Publications by authors named "Jeung Hun Park"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mechanistic Pathways for the Molecular Step Growth of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Revealed by In Situ Liquid-Phase Atomic Force Microscopy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 30;13(31):37873-37882. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal is the most common crystalline component of human kidney stones. The molecular-scale inhibitory mechanisms of COM crystal growth by urinary biomolecules such as citrate and osteopontin adsorbed onto the crystal surface are now well understood. However, the pathways by which dissolved calcium and oxalate ions are incorporated into the molecular step of the COM crystal surface, leading to COM crystal growth-a prerequisite to be elucidated for developing effective therapeutics to inhibit COM stones-remain unknown. Here, using in situ liquid-phase atomic microscopy along with a step kinetic model, we reveal the pathways of the calcium and oxalate ions into the COM molecular step via the growth speed analysis of the molecular steps with respect to their step width at the nanoscale. Our results show that, primarily, the ions are adsorbed onto the terrace of the crystal surface from the solution-the rate-controlling stage for the molecular step growth, i.e., COM crystal growth-and then diffuse over it and are eventually incorporated into the steps. This primary pathway of the ions is unaffected by the model peptide D-Asp adsorbed on the COM crystal surface, suggesting that urinary biomolecules will not alter the pathway. These new findings rendering an essential understanding of the fundamental growth mechanism of COM crystal at the nanoscale provide crucial insights beneficial to the development of effective therapeutics for COM kidney stones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09245DOI Listing
August 2021

Optimal CdS Buffer Thickness to Form High-Quality CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se Junctions in Solar Cells without Plasma Damage and Shunt Paths.

ACS Omega 2020 Sep 9;5(37):23983-23988. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 34158, Republic of Korea.

CdS has been known to be one of the best junction partners for Cu(In,Ga)Se (CIGS) in CIGS solar cells. However, the use of thick CdS buffer decreases the short-circuit current density of CIGS solar cells. There are two obstacles that limit the use of ultrathin CdS. The first is plasma damage to CIGS during the preparation of transparent conducting windows and the second is a low shunt resistance due to the direct contact between the window and CIGS via pinholes in the thin CdS buffer. In other words, to avoid plasma damage and shunt paths, we may have to use a CdS buffer that is thicker than necessary to form a high-quality CdS/CIGS junction. This work aims to determine how thin the CdS buffer can be employed without sacrificing device performance while also eliminating the above two obstacles. We investigate the effect of CdS thickness on the performance of CIGS solar cells with silver nanowire-based window layers, which can eliminate both obstacles. An approximately 13 nm thick CdS buffer allows us to achieve high short-circuit current density and fill factor values. To attain an even high open-circuit voltage, an additional CdS buffer with a thickness of 13 nm is needed. The data from this study imply that an approximately 26 nm thick CdS buffer is sufficient to form a high-quality CdS/CIGS junction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513370PMC
September 2020

Effects of Density and Diameter on Surface Optical Phonon Modes in GaAs Nanowire Bundles.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2020 Jul;20(7):4444-4449

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 34158, Republic of Korea.

We report the systematic investigation of the surface optical phonon modes in Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowires grown on an Au pre-patterned GaAs(111)B substrate using -Raman spectroscopy. We employed electron-beam dose rate as a control parameter during the substrate patterning step for adjusting the nanowire base diameter and coverage, which are independent from the nanowire growth conditions. We have experimentally studied the effect of the fill factor and average diameter on the surface optical phonon modes and explained the red-shift and broadening of the surface optical phonon frequencies by employing the dielectric continuum model. The surface optical phonon mode shift is exhibited to be sensitive to fill factor, rather than base diameter. The decrease in the average diameter from 280 nm to 180 nm results in the asymmetric broadening and red-shift of the surface optical phonon frequency (~1.83 cm) but the theoretical calculation from the isolated single nanowire-based dielectric continuum model cannot solely explain the behaviors of the surface optical phonon mode. In contrast, the change in the fill factor from 0.01 to 0.83 results in a shift of the surface optical phonon frequency (~6.5 cm) from the GaAs bulk value. The red-shift and asymmetric broadening of the surface optical phonons, in an agreement with the Maxwell-Garnett approximation, are consequences of dipolar interaction of randomly aligned neighboring nanowires and the polar nature of GaAs nanowire bundles. This work suggests the pre-patterning parameter dependent surface optical phonon characteristics of GaAs nanowire bundles which are of great importance in the nondestructive characterization of low-dimensional opto-electronic materials and devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2020.17585DOI Listing
July 2020

Nondestructive Characterizations of Au-Catalyzed GaAs Nanowires on GaAs(111)B Substrates via Identifications of 1st Order Optical Phonon Modes Using -Raman Spectroscopy.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2020 Jul;20(7):4358-4363

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 34158, Republic of Korea.

