Publications by authors named "Jiří Kalina"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A comprehensive assessment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in an Indian food basket: Levels, dietary intakes, and comparison with European data.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 9;288:117750. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

RECETOX, Masaryk University, 62500, Brno, Czech Republic; Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, 0349, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in diet are a health concern and their monitoring in food has been introduced in the European Union. In developing countries, EDC dietary exposure data are scarce, especially from areas perceived as pollution hotspots, including industrialized countries like India. Several persistent organic pollutants (POPs) act as EDCs and pose a pressure to human health mainly through dietary exposure. In the present study a range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dioxins and furans were measured in several food items collected in an Indian urban (Delhi) and a rural area (Dehradun). Food basket contamination data were used to estimate dietary exposure and compare it with that of the average European population estimated from available monitoring data. All targeted contaminants were found in most food items, especially in dairies and meat products. OCPs were the main contributors. Food supplied to Delhi's markets had higher contamination than that supplied to the peri-urban market in Dehradun. Despite looser control and restrictions, Indian dietary exposure of OCPs and PBDEs were comparable with that of Europe and were lower for PCBs and dioxins. Higher meat consumption in Europe only partly explained this pattern which was driven also by the higher residues in some European food items. A substantial part of endocrine disrupting potential in the diet derives from food and animal feeds internationally traded between developed and developing countries. With increasingly globalized food systems, internationally harmonized policies on EDC in food can lead to better protection of health in both these contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117750DOI Listing
July 2021

Predictive modelling as a tool for effective municipal waste management policy at different territorial levels.

J Environ Manage 2021 Aug 27;291:112584. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute of Mathematics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology - VUT Brno, Technická 2896/2, 616 69, Brno, Czech Republic.

Nowadays, the European municipal waste management policy based on the circular economy paradigm demands the closing of material and financial loops at all territorial levels of public administration. The effective planning of treatment capacities (especially sorting plants, recycling, and energy recovery facilities) and municipal waste management policy requires an accurate prognosis of municipal waste generation, and therefore, the knowledge of behavioral, socio-economic, and demographic factors influencing the waste management (and recycling) behavior of households, and other municipal waste producers. To enable public bodies at different territorial levels to undertake an effective action resulting in circular economy we evaluated various factors influencing the generation of municipal waste fractions at regional, micro-regional and municipal level in the Czech Republic. Principal components were used as input for traditional models (multivariable linear regression, generalized linear model) as well as tree-based machine learning models (regression trees, random forest, gradient boosted regression trees). Study results suggest that the linear regression model usually offers a good trade-off between model accuracy and interpretability. When the most important goal of the prediction is supposed to be accuracy, the random forest is generally the best choice. The quality of developed models depends mostly on the chosen territorial level and municipal waste fraction. The performance of these models deteriorates significantly for lower territorial levels because of worse data quality and bigger variability. Only the age structure seems to be important across territorial levels and municipal waste fractions. Nevertheless, also other factors are of high significance in explaining the generation of municipal waste fractions at different territorial levels (e.g. number of economic subjects, expenditures, population density and the level of education). Therefore, there is not one single effective public policy dealing with circular economy strategy that fits all territorial levels. Public representatives should focus on policies effective at specific territorial level. However, performance of the models is poor for lower territorial levels (municipality and micro-regions). Thus, results for municipalities and micro-regions are weak and should be treated as such.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112584DOI Listing
August 2021

Towards guidelines for time-trend reviews examining temporal variability in human biomonitoring data of pollutants.

Environ Int 2021 06 21;151:106437. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

RECETOX, Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic; Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

In the last few decades, a plethora of studies have focused on human biomonitoring (HBM) of chemical pollutants. Reviewing the copious HBM data reported in these studies is essential for evaluating the effectiveness of pollution management efforts, for example by evaluating time-trends. Nevertheless, guidance to systematically evaluate time trends in published HBM data has never been developed. In this study, we therefore present a proposal for guidelines to conduct "time-trend reviews" (TTRs) that examine time trends in published large HBM datasets of chemical pollutant concentrations. We also demonstrate the applicability of these guidelines through a case study that assesses time-trends in global and regional HBM data on mercury. The recommended TTR guidelines in this study are divided into seven steps: formulating the objective of the TTR, setting up of eligibility criteria, defining search strategy and screening of literature, screening results of search, extracting data, analysing data, and assessing certainty, including the potential for bias in the evidence base. The TTR guidelines proposed in this study are straightforward and less complex than those for conducting systematic reviews assessing datasets on potential human health effects of exposure to pollutants or medical interventions. These proposed guidelines are intended to enable the credible, transparent, and reproducible conduct of TTRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106437DOI Listing
June 2021

Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants across Africa after a Decade of MONET Passive Air Sampling.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 23;55(14):9413-9424. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

