Publications by authors named "Jessica Van Ziffle"

64 Publications

De novo heterozygous variants in SLC30A7 are a candidate cause for Joubert syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2022 Aug 25;188(8):2360-2366. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Joubert syndrome (JS), a well-established ciliopathy, is characterized by the distinctive molar tooth sign on brain MRI, ataxia, and neurodevelopmental features. Other manifestations can include polydactyly, accessory frenula, renal, or liver disease. Here, we report individuals meeting criteria for JS with de novo heterozygous variants in SLC30A7 (Chr1p21.2). The first individual is a female with history of unilateral postaxial polydactyly, classic molar tooth sign on MRI, macrocephaly, ataxia, ocular motor apraxia, neurodevelopmental delay, and precocious puberty. Exome sequencing detected a de novo heterozygous missense variant in SLC30A7: NM_133496.5: c.407 T > C, (p.Val136Ala). The second individual had bilateral postaxial polydactyly, molar tooth sign, macrocephaly, developmental delay, and an extra oral frenulum. A de novo deletion-insertion variant in SLC30A7, c.490_491delinsAG (p.His164Ser) was found. Both de novo variants affect highly conserved residues. Variants were not identified in known Joubert genes for either case. SLC30A7 has not yet been associated with a human phenotype. The SLC30 family of zinc transporters, like SLC30A7, permit cellular efflux of zinc, and although it is expressed in the brain its functions remain unknown. Published data from proteomic studies support SLC30A7 interaction with TCTN3, another protein associated with JS. The potential involvement of such genes in primary cilia suggest a role in Sonic Hedgehog signaling. SLC30A7 is a candidate JS-associated gene. Future work could be directed toward further characterization of SLC30A7 variants and understanding its function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62872DOI Listing
August 2022

somatic mosaicism in a patient with bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas: illustrative case.

J Neurosurg Case Lessons 2022 Jun 6;3(23):CASE2247. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Departments of Ophthalmology.

Background: In the past decade, next-generation sequencing has spurred significant progress in the understanding of cytogenetic alterations that occur in meningiomas. Eighty percent of adult meningiomas harbor pathogenic somatic variants involving , , , , , or Somatic variants in associated with meningiomas usually localize to the gene's WD40 domains but are mutually exclusive to germline mutations, which cause a distinctive autosomal dominant syndrome.

Observations: This case involved a 15-year-old girl with bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas, diffuse meningiomatosis, and syndromic features, including craniosynostosis, brain anomalies, syndactyly, brachydactyly, epicanthus, and patent ductus arteriosus. Genetic testing of the meningioma specimen 7 years after biopsy showed a pathogenic p.R641C variant within the WD40 domain of the gene. Additional testing of unaffected tissues identified the same variant at lower allele frequencies, consistent with postzygotic somatic mosaicism.

Lessons: The authors report postzygotic somatic mosaicism for a p.R641C variant in the gene in a patient with bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas, diffuse meningiomatosis and a constellation of systemic findings previously recognized in patients with germline mutations of this gene. This is the first report of optic nerve sheath meningioma in a patient with mutation in the gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/CASE2247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9204931PMC
June 2022

The utility of pathologic examination and comprehensive phenotyping for accurate diagnosis with perinatal exome sequencing.

Prenat Diagn 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: Exome sequencing (ES) offers the ability to assess for variants in thousands of genes and is particularly useful in the setting of fetal anomalies. However, the ES pipeline relies on a thorough understanding of an individual patient's phenotype, which may be limited in the prenatal setting. Additional pathology evaluations in the pre- and postnatal settings can add phenotypic details important for clearly establishing and characterizing a diagnosis.

Methods: This is a case series of prenatal ES performed at our institution in which pathology evaluations, including autopsy, dysmorphology examination, histology, and peripheral blood smear, augmented the understanding of the fetal phenotype. ES was performed at our institution and a multidisciplinary panel reviewed and classified the variants for each case.

Results: We present four cases wherein pathology evaluations were beneficial for supporting a perinatal diagnosis identified with ES. In each of these cases, pathology findings provided additional data to support a more complete understanding of the relationship between the perinatal phenotype and variants identified with ES.

Conclusion: These cases highlight challenges of perinatal ES related to incomplete prenatal phenotyping, demonstrate the utility of pathology evaluations to support diagnoses identified with ES, and further characterize the disease manifestations of specific genetic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.6197DOI Listing
June 2022

Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Divergent Clonal Evolution in Components of Composite Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma-Ganglioglioma.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2022 Jul;81(8):650-657

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Composite pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma-ganglioglioma (PXA-GG) is an extremely rare central nervous system neoplasm with 2 distinct but intermingled components. Whether this tumor represents a "collision tumor" of separate neoplasms or a monoclonal neoplasm with divergent evolution is poorly understood. Clinicopathologic studies and capture-based next generation sequencing were performed on extracted DNA from all available PXA-GG at 2 medical centers. Five PXA-GG were diagnosed in 1 male and 4 female patients ranging from 13 to 25 years in age. Four arose within the cerebral hemispheres; 1 presented in the cerebellar vermis. DNA was sufficient for analysis in 4 PXA components and 3 GG components. Four paired PXA and GG components harbored BRAF p.V600E hotspot mutations. The 4 sequenced PXA components demonstrated CDKN2A homozygous deletion by sequencing with loss of p16 (protein product of CDKN2A) expression by immunohistochemistry, which was intact in all assessed GG components. The PXA components also demonstrated more frequent copy number alterations relative to paired GG components. In one PXA-GG, shared chromosomal copy number alterations were identified in both components. Our findings support divergent evolution of the PXA and GG components from a common BRAF p.V600E-mutant precursor lesion, with additional acquisition of CDKN2A homozygous deletion in the PXA component as is typically seen in conventional PXA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlac044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9297094PMC
July 2022

Further description of two patients with biallelic variants in NADSYN1 in association with cardiac and vertebral anomalies.

