapping enabled systematic assessment of candidate causal genes and molecular mechanisms through which T2D associations are mediated, laying the foundations for functional investigations. Multi-ancestry genetic risk scores enhanced transferability of T2D prediction across diverse populations. Our study provides a step toward more effective clinical translation of T2D GWAS to improve global health for all, irrespective of genetic background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-022-01058-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9179018PMC
May 2022

Sinhcaf-dependent histone deacetylation is essential for primordial germ cell specification.

EMBO Rep 2022 Jun 9;23(6):e54387. Epub 2022 May 9.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Innovation Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the progenitor cells that give rise to sperm and eggs. Sinhcaf is a recently identified subunit of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex (SIN3A-HDAC). Here, we provide evidence that Sinhcaf-dependent histone deacetylation is essential for germ plasm aggregation and primordial germ cell specification. Specifically, maternal-zygotic sinhcaf zebrafish mutants exhibit germ plasm aggregation defects, decreased PGC abundance and male-biased sex ratio, which can be rescued by re-expressing sinhcaf. Overexpression of sinhcaf results in excess PGCs and a female-biased sex ratio. Sinhcaf binds to the promoter region of kif26ab. Loss of sinhcaf epigenetically switches off kif26ab expression by increasing histone 3 acetylation in the promoter region. Injection of kif26ab mRNA could partially rescue the germ plasm aggregation defects in sinhcaf mutant embryos. Taken together, we demonstrate a role of Sinhcaf in germ plasm aggregation and PGC specialization that is mediated by regulating the histone acetylation status of the kif26ab promoter to activate its transcription. Our findings provide novel insights into the function and regulatory mechanisms of Sinhcaf-mediated histone deacetylation in PGC specification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.202154387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9171691PMC
June 2022

Quick extracellular biosynthesis of low-cadmium Zn Cd S quantum dots with full-visible-region tuneable high fluorescence and its application potential assessment in cell imaging.

RSC Adv 2021 Jun 21;11(35):21813-21823. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology Beijing 100081 P. R. China.

The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles/QDs has been universally recognized as environmentally sound and energy-saving, generating less pollution and having good biocompatibility, which is most needed in biological and medical fields. In the arena of chemical routes, however, biosynthesis has long been criticized for its low productivity, time-consuming process, and poor control over size, shape and crystallinity, keeping the much-needed technology away from practical application. In this work, a rapid and extracellular biosynthesis of multi-colour ternary Zn Cd S QDs by a mixed sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)-derived supernatant was carried out for the first time to solve the problems plaguing this field of biosynthesis. The results showed that about 3.5 g L of Zn Cd S QDs with size of 3.50-4.64 nm were achieved within 30 minutes. The PL emission wavelength of Zn Cd S QDs increased from 450 to 590 nm to yield multicolor QDs by altering the molar ratio of Cd to Zn. The SRB-biogenic Zn Cd S QDs have high stability in gastric acid and at high temperature, as well as excellent biocompatibility and biosafety, successfully entering growing HeLa cells and labelling them without detectable harm to cells. The SRB-secreted peculiar extracellular proteins (EPs) play a decisive function in the time-saving, high-yield biosynthesis of PL-tuned multicolor QDs, which cover an abnormally high concentration of acidic amino acids to provide tremendous negatively charged sites for the absorption of Cd/Zn for rapid nucleation and biosynthesis. The strongly electrostatic connection between the QDs and the EPs and the increasing amount of EPs attached to the QDs in response to the increase of Cd concentration account for their high stability and excellent biocompatibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ra04371dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9034088PMC
June 2021
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