RECETOX, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

The Global Monitoring Plan of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) was established to generate long-term data necessary for evaluating the effectiveness of regulatory measures at a global scale. After a decade of passive air monitoring (2008-2019), MONET is the first network to produce sufficient data for the analysis of long-term temporal trends of POPs in the African atmosphere. This study reports concentrations of 20 POPs (aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, HBCDD, HCB, HCHs, heptachlor, hexabromobiphenyl, mirex, PBDEs, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PeCB, PFOA, and PFOS) monitored in 9 countries (Congo, Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Nigeria, and Sudan). As of January 1, 2019, concentrations were in the following ranges (pg/m): 0.5-37.7 (∑PCB), 0.006-0.724 (∑PCDD/F), 0.05-5.5 (∑PBDE), 0.6-11.3 (BDE 209), 0.1-1.8 (∑HBCDD), 1.8-138 (∑DDT), 0.1-24.3 (∑endosulfan), 0.6-14.6 (∑HCH), 9.1-26.4 (HCB), 13.8-18.2 (PeCB). Temporal trends indicate that concentrations of many POPs (PCBs, DDT, HCHs, endosulfan) have declined significantly over the past 10 years, though the rate was slow at some sites. Concentrations of other POPs such as PCDD/Fs and PBDEs have not changed significantly over the past decade and are in fact increasing at some sites, attributed to the prevalence of open burning of waste (particularly e-waste) across Africa. Modeled airflow back-trajectories suggest that the elevated concentrations at some sites are primarily due to sustained local emissions, while the low concentrations measured at Mt. Kenya represent the continental background level and are primarily influenced by long-range transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c03575DOI Listing
July 2021

Precise CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the NHE1 gene renders chickens resistant to the J subgroup of avian leukosis virus.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 21;117(4):2108-2112. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Institute of Molecular Genetics, Czech Academy of Sciences, 14220 Prague, Czech Republic;

Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an important concern for the poultry industry. Replication of ALV-J depends on a functional cellular receptor, the chicken Na/H exchanger type 1 (chNHE1). Tryptophan residue number 38 of chNHE1 (W38) in the extracellular portion of this molecule is a critical amino acid for virus entry. We describe a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of W38 in chicken primordial germ cells and the successful production of the gene-edited birds. The resistance to ALV-J was examined both in vitro and in vivo, and the ΔW38 homozygous chickens tested ALV-J-resistant, in contrast to ΔW38 heterozygotes and wild-type birds, which were ALV-J-susceptible. Deletion of W38 did not manifest any visible side effect. Our data clearly demonstrate the antiviral resistance conferred by precise CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the chicken. Furthermore, our highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in primordial germ cells represents a substantial addition to genotechnology in the chicken, an important food source and research model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1913827117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995012PMC
January 2020

Comparability of long-term temporal trends of POPs from co-located active and passive air monitoring networks in Europe.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2019 Jul;21(7):1132-1142

RECETOX Centre, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

The comparability of data from active (ACT) and passive sampling (PAS) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air is hindered by uncertainties related to the derivation of sampling rates and concentrations, as well as differences in the duration, volume and frequency of sampling. Although data from ACT have been used extensively in short-term PAS calibration studies, no attempts have been made to evaluate the comparability of long-term trends calculated from PAS to established ACT trends. This is crucial, as continuous long-term ACT is unfeasible in most regions of the world. To address these challenges, we calculated and compared trends for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) at the six sites in Europe with at least 5 years of co-located ACT and PAS data (2012-2016): Birkenes, Košetice, Pallas, Råö, Stórhöfði and Zeppelin. Strong agreement of ACT and PAS trends was observed for most OCPs and PCBs. Apart from two PCBs at Stórhöfði, all pairs of ACT and PAS trends followed the same direction. However, differences in the magnitude, significance and confidence intervals of their slopes were observed for some compounds and were primarily attributed to the short duration of the PAS time series. Despite some limitations, our results suggest that the comparability of ACT and PAS POP trends will continue to improve with additional years of data. This study confirms the suitability of PAS for the calculation of long-term POP trends in air, and highlights the importance of continuous sampling at established monitoring sites with consistent analytical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9em00136kDOI Listing
July 2019

Conservation of chicken male germline by orthotopic transplantation of primordial germ cells from genetically distant donors†.

Biol Reprod 2019 07;101(1):200-207

BIOPHARM, Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs, Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic.

Successful derivation and cultivation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) opened the way to efficient transgenesis and genome editing in the chicken. Furthermore, implantation of male PGCs from non-chicken galliform species into the chicken embryos resulted in cross-species germline chimeras and viable offspring. We have recently improved the PGC technology by demonstrating that chicken male PGCs transplanted into the testes of adult cockerel recipients mature into functional sperms. However, the availability of this orthotopic transplantation for cross-species transfer remains to be explored. Here we tested the capacity of genetically distant male PGCs to mature in the microenvironment of adult testes. We derived PGCs from the Chinese black-bone Silkie and transplanted them into infertile White Leghorn cockerels. Within 15-18 weeks after transplantation, we observed restoration of spermatogenesis in recipient cockerels and production of healthy progeny derived from the transplanted PGCs. Our findings also indicate the possibility of cross-species orthotopic transplantation of PGCs. Thus, our results might contribute to the preservation of endangered avian species and maintaining the genetic variability of the domestic chicken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz064DOI Listing
July 2019

An overview of worldwide and regional time trends in total mercury levels in human blood and breast milk from 1966 to 2015 and their associations with health effects.

Environ Int 2019 04 6;125:300-319. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic; Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Mercury is a pollutant of global concern. To protect human health and environment from mercury pollution, the Minamata Convention on mercury entered into force in 2017.