We report the relation between the catalyst patterning conditions and the intensity of the 1st order Raman active modes in Au-catalyzed GaAs nanowire bundles. We fabricated e-beam lithographically Au-patterned GaAs(111)B substrates by varying the patterning conditions (e-beam dose rate, dot-size and interdot-spacings), and grew GaAs nanowires via vapor-liquid-solid process using a solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. To understand the effects of the substrate preparation conditions and resulting morphologies on the optical characteristics of 1st order transverse optical and longitudinal optical phonon modes of GaAs, we characterized the nanowire bundles using complementary -Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy as a function of the e-beam dose rate (145-595 C/cm²), inter-dot spacing (100 and 150 nm) and pattern size (100 and 150 nm). Ensembles of single crystalline GaAs nanowires covered with different Au-thickness exhibit a downshift and asymmetric broadening of the 1st order transverse optical and longitudinal optical phonon peaks relative to GaAs bulk modes. We also showed that the sensitivity of a downshift and broadening of Raman spectra are directly related to morphological and surface coverage variations in as-grown nanowires. We observed clear increases of the transverse optical and longitudinal optical intensity as well as the relatively higher peak shift and broadening of Raman spectra from the 100 nm patterning in response to the dose rate change. Strong dependence of Raman spectra of the nanowire bundles on the e-beam dose rate changes are attributed to the variations in spatial density, size, shape and random growth orientation of the wires. We have shown that the identification of the changes in GaAs longitudinal optical and Arsenic anti-site peaks is good indicators to characterize the quality of as-grown GaAs nanowires. Our finding confirms the utilization of Raman spectroscopy as a powerful tool for characterizing chemical, structural, and morphological information of as-grown nanowires within the supporting substrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2020.17586DOI Listing
July 2020

Raman Spectroscopic Characterizations of Self-Catalyzed InP/InAs/InP One-Dimensional Nanostructures on InP(111)B Substrate using a Simple Substrate-Tilting Method.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2019 Nov 28;14(1):355. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, 34158, Republic of Korea.

We report optical phonon vibration modes in ensembles of self-catalyzed InP/InAs/InP multi core-shell one-dimensional nanostructures (nanopillars and nanocones) grown on InP(111)B substrates using liquid indium droplets as a catalyst via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We characterized the Raman vibration modes of InAs E(TO), InAs A(TO), InAs E(LO), InP E(TO), InP A(LO), and InP E(LO) from the ensemble of as-grown nanostructures. We also identified second-order Raman vibration modes, associated with InP E(2TO), E(LO+TO), and E(2LO), in the InP/InAs/InP core-shell nanopillars and nanocones. Raman spectra of InP/InAs/InP nanopillars showed redshift and broadening of LO modes at low-frequency branches of InAs and InP. Due to the polar nature in groups III-V nanowires, we observed strong frequency splitting between InAs E(TO) and InAs A(LO) in InP/InAs/InP nanocones. The Raman resonance intensities of InP and InAs LO modes are found to be changed linearly with an excitation power. By tilting the substrate relative to the incoming laser beam, we observed strong suppression of low-frequency branch of InP and InAs LO phonon vibrations from InP/InAs/InP nanocones. The integrated intensity ratio of InP E(TO)/E(LO) for both nanostructures is almost constant at 0-degree tilt, but the ratio of the nanocones is dramatically increased at 30-degree tilt. Our results suggest that Raman spectroscopy characterization with a simple substrate tilting method can provide new insights into non-destructive characterization of the shape, structure, and composition of the as-grown nanostructures for the wafer-scale growth and integration processing of groups III-V semiconducting hetero-nanostructures into nanoelectronics and photonics applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-019-3193-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883012PMC
November 2019

Growth Kinetics of Individual Au Spiky Nanoparticles Using Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 08 19;141(32):12601-12609. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

School of Materials Science and Engineering , Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST) , 123 Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-gu , Gwangju , Korea.

