Publications by authors named "Jessie Beaulieu"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Treating ethylene glycol poisoning with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition, but without extracorporeal treatments: a systematic review.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 07 21;60(7):784-797. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Research Center, CIUSSS du Nord-de-l'île-de-Montréal, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Context: Ethylene glycol is metabolized to toxic metabolites that cause acute kidney injury, metabolic acidemia, and death. The treatment of patients with ethylene glycol poisoning includes competitively inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizole to prevent the formation of toxic metabolites, and extracorporeal treatments such as hemodialysis to remove ethylene glycol and its metabolites. In the absence of significant metabolic acidemia or kidney injury, it is hypothesized that extracorporeal treatments may be obviated without adverse outcomes to the patient if alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors are used.

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to: (1) identify indicators predicting ADH inhibitor failure in patients with ethylene glycol poisoning treated with either ethanol or fomepizole for whom extracorporeal treatment was not performed (aside from rescue therapy, see below) (), and (2) validate if the anion gap, shown in a previous study to be the best surrogate for the glycolate concentration, is associated with acute kidney injury and mortality ().

Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify all reported patients with ethylene glycol poisoning treated without extracorporeal treatments but with either fomepizole () or ethanol (). Analyses were performed using both one case per patient and all cases (if multiple events were reported for a single patient). Data were compiled regarding poisoning, biochemistry, and outcomes. Treatment failure was defined as mortality, worsening of acid-base status, extracorporeal treatments used as rescue, or a worsening of kidney or neurological function after alcohol dehydrogenase inhibition was initiated. Also, we performed an analysis of previously described anion gap thresholds to determine if they were associated with outcomes such as acute kidney injury and mortality.

Results: Of 115 publications identified, 96 contained case-level data. A total of 180 cases were identified with ethanol monotherapy, and 231 with fomepizole monotherapy. Therapy failure was noted mostly when marked acidemia and/or acute kidney injury were present prior to therapy, although there were cases of failed ethanol monotherapy with minimal acidemia (suggesting that ethanol dosing and/or monitoring may not have been optimal). Ethylene glycol dose and ethylene glycol concentration were predictive of monotherapy failure for ethanol, but not for fomepizole. In the anion gap study (207 cases), death and progression of acute kidney injury were almost nonexistent when the anion gap was less than 24 mmol/L and mostly observed when the anion gap was greater than 28 mmol/L.

Conclusion: This review suggests that in patients with minimal metabolic acidemia (anion gap <28 mmol/L), fomepizole monotherapy without extracorporeal treatments is safe and effective regardless of the ethylene glycol concentration. Treatment failures were observed with ethanol monotherapy which may relate to transient subtherapeutic ethanol concentrations or very high ethylene glycol concentrations. The results are limited by the retrospective nature of the case reports and series reviewed in this study and require prospective validation.
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July 2022

Relieving exertional dyspnea during the 3-min constant speed shuttle test in patients with COPD with indacaterol/glycopyrronium tiotropium: the RED trial.

Ther Adv Respir Dis 2020 Jan-Dec;14:1753466620939507

Centre de pneumologie, Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, 2725 chemin Ste-Foy, QC G1V 4G5, Canada.

Background: Exertional dyspnea is a cardinal feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a major cause of activity limitation. Although dual bronchodilation is more effective than bronchodilator monotherapy at improving resting pulmonary function, it is unclear to which extent this translates into superior relief of exertional dyspnea.

Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial comparing indacaterol 110 µg/glycopyrronium 50 µg once daily (OD) with tiotropium 50 µg OD in patients with moderate to severe COPD and resting hyperinflation (functional residual capacity >120% of predicted value). The primary outcome was Borg dyspnea score at the end of a 3-min constant speed shuttle test after 3 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes included changes in Borg dyspnea score after the first dose of study medication, expiratory flows and lung volumes. Statistical analysis was conducted using a cross-over analysis of variance model with repeated measurements.

Results: A total of 50 patients with COPD and a mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 54 ± 11% (mean ± SEM) predicted participated in the cross-over phase of the trial. Compared with baseline, there was a decrease in dyspnea after the first dose of medication with indacaterol/glycopyrronium [mean -1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.49 to -0.52] but not with tiotropium alone (mean -0.36, 95% CI -0.81 to 0.08). The reduction in dyspnea after the first dose was statistically significant between the two treatments (mean difference of -0.64, 95% CI -1.11 to -0.17). Despite indacaterol/glycopyrronium providing further bronchodilation and lung deflation throughout the trial, the reduction in dyspnea was not sustained at 3 weeks of treatment (mean between-treatment difference at 3 weeks of 0.09, 95% CI -0.44 to 0.61).

Conclusion: In comparison with bronchodilator monotherapy, indacaterol/glycopyrronium provided greater immediate exertional dyspnea relief, although this difference was not sustained after 3 weeks of therapy despite evidence of further bronchodilation and lung deflation.
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September 2021