Objectives: To support a future effectiveness evaluation of the convention, this study assesses worldwide and regional time trends of total mercury levels in human blood and breast milk across different population sub-groups in the last half-century prior to entry-into-force of the Minamata Convention. This study also provides an overview of the epidemiological literature showing evidence of associations between mercury exposure (in terms of total mercury levels in whole blood, cord blood, and breast milk) and human health.

Methods: We searched electronic databases to identify articles published prior to June 14, 2017 and reported total mercury levels in any of three biological matrices (whole blood, cord blood, or breast milk) and/or associations with human health. Temporal trends of total mercury levels in the selected biological matrices across different population sub-groups were estimated using a linear fit of the log-transformed data. In parallel, statistical methods were employed to assess any possible effect of sources of inhomogeneity (i.e. study and population characteristics such as age, sex, ethnicity, source of exposure, sampling period, and geographical region) in the collected studies. Furthermore, a summary of significant and relevant associations between mercury exposure and human health conditions in children and adults was prepared.

Findings: We found significant declines in total mercury levels in whole blood, cord blood, and breast milk between 1966 and 2015. A regional overview of total mercury levels in whole blood, cord blood, and breast milk suggests the highest levels in South America, followed by Africa or Asia whereas the population groups from Europe or North America displayed the lowest levels of total mercury in the selected biological matrices. We observed conclusive consistent associations of mercury exposure with selected health conditions, especially neurodevelopment and neurotoxicity in children and adults. For several other health conditions, reported findings in the collected studies do not support conclusive associations. We also found that several studies demonstrated significant associations between mercury exposure below the USEPA reference level and various health conditions.

Conclusions: This study provides a worldwide and regional overview of trends in total mercury levels in human blood and breast milk and associated health risks prior to entry-into-force of the Minamata Convention and calls for further epidemiological investigations from across the globe to fully understand the health implications of mercury exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.12.016DOI Listing
April 2019

Characterizing Spatial Diversity of Passive Sampling Sites for Measuring Levels and Trends of Semivolatile Organic Chemicals.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 09 29;52(18):10599-10608. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, RECETOX , Kamenice 5 , 625 00 Brno , Czech Republic.

Passive air sampling of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) is a relatively inexpensive method that facilitates extensive campaigns with numerous sampling sites. An important question in the design of passive-sampling networks concerns the number and location of samplers. We investigate this question with the example of 17 SVOCs sampled at 14 background sites across the Czech Republic. More than 200 time series (length 5-11 years) were used to characterize SVOC levels and trends in air between 2003 and 2015. Six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 6 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at 14 sites were assessed using data from the MONET passive sampling network. Significant decreases were found for most PCBs and OCPs whereas hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and most PAHs showed (mostly insignificant) increases. Spatial variability was rather low for PCBs and OCPs except for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and rather high for PAHs. The variability of the SVOC levels and trends depends on characteristics of the sites including their remoteness, landscape, population, and pollution sources. The sites can be grouped in distinct clusters, which helps to identify similar and, thereby, potentially redundant sites. This information is useful when monitoring networks need to be optimized regarding the location and number of sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b03414DOI Listing
September 2018

Estimation of p,p'-DDT degradation in soil by modeling and constraining hydrological and biogeochemical controls.

Environ Pollut 2018 Aug 11;239:179-188. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, Brno, 62500, Czech Republic; Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, NO-0349, Norway. Electronic address:

Despite not being used for decades in most countries, DDT remains ubiquitous in soils due to its persistence and intense past usage. Because of this it is still a pollutant of high global concern. Assessing long term dissipation of DDT from this reservoir is fundamental to understand future environmental and human exposure. Despite a large research effort, key properties controlling fate in soil (in particular, the degradation half-life (τ)) are far from being fully quantified. This paper describes a case study in a large central European catchment where hundreds of measurements of p,p'-DDT concentrations in air, soil, river water and sediment are available for the last two decades. The goal was to deliver an integrated estimation of τ by constraining a state-of-the-art hydrobiogeochemical-multimedia fate model of the catchment against the full body of empirical data available for this area. The INCA-Contaminants model was used for this scope. Good predictive performance against an (external) dataset of water and sediment concentrations was achieved with partitioning properties taken from the literature and τ estimates obtained from forcing the model against empirical historical data of p,p'-DDT in the catchment multicompartments. This approach allowed estimation of p,p'-DDT degradation in soil after taking adequate consideration of losses due to runoff and volatilization. Estimated τ ranged over 3000-3800 days. Degradation was the most important loss process, accounting on a yearly basis for more than 90% of the total dissipation. The total dissipation flux from the catchment soils was one order of magnitude higher than the total current atmospheric input estimated from atmospheric concentrations, suggesting that the bulk of p,p'-DDT currently being remobilized or lost is essentially that accumulated over two decades ago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.022DOI Listing
August 2018

Simultaneous detection of chicken cytokines in plasma samples using the Bio-Plex assay.

Poult Sci 2018 Apr;97(4):1127-1133

BIOPHARM, Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs, 25401 Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic.