Precise control over the size and morphology of the Au spiky nanoparticle (SNP) is essential to obtain narrow and tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR). However, these challenges require a fundamental understanding of the particle growth mechanism and kinetics as well as its morphological transition, which can only be achieved by real-time observation at nanometer resolution. Here, we report in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy studies of single and multiple Au SNP growth at various conditions of such parameters as size and dose rate of electron beam and HAuCl solution concentration. The particle evolves via a mixture of reaction and Au formation-limited growth, followed by Au formation-limited growth-a transition from faceted to roughened surfaces, confirmed by the analysis with different beam sizes and the UV-vis spectra that feature a unique trend of short- and long-wavelength plasmon band shift. Quantitative analyses combined with a theoretical model determine the transition time () of the two regimes and estimate the surface concentration () of the particle with time. Interestingly, can be manipulated by the particle density, which alters the surface roughening rate, and the density is modulated by tuning the aforementioned parameters based on DLVO theory. These results suggest a new method for synthesizing a Au SNP whose size, morphology, SPR, and density can be sensibly manipulated without adding reducing or capping agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b03718DOI Listing
August 2019

Micro-Raman Spectroscopy in Self-Catalyzed Indium Phosphide Nanostructures: Morphology and Substrate Effects.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 Apr;19(4):2285-2290

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 34158, Republic of Korea.

We report the effect of morphology and substrate of self-catalyzed indium phosphide (InP) nanostructures on phonon vibration modes. Using liquid indium as a catalyst, we grew self-catalyzed InP nanocones and nanopillars on single crystal substrates of InP(111)B, Si(111), and Si(100) via metal-organic chemical vapor epitaxy. Due to crystal symmetry breaking in one-dimensional nanostructure, longitudinal-optical (LO) and transverse-optical (TO) phonon modes are clearly resolved with the strong anisotropic behavior. Broadening and downshift of LO phonon modes are found to be sensitive to the morphology (i.e., aspect ratio and surface-to-volume ratio) and crystal structure (i.e., Wurtzite and Zinc Blende) of the as-grown nanostructures. This work demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy provides statistical insights on the quality of as-grown nanostructures (i.e., growth orientation, crystal structures, and the presence of structural defects) without destroying samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2019.15977DOI Listing
April 2019

Poor Man's Atomic Layer Deposition of LiF for Additive-Free Growth of Lithium Columns.

Nano Lett 2018 11 18;18(11):7066-7074. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Lithium metal is an ideal material for high-energy, cost-effective rechargeable energy storage systems. The thermodynamically unfavorable solid-liquid interface between the lithium metal and organic electrolyte necessitates the formation of an interlayer (SEI) which is known to have significant impact on lithium morphologies. Less well understood is the impact of the current collector substrate on the morphology of electrodeposited lithium. Here we report on the morphology of electrodeposited lithium as a function of the chemical pretreatments of the working electrode. We find that a copper substrate pretreatment with acidic solutions (sulfuric, oxalic, or acetic acid) results in the deposition of close-packed lithium columns with a uniform diameter. A controlled study of the pre-electrodeposited copper surface indicates that the formation of a 5-8 nm thick LiF protective layer on copper substrate from a chemical reaction between adsorbed surface water layer in acidic solutions and LiPF electrolyte is the key process in the electrochemical growth of lithium columns. We anticipate that this simple chemical approach can be generalized as a scalable, low-cost, additive-free substrate treatment method for depositing a LiF protective layer, broadly applicable in the development of uniform lithium films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b03070DOI Listing
November 2018

Spatially dependent dose rate in liquid cell transmission electron microscopy.

Nanoscale 2018 Apr;10(16):7702-7710

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and The Andlinger Center for Energy and Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA.