Am J Med Genet A 2022 Aug 2;188(8):2479-2484. Epub 2022 May 2.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Congenital nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) deficiency disorders are associated with pathogenic variants in the genes NADSYN1, HAAO, and KYNU. These disorders overlap with the anomalies present in vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, radial and renal, and limb anomalies (VATER/VACTERL) association and often result in premature death. Children who survive typically have developmental delays or intellectual disability. Here, we describe two patients with compound heterozygous variants in NADSYN1 who presented with cardiac and vertebral defects overlapping with the VATER/VACTERL association, although the patients did not satisfy criteria for the diagnosis of VATER/VACTERL due to their lack of limb anomalies and significant renal anomalies. One patient survived into childhood with developmental delays and may represent an expansion of the survival data for NADSYN1-associated NAD deficiency disorders. Interestingly, one patient had hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and one had an aortic coarctation and transverse hypoplasia of the aortic arch, suggesting that NADSYN1 sequencing should be performed in children presenting with congenital anomalies related to VATER/VACTERL association and with HLHS and aortic arch abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62765DOI Listing
August 2022

APOBEC Mutational Signature and Tumor Mutational Burden as Predictors of Clinical Outcomes and Treatment Response in Patients With Advanced Urothelial Cancer.

Front Oncol 2022 7;12:816706. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Helen Diller Family Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Introduction: Tumor mutational burden (TMB) and APOBEC mutational signatures are potential prognostic markers in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (aUC). Their utility in predicting outcomes to specific therapies in aUC warrants additional study.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed consecutive UC cases assessed with UCSF500, an institutional assay that uses hybrid capture enrichment of target DNA to interrogate 479 common cancer genes. Hypermutated tumors (HM), defined as having TMB ≥10 mutations/Mb, were also assessed for APOBEC mutational signatures, while non-HM (NHM) tumors were not assessed due to low TMB. The logrank test was used to determine if there were differences in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) among patient groups of interest.

Results: Among 75 aUC patients who had UCSF500 testing, 46 patients were evaluable for TMB, of which 19 patients (41%) had HM tumors and the rest had NHM tumors (27 patients). An additional 29 patients had unknown TMB status. Among 19 HM patients, all 16 patients who were evaluable for analysis had APOBEC signatures. HM patients (N=19) were compared with NHM patients (N=27) and had improved OS from diagnosis (125.3 months 35.7 months, p=0.06) but inferior OS for patients treated with chemotherapy (7.0 months 13.1 months, p=0.04). Patients with APOBEC (N=16) were compared with remaining 56 patients, comprised of 27 NHM patients and 29 patients with unknown TMB, showing APOBEC patients to have improved OS from diagnosis (125.3 months 44.5 months, p=0.05) but inferior OS for patients treated with chemotherapy (7.0 months 13.1 months, p=0.05). Neither APOBEC nor HM status were associated with response to immunotherapy.

Conclusions: In a large, single-institution aUC cohort assessed with UCSF500, an institutional NGS panel, HM tumors were common and all such tumors that were evaluated for mutational signature analysis had APOBEC signatures. APOBEC signatures and high TMB were prognostic of improved OS from diagnosis and both analyses also predicted inferior outcomes with chemotherapy treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.816706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8935010PMC
March 2022

Exome sequencing vs targeted gene panels for the evaluation of nonimmune hydrops fetalis.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 01 28;226(1):128.e1-128.e11. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA; Fetal Treatment Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Next-generation sequencing is increasingly used in prenatal diagnosis. Targeted gene panels and exome sequencing are both available, but the comparative diagnostic yields of these approaches are not known.

Objective: We compared the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing with the simulated application of commercial targeted gene panels in a large cohort of fetuses with nonimmune hydrops fetalis.

Study Design: This was a secondary analysis of a cohort study of exome sequencing for nonimmune hydrops fetalis, in which recruitment, exome sequencing, and phenotype-driven variant analysis were completed in 127 pregnancies with features of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. An Internet search was performed to identify commercial laboratories that offer targeted gene panels for the prenatal evaluation of nonimmune hydrops fetalis or for specific disorders associated with nonimmune hydrops fetalis using the terms "non-immune hydrops fetalis," "fetal non-immune hydrops," "hydrops," "cystic hygroma," "lysosomal storage disease," "metabolic disorder," "inborn error of metabolism," "RASopathy," and "Noonan." Our primary outcome was the proportion of all genetic variants identified through exome sequencing that would have been identified if a targeted gene panel had instead been used. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of genetic variants that would have been identified by type of targeted gene panel (general nonimmune hydrops fetalis, RASopathy, or metabolic) and the percent of variants of uncertain significance that would have been identified on the panels, assuming 100% analytical sensitivity and specificity of panels for variants in the included genes.

Results: Exome sequencing identified a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant in 37 of 127 cases (29%) in a total of 29 genes. A variant of uncertain significance, strongly suspected to be associated with the phenotype, was identified in another 12 cases (9%). We identified 7 laboratories that offer 10 relevant targeted gene panels; 6 are described as RASopathy panels, 3 as nonimmune hydrops fetalis panels, and 1 as a metabolic panel. The median number of genes included on each of these panels is 22, ranging from 11 to 148. Had a nonimmune hydrops fetalis targeted gene panel been used instead of exome sequencing, 13 to 15 of the 29 genes (45%-52%) identified in our nonimmune hydrops fetalis cohort would have been sequenced, and 19 to 24 of the pathogenic variants (51%-62%) would have been detected. The yield was predicted to be