A chicken multiplex cytokine assay (Bio-Plex) to detect four different cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, IL-10, and interferon gamma) simultaneously in plasma samples was designed. Most standard curves range between 1 to 5 pg/mL and 5,000 pg/mL, except for IFNγ with the range of 50 to 25,000 pg/mL. Such a chicken multiplex assay proved to be fast and reliable, and comparable in sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility to conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Comparison of the multiplex assay with the ELISA technique using the same clones of detection and capture antibodies resulted in correlation coefficients for all cytokines ranging from 0.95 to 0.99. Lower limit of detection and limit of quantification values were obtained for all tested cytokines by the Bio-Plex assay compared with ELISA. To reduce the risk of cross-reaction with other proteins, the Bio-Plex system was used, combining the principle of sandwich immunoassay with the Luminex bead-based technology. The cytokine standard recoveries for each cytokine varied between 86 and 118% in dynamic concentration ranges. A chicken multiplex cytokine assay (Bio-Plex) provided a more complete picture of differences between the Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles of the immunized via a new system of antigen delivery into chicken antigen-presenting cells and control groups. This multiplexed fluorescent-bead-based detection assay can be used as a quantitative or comparative tool for the study of the chicken ex vivo cellular immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex411DOI Listing
April 2018

Male fertility restored by transplanting primordial germ cells into testes: a new way towards efficient transgenesis in chicken.

Sci Rep 2017 10 27;7(1):14246. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 14220, Prague, Czech Republic.

The ongoing progress in primordial germ cell derivation and cultivation is opening new ways in reproductive biotechnology. This study tested whether functional sperm cells can be matured from genetically manipulated primordial germ cells after transplantation in adult testes and used to restore fertility. We show that spermatogenesis can be restored after mCherry-expressing or GFP-expressing primordial germ cells are transplantated into the testes of sterilized G roosters and that mCherry-positive or GFP-positive non-chimeric transgenic G offspring can be efficiently produced. Compared with the existing approaches to primordial germ cell replacement, this new technique eliminates the germ line chimerism of G roosters and is, therefore, faster, more efficient and requires fewer animals. Furthermore, this is the only animal model, where the fate of primordial germ cells in infertile recipients can be studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14475-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5660165PMC
October 2017

Passive Air Samplers As a Tool for Assessing Long-Term Trends in Atmospheric Concentrations of Semivolatile Organic Compounds.

Environ Sci Technol 2017 Jun 12;51(12):7047-7054. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment RECETOX, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Many attempts have been made to quantify the relationship between the amount of persistent organic pollutants sequestered by passive air sampling devices and their actual concentrations in ambient air. However, this information may not be necessary for some applications. In this study, two sets of 30 ten-year-long time series of simultaneous passive and high-volume active air sampling carried out at the Košetice observatory in the Czech Republic were used for a comparison of temporal trends. Fifteen polyaromatic hydrocarbons, seven polychlorinated biphenyls and eight organochlorine pesticides were investigated. In most cases, a good agreement was observed between the trends derived from passive and active monitoring with the exception of several compounds obviously affected by sampling artifacts. Two sampling artifacts were observed: breakthrough of high-volume sampler filters for penta- and hexachlorobenzene and semiquantitative values for PAHs with a high molecular weight. It has been suggested before that annually aggregated results of passive air monitoring may be used directly for the assessment of the long-term behavior of these compounds. The extensive set of long-term data used in this study allowed us to confirm this finding and to demonstrate that it is also possible to derive temporal trends and the compounds' half-lives in air from the passive-sampling time series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02319DOI Listing
June 2017

Cytokine response to the RSV antigen delivered by dendritic cell-directed vaccination in congenic chicken lines.

Vet Res 2017 04 5;48(1):18. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

BIOPHARM, Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs, Jílové U Prahy, Czech Republic.

Systems of antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells represent an important novel strategy in chicken vaccine development. In this study, we verified the ability of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) antigens fused with streptavidin to be targeted by specific biotinylated monoclonal antibody (anti-CD205) into dendritic cells and induce virus-specific protective immunity. The method was tested in four congenic lines of chickens that are either resistant or susceptible to the progressive growth of RSV-induced tumors. Our analyses confirmed that the biot-anti-CD205-SA-FITC complex was internalized by chicken splenocytes. In the cytokine expression profile, several significant differences were evident between RSV-challenged progressor and regressor chicken lines. A significant up-regulation of IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 expression was detected in immunized chickens of both regressor and progressor groups. Of these cytokines, IL-2 and IL-12 were most up-regulated 14 days post-challenge (dpc), while IL-15 and IL-18 were most up-regulated at 28 dpc. On the contrary, IL-10 expression was significantly down-regulated in all immunized groups of progressor chickens at 14 dpc. We detected significant up-regulation of IL-17 in the group of immunized progressors. LITAF down-regulation with iNOS up-regulation was especially observed in the progressor group of immunized chickens that developed large tumors. Based on the increased expression of cytokines specific for activated dendritic cells, we conclude that our system is able to induce partial stimulation of specific cell types involved in cell-mediated immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-017-0423-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5382389PMC
April 2017

Mercury in canned fish from local markets in the Czech Republic.

Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill 2017 Jun 6;10(2):149-154. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

b Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science , Masaryk University Brno , Brno , Czech Republic.