The use of liquid cell electron microscopy as a quantitative probe of nanomaterial structures and reactions requires an accurate understanding of how the sample is altered by the imaging electron beam. In particular, changes in the chemical environment due to beam-induced radiolysis can strongly affect processes such as solution-phase nanocrystal synthesis or electrochemical deposition. It is generally assumed that beam effects are uniform throughout the irradiated liquid. Here we show that for a liquid cell filled with water, the inevitable presence of interfaces between water and the surrounding surfaces causes a spatial variation in the energy absorbed by the water near the walls. The mechanism for this effect is that the walls act as a source of secondary and backscattered electrons which diffuse and deposit energy in the water nearby. This increased dose rate then changes the local concentrations of radiolysis species. We quantify and compare the effects for different materials used in practical liquid cells. We show that the dose rate can increase by several times within tens of nanometers of a water/Au interface, locally increasing the concentrations of species such as the hydrated electron. We discuss the implications for materials processes that are typically triggered at the solid-liquid interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr01935eDOI Listing
April 2018

Control of Growth Front Evolution by Bi Additives during ZnAu Electrodeposition.

Nano Lett 2018 02 11;18(2):1093-1098. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

IBM T. J. Watson Research Center , 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, United States.

The performance of many electrochemical energy storage systems can be compromised by the formation of metal dendrites during charging. Additives in the electrolyte represent a useful strategy to mitigate dendrite formation, but understanding the mechanisms involved requires knowledge of the nanoscale effects of additives during electrochemical deposition. Here we quantify the effects of an inorganic additive on the morphology of an evolving electrochemical growth front, using liquid cell electron microscopy to provide the necessary spatial and temporal resolution. We examine deposition of ZnAu on Au in the presence of Bi additive, and show that low concentrations of Bi delay but do not prevent the formation of growth front instabilities. We describe a model in which Bi segregates at the growth front and promotes the surface diffusion and relaxation of Zn, allowing better coverage of the initial Au electrode surface. A more precise knowledge of the mechanism of inorganic additive effects may help in designing electrolyte chemistry for battery and other applications where morphology control is essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b04640DOI Listing
February 2018

Nanoscale evolution of interface morphology during electrodeposition.

Nat Commun 2017 12 19;8(1):2174. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, 10598, USA.

Control of interfacial morphology in electrochemical processes is essential for applications ranging from nanomanufacturing to batteries. Here, we quantify the evolution of an electrochemical growth front, using liquid cell electron microscopy to access unexplored length and time scales. During galvanostatic deposition of copper from an acidic electrolyte, we find that the growth front initially evolves consistent with kinetic roughening theory. Subsequently, it roughens more rapidly, consistent with diffusion-limited growth physics. However, the onset of roughening is strongly delayed compared to expectations, suggesting the importance of lateral diffusion of ions. Based on these growth regimes, we discuss morphological control and demonstrate the effects of two strategies, pulse plating and the use of electrolyte additives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02364-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736733PMC
December 2017

Electrochemical electron beam lithography: Write, read, and erase metallic nanocrystals on demand.

Sci Adv 2017 07 12;3(7):e1700234. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA.

We develop a solution-based nanoscale patterning technique for site-specific deposition and dissolution of metallic nanocrystals. Nanocrystals are grown at desired locations by electron beam-induced reduction of metal ions in solution, with the ions supplied by dissolution of a nearby electrode via an applied potential. The nanocrystals can be "erased" by choice of beam conditions and regrown repeatably. We demonstrate these processes via in situ transmission electron microscopy using Au as the model material and extend to other metals. We anticipate that this approach can be used to deposit multicomponent alloys and core-shell nanostructures with nanoscale spatial and compositional resolutions for a variety of possible applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1700234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5507638PMC
July 2017

Self-Catalyzed Growth and Characterization of In(As)P Nanowires on InP(111)B Using Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2016 Dec 19;11(1):208. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, 305-719, Republic of Korea.

We report the growth of vertical <111>-oriented InAs x P1-x (0.11 ≤ x ≤ 0.27) nanowires via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in the presence of indium droplets as catalysts on InP(111)B substrates at 375 °C. Trimethylindium, tertiarybutylphosphine, and tertiarybutylarsine are used as the precursors, corresponding to P/In and As/In molar ratios of 29 and 0.01, respectively. The as-grown nanowire growth morphologies, crystallinity, composition, and optical characteristics are determined using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopies, electron diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron, energy dispersive X-ray, and Raman spectroscopies. We find that the InAs x P1-x nanowires are tapered with narrow tops, wider bases, and In-rich In-As alloy tips, characteristic of vapor-liquid-solid process. The wires exhibit a mixture of zinc blende and wurtzite crystal structures and a high density of structural defects such as stacking faults and twins. Our results suggest that the incorporation of As into InP wires decreases with increasing substrate temperature. The Raman spectra obtained from the In(As)P nanowires reveal a red-shift and lower intensity of longitudinal optical mode relative to both InP nanowires and InP(111)B bulk, due to the incorporation of As into the InP matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-016-1427-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4837196PMC
December 2016

Effects of Nordic walking on physical functions and depression in frail people aged 70 years and above.

J Phys Ther Sci 2015 Aug 21;27(8):2453-6. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Department of Physical Therapy, Sujeong Jungang Senior Welfare Center, Republic of Korea.

[Purpose] This study investigated the effects of Nordic walking on physical functions and depression in frail people aged 70 years and above. [Subjects] Twenty frail elderly individuals ≥70 years old were assigned to either a Nordic walking group (n=8) or general exercise group (n=10). [Methods] The duration of intervention was equal in both groups (3 sessions/week for 12 weeks, 60 min/session). Physical function (balance, upper extremity strength, lower extremity strength, weakness) and depression were examined before and after the interventions. [Results] With the exception of upper extremity muscle strength, lower extremity strength, weakness, balance, and depression after Nordic walking demonstrated statistically significant improvement. However, in the general exercise group, only balance demonstrated a statistically significant improvement after the intervention. There were significant differences in the changes in lower extremity muscle strength, weakness and depression between the groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, Nordic walking was more effective than general exercise. Therefore, we suggest that Nordic walking may be an attractive option for significant functional improvement in frail people over 70 years old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.2453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4563288PMC
August 2015

Control of Electron Beam-Induced Au Nanocrystal Growth Kinetics through Solution Chemistry.

Nano Lett 2015 Aug 29;15(8):5314-20. Epub 2015 Jul 29.

‡IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, United States.

Measurements of solution-phase crystal growth provide mechanistic information that is helpful in designing and synthesizing nanostructures. Here, we examine the model system of individual Au nanocrystal formation within a defined liquid geometry during electron beam irradiation of gold chloride solution, where radiolytically formed hydrated electrons reduce Au ions to solid Au. By selecting conditions that favor the growth of well-faceted Au nanoprisms, we measure growth rates of individual crystals. The volume of each crystal increases linearly with irradiation time at a rate unaffected by its shape or proximity to neighboring crystals, implying a growth process that is controlled by the arrival of atoms from solution. Furthermore, growth requires a threshold dose rate, suggesting competition between reduction and oxidation processes in the solution. Above this threshold, the growth rate follows a power law with dose rate. To explain the observed dose rate dependence, we demonstrate that a reaction-diffusion model is required that explicitly accounts for the species H(+) and Cl(-). The model highlights the necessity of considering all species present when interpreting kinetic data obtained from beam-induced processes, and suggest conditions under which growth rates can be controlled with higher precision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01677DOI Listing
August 2015

E-beam deposited Ag-nanoparticles plasmonic organic solar cell and its absorption enhancement analysis using FDTD-based cylindrical nano-particle optical model.

Opt Express 2012 Jun;20(12):12649-57

AFRL/RYDP and NRC, WPAFB, 2241 Avionics circle, Bldg.600, WPAFB, Ohio 45433, USA.

We report the plasmon-assisted photocurrent enhancement in Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells, and systematically investigate the causes of the improved optical absorption based on a cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model which is simulated with a 3-Dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model is able to explain the optical absorption enhancement by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, and to provide a further understanding of Ag-NPs shape parameters which play an important role to determine the broadband absorption phenomena in plasmonic organic solar cells. A significant increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the plasmonic solar cell was experimentally observed and compared with that of the solar cells without Ag-NPs. Finally, our conclusion was made after briefly discussing the electrical effects of the fabricated plasmonic organic solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.012649DOI Listing
June 2012
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