The aim of this survey was to compare total mercury (THg) in canned fish in terms of species and fishing area. A number of 110 samples of canned fish, which were divided by fish species and fishing area, were analysed. The highest THg content in muscle tissue was found in the escolar. In other fish species, the highest level was detected in tuna. Mercury content in tuna differed significantly from mackerel, sardine, and sprat. Mercury content in herring differed significantly from sprat. The order of the fish according to their THg content corresponds to their status in the aquatic food chain. A significant difference was also found between fish caught from the closed Mediterranean and Black Sea and fish caught in the open oceans. In terms of THg content, the results of this study indicate good quality of various species of canned fish caught in worldwide locations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2017.1284904DOI Listing
June 2017

Using long-term air monitoring of semi-volatile organic compounds to evaluate the uncertainty in polyurethane-disk passive sampler-derived air concentrations.

Environ Pollut 2017 Jan 16;220(Pt B):1100-1111. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

RECETOX -Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czechia.

Much effort has been made to standardise sampling procedures, laboratory analysis, data analysis, etc. for semi volatile organic contaminants (SVOCs). Yet there are some unresolved issues in regards to comparing measurements from one of the most commonly used passive samplers (PAS), the polyurethane foam (PUF) disk PAS (PUF-PAS), between monitoring networks or different studies. One such issue is that there is no universal means to derive a sampling rate (R) or to calculate air concentrations (C) from PUF-PAS measurements for SVOCs. C was calculated from PUF-PAS measurements from a long-term monitoring program at a site in central Europe applying current understanding of passive sampling theory coupled with a consideration for the sampling of particle associated compounds. C were assessed against concurrent active air sampler (AAS) measurements. Use of "site-based/sampler-specific" variables: R, calculated using a site calibration, provided similar results for most gas-phase SVOCs to air concentrations derived using "default" values (commonly accepted R). Individual monthly PUF-PAS-derived air concentrations for the majority of the target compounds were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed-rank (WSR) test; p < 0.05) to AAS regardless of the input values (site/sampler based or default) used to calculate them. However, annual average PUF-PAS-derived air concentrations were within the same order of magnitude as AAS measurements except for the particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Underestimation of PUF-derived air concentrations for particle-phase PAHs was attributed to a potential overestimation of the particle infiltration into the PUF-PAS chamber and underestimation of the particle bound fraction of PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.11.030DOI Listing
January 2017

Development of an Advanced HPLC-MS/MS Method for the Determination of Carotenoids and Fat-Soluble Vitamins in Human Plasma.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Oct 14;17(10). Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava 70103, Czech Republic.

The concentration of carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma may play a significant role in numerous chronic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and some types of cancer. Although these compounds are of utmost interest for human health, methods for their simultaneous determination are scarce. A new high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the quantification of selected carotenoids and fat-soluble vitamins in human plasma was developed, validated, and then applied in a pilot dietary intervention study with healthy volunteers. In 50 min, 16 analytes were separated with an excellent resolution and suitable MS signal intensity. The proposed HPLC-MS/MS method led to improvements in the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for all analyzed compounds compared to the most often used HPLC-DAD methods, in some cases being more than 100-fold lower. LOD values were between 0.001 and 0.422 µg/mL and LOQ values ranged from 0.003 to 1.406 µg/mL, according to the analyte. The accuracy, precision, and stability met with the acceptance criteria of the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) International. According to these results, the described HPLC-MS/MS method is adequately sensitive, repeatable and suitable for the large-scale analysis of compounds in biological fluids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17101719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5085750PMC
October 2016

Seasonality and indoor/outdoor relationships of flame retardants and PCBs in residential air.

Environ Pollut 2016 Nov 16;218:392-401. Epub 2016 Jul 16.

Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Kamenice 753/5, 62500, Brno, Czech Republic.

This study is a systematic assessment of different houses and apartments, their ages and renovation status, indoors and outdoors, and in summer vs. winter, with a goal of bringing some insight into the major sources of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and their variability. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs) were determined at 17-20 homes in Czech Republic in winter and summer. Indoor concentrations were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for all compounds; indoor/outdoor ratios ranged from 2-20, with larger differences for the current use NFRs than for legacy PCBs. Seasonal trends differed according to the use status of the compounds: the PCBs had higher summer concentrations both indoors and outdoors, suggesting volatilization as a source of PCBs to air. PBDEs had no seasonal trends indoors, but higher summer concentrations outdoors. Several NFRs (TBX, PBT, PBEB) had higher indoor concentrations in winter relative to summer. The seasonal trends in the flame retardants suggest differences in air exchange rates due to lower building ventilation in winter could be driving the concentration differences. Weak relationships were found with building age for PCBs, with higher concentrations indoors in buildings built before 1984, and with the number of electronics for PBDEs, with higher concentrations in rooms with three or more electronic items. Indoor environments are the primary contributor to human inhalation exposure to these SVOCs, due to the high percentage of time spent indoors (>90%) combined with the higher indoors levels for all the studied compounds. Exposure via the indoor environment contributed ∼96% of the total chronic daily intake via inhalation in summer and ∼98% in winter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.07.018DOI Listing
November 2016

Response of green reflectance continuum removal index to the xanthophyll de-epoxidation cycle in Norway spruce needles.

J Exp Bot 2013 Apr 5;64(7):1817-27. Epub 2013 Apr 5.

Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bělidla 4a, CZ-603 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

A dedicated field experiment was conducted to investigate the response of a green reflectance continuum removal-based optical index, called area under the curve normalized to maximal band depth between 511 nm and 557 nm (ANMB511-557), to light-induced transformations in xanthophyll cycle pigments of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] needles. The performance of ANMB511-557 was compared with the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) computed from the same leaf reflectance measurements. Needles of four crown whorls (fifth, eighth, 10th, and 15th counted from the top) were sampled from a 27-year-old spruce tree throughout a cloudy and a sunny day. Needle optical properties were measured together with the composition of the photosynthetic pigments to investigate their influence on both optical indices. Analyses of pigments showed that the needles of the examined whorls varied significantly in chlorophyll content and also in related pigment characteristics, such as the chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio. The investigation of the ANMB511-557 diurnal behaviour revealed that the index is able to follow the dynamic changes in the xanthophyll cycle independently of the actual content of foliar pigments. Nevertheless, ANMB511-557 lost the ability to predict the xanthophyll cycle behaviour during noon on the sunny day, when the needles were exposed to irradiance exceeding 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1). Despite this, ANMB511-557 rendered a better performance for tracking xanthophyll cycle reactions than PRI. Although declining PRI values generally responded to excessive solar irradiance, they were not able to predict the actual de-epoxidation state in the needles examined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/ert069DOI Listing
April 2013

Restoration of spermatogenesis after transplantation of c-Kit positive testicular cells in the fowl.

Theriogenology 2010 Dec 15;74(9):1670-6. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

BIOPHARM, Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs, a.s. 254 49 Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic.

Transplantation of male germ line cells into sterilized recipients has been used in mammals for conventional breeding as well as for transgenesis. We have previously adapted this approach for the domestic chicken and we present now an improvement of the germ cell transplantation technique by using an enriched subpopulation of c-Kit-positive spermatogonia as donor cells. Dispersed c-Kit positive testicular cells from 16 to 17 week-old pubertal donors were transplanted by injection directly into the testes of recipient males sterilized by repeated gamma irradiation. We describe the repopulation of the recipient's testes with c-Kit positive donor testicular cells, which resulted in the production of functional heterologous spermatozoa. Using manual semen collection, the first sperm production in the recipient males was observed about nine weeks after the transplantation. The full reproduction cycle was accomplished by artificial insemination of hens and hatching of chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.07.002DOI Listing
December 2010

Gallin; an antimicrobial peptide member of a new avian defensin family, the ovodefensins, has been subject to recent gene duplication.

BMC Immunol 2010 Mar 12;11:12. Epub 2010 Mar 12.

Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9PS, UK.

Background: Egg white must provide nutrients and protection to the developing avian embryo. One way in which this is achieved is an arsenal of antimicrobial proteins and peptides which are essentially extensions of the innate immune system. Gallin is a recently identified member of a family of peptides that are found in egg white. The function of this peptide family has not been identified and they are potentially antimicrobial.

Results: We have confirmed that there are at least 3 forms of the gallin gene in the chicken genome in 3 separate lines of chicken, all the forms are expressed in the tubular cells of the magnum region of the oviduct, consistent with its presence in egg white. mRNA expression levels are in the order 10,000 times greater in the magnum than the shell gland. The conservation between the multiple forms of gallin in the chicken genome compared with the conservation between gallin and other avian gallin like peptides, suggests that the gene duplication has occurred relatively recently in the chicken lineage. The gallin peptide family contains a six cysteine motif (C-X5-C-X3-C-X11-C-X3-C-C) found in all defensins, and is most closely related to avian beta-defensins, although the cysteine spacing differs. Further support for the classification comes from the presence of a glycine at position 10 in the 41 amino acid peptide. Recombinant gallin inhibited the growth of Escherischia coli (E. coli) at a concentration of 0.25 microM confirming it as part of the antimicrobial innate immune system in avian species.

Conclusions: The relatively recent evolution of multiple forms of a member of a new defensin related group of peptides that we have termed ovodefensins, may be an adaptation to increase expression or the first steps in divergent evolution of the gene in chickens. The potent antimicrobial activity of the peptide against E. coli increases our understanding of the antimicrobial strategies of the avian innate immune system particularly those of the egg white and the evolution of the defensin family. The potential of this peptide and others in the family can now be investigated in a number of novel antimicrobial roles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-11-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846878PMC
March 2010

Acclimation of Norway spruce photosynthetic apparatus to the combined effect of high irradiance and temperature.

J Plant Physiol 2010 May 8;167(8):597-605. Epub 2010 Jan 8.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ostrava University, 30. dubna 22, CZ-701 03 Ostrava 1, Czech Republic.

Diurnal courses of photosynthetic gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence characteristics and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments (DEPS) were measured during the gradual acclimation of 4-year-old Norway spruce seedlings to different photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and air temperature (T(air)) regimes, simulating cloudy days with moderate T(air) (LI, maximum PPFD 300 micromol m(-2)s(-1), T(air) range 15-25 degrees C), sunny days with moderate T(air) (HI, maximum PPFD 1000 micromol m(-2)s(-1), T(air) range 15-25 degrees C) and hot sunny days (HI-HT, maximum PPFD 1000 micromol m(-2)s(-1), T(air) range 20-35 degrees C). The plants were acclimated inside a growth chamber and each acclimation regime lasted for 13d. Acclimation to HI conditions led to a strong depression of the net CO(2) assimilation rates (A(N)), particularly during noon and afternoon periods. Exposure to the HI-HT regime led to a further decrease of A(N) even during the morning period. Insufficient stomatal conductance was found to be the main reason for depressed A(N) under HI and HI-HT conditions. Only slight changes of the maximum photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (F(V)/F(M)), in the range of 0.78-0.82, supported the resistance of the Norway spruce photosynthetic apparatus against PSII photoinhibition during acclimation to both HI and HI-HT conditions. The HI plants showed increased content of xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) and enhanced efficiency of thermal energy dissipation within PSII (D) that closely correlated with the increased DEPS. In contrast, acclimation to the HI-HT regime resulted in a slight reduction of VAZ content and significantly diminished D and DEPS values during the entire day in comparison with HI plants. These results indicate a minor role of the xanthophyll cycle-mediated thermal dissipation in PSII photoprotection under elevated temperatures. The different contributions of the thermal dissipation and non-assimilatory electron transport pathways in PSII photoprotection during acclimation of the Norway spruce photosynthetic apparatus to excess irradiance and heat stresses are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2009.11.011DOI Listing
May 2010

Dynamics of the xanthophyll cycle and non-radiative dissipation of absorbed light energy during exposure of Norway spruce to high irradiance.

J Plant Physiol 2008 Apr 29;165(6):612-22. Epub 2007 Aug 29.

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ostrava University, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

The response of Norway spruce saplings (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) was monitored continuously during short-term exposure (10 days) to high irradiance (HI; 1000micromol m(-2)s(-1)). Compared with plants acclimated to low irradiance (100micromol m(-2)s(-1)), plants after HI exposure were characterized by a significantly reduced CO(2) assimilation rate throughout the light response curve. Pigment contents varied only slightly during HI exposure, but a rapid and strong response was observed in xanthophyll cycle activity, particularly within the first 3 days of the HI treatment. Both violaxanthin convertibility under HI and the amount of zeaxanthin pool sustained in darkness increased markedly under HI conditions. These changes were accompanied by an enhanced non-radiative dissipation of absorbed light energy (NRD) and the acceleration of induction of both NRD and de-epoxidation of the xanthophyll cycle pigments. We found a strong negative linear correlation between the amount of sustained de-epoxidized xanthophylls and the photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (F(V)/F(M)), indicating photoprotective down-regulation of the PSII function. Recovery of F(V)/F(M) at the end of the HI treatment revealed that Norway spruce was able to cope with a 10-fold elevated irradiance due particularly to an efficient NRD within the PSII antenna that was associated with enhanced violaxanthin convertibility and a light-induced accumulation of zeaxanthin that persisted in darkness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2007.03.013DOI Listing
April 2008

Retrovirus-mediated in vitro gene transfer into chicken male germ line cells.

Reproduction 2007 Sep;134(3):445-53

BIOPHARM, Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs Ltd, 254 49 Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic.

Chicken testicular cells, including spermatogonia, transplanted into the testes of recipient cockerels sterilized by repeated gamma-irradiation repopulate the seminiferous epithelium and resume the exogenous spermatogenesis. This procedure could be used to introduce genetic modifications into the male germ line and generate transgenic chickens. In this study, we present a successful retroviral infection of chicken testicular cells and consequent transduction of the retroviral vector into the sperm of recipient cockerels. A vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G-pseudotyped recombinant retroviral vector, carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene was applied to the short-term culture of dispersed testicular cells. The efficiency of infection and the viability of infected cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. No significant CpG methylation was detected in the infected testicular cells, suggesting that epigenetic silencing events do not play a role at this stage of germ line development. After transplantation into sterilized recipient cockerels, these retrovirus-infected testicular cells restored exogenous spermatogenesis within 9 weeks with approximately the same efficiency as non-infected cells. Transduction of the reporter gene encoding the green fluorescent protein was detected in the sperms of recipient cockerels with restored spermatogenesis. Our data demonstrate that, similarly as in mouse and rat, the transplantation of retrovirus-infected spermatogonia provides an efficient system to introduce genes into the chicken male germ line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-06-0233DOI Listing
September 2007

Differences in pigment composition, photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll fluorescence images of sun and shade leaves of four tree species.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2007 Aug 1;45(8):577-88. Epub 2007 May 1.

Botanical Institute (Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Plants), University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstrasse 12, D-76133 Karlsruhe, Germany.

The differential pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of sun and shade leaves of deciduous (Acer pseudoplatanus, Fagus sylvatica, Tilia cordata) and coniferous (Abies alba) trees was comparatively determined by studying the photosynthetic rates via CO(2) measurements and also by imaging the Chl fluorescence decrease ratio (R(Fd)), which is an in vivo indicator of the net CO(2) assimilation rates. The thicker sun leaves and needles in all tree species were characterized by a lower specific leaf area, lower water content, higher total chlorophyll (Chl) a+b and total carotenoid (Cars) content per leaf area unit, as well as higher values for the ratio Chl a/b compared to the much thinner shade leaves and needles that possess a higher Chl a+b and Cars content on a dry matter basis and higher values for the weight ratio Chls/Cars. Sun leaves and needles exhibited higher rates of maximum net photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (P(Nmax)) measured at saturating irradiance associated with higher maximum stomatal conductance for water vapor efflux. The differences in photosynthetic activity between sun and shade leaves and needles could also be sensed via imaging the Chl fluorescence decrease ratio R(Fd), since it linearly correlated to the P(Nmax) rates at saturating irradiance. Chl fluorescence imaging not only provided the possibility to screen the differences in P(N) rates between sun and shade leaves, but in addition permitted detection and quantification of the large gradients in photosynthetic rates across the leaf area existing in sun and shade leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2007.04.006DOI Listing
August 2007

Restoration of spermatogenesis and male fertility by transplantation of dispersed testicular cells in the chicken.

Biol Reprod 2006 Oct 28;75(4):575-81. Epub 2006 Jun 28.

BIOPHARM, Research Institute of Biopharmacy and Veterinary Drugs, a.s. 254 49 Jílové u Prahy, Czech Republic.

Transplantation of male germ cells into sterilized recipients has been widely used in mammals for conventional breeding and transgenesis purposes. This study presents a workable approach for germ cell transplantation between male chickens. Testicular cells from adult and prepubertal donors were dispersed and transplanted by injection directly into the testes of recipient males sterilized by repeated gamma irradiation. We describe the repopulation of the recipient seminiferous epithelium up to the production of heterologous sperm in about 50% of transplanted males. In comparison to males transplanted with testicular cell preparations from adult donors, in which the first ejaculates with sperm were recovered about 5 wk after transfer, a substantial interval (about 10 wk) was necessary to obtain ejaculates after the transfer of testicular cells from prepubertal donors. However, in both cases, recipient males produced ejaculates capable of fertilizing ova and producing progeny expressing donor genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod.105.050278DOI Listing
October 2006

Characterization of acclimation of Hordeum vulgare to high irradiation based on different responses of photosynthetic activity and pigment composition.

Photosynth Res 2002 ;72(1):71-83

Department of Physics, Ostrava University, Faculty of Science, 30. dubna 22, 701 03, Ostrava 1, Czech Republic,

The ability of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Akcent) to adjust the composition and function of the photosynthetic apparatus to growth irradiances of 25-1200 mumol m(-2) s(-1) was studied by gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements and high-performance liquid chromatography. The increased growth irradiance stimulated light- and CO(2)-saturated rates of CO(2) assimilation expressed on a leaf area basis up to 730 mumol m(-2) s(-1) (HL730), whereas at an irradiance of 1200 mumol m(-2) s(-1) (EHL1200) both rates decreased significantly. Further, the acclimation to EHL1200 was associated with an extremely high chlorophyll a/b ratio (3.97), a more than doubled xanthophyll cycle pool (VAZ) and a six-fold higher de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments as compared to barley grown under 25 mumol m(-2) s(-1) (LL25). EHL1200 plants also exhibited a long-term inhibition of Photosystem II (PS II) photochemical efficiency (F (v)/F (m)). Photosynthetic capacity, chlorophyll a/b and VAZ revealed a linear trend of dependence on PS II excitation pressure in a certain range of growth irradiances (100-730 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The deviation from linearity of these relationships for EHL1200 barley is discussed. In addition, the role of increased VAZ and/or accumulation of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin in acclimation of barley to high irradiance is studied with respect to regulation of non-radiative dissipation and/or photochemical efficiency within PS II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016018900535DOI Listing
January 2002

Regulation of the excitation energy utilization in the photosynthetic apparatus of chlorina f2 barley mutant grown under different irradiances.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2004 Jul;75(1-2):41-50

Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ostrava University, 30. dubna 22, 701 03 Ostrava 1, Czech Republic.

Acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus of chlorophyll b-less barley mutant chlorina f2 to low light (100 micromolm(-2)s(-1); LL) and extremely high light level (1000 micromolm(-2)s(-1); HL) was examined using techniques of pigment analysis and chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements at room temperature and at 77 K. The absence of chlorophyll b in LL-grown chlorina f2 resulted in the reduction of functional antenna size of both photosystem II (by 67%) and photosystem I (by 21%). Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of the LL-grown mutant indicated no impairment of the utilization of absorbed light energy in photosystem II photochemistry. Thermal dissipation of excitation energy estimated as non-photochemical quenching of minimal fluorescence (SV(0)) was significantly higher as compared to the wild-type barley grown under LL. Despite impaired assembly of pigment-protein complexes, chlorina f2 was able to efficiently acclimate to HL. In comparison with chlorina f2 grown under LL, HL-grown chlorina f2 was characterized by unaffected maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F(V)/F(M), doubled content of both beta-carotene and the xanthophyll cycle pigments and considerably reduced efficiency of excitation energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll a. The enormous xanthophyll cycle pool size was however associated with reduced SV(0) capacity. We suggest that the substantial part of the xanthophyll cycle pigments is not bound to the remaining pigment-protein complexes and acts as filter for excitation energy, thereby contributing to the efficient photoprotection of chlorina f2 grown under HL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2004.04.004DOI Listing
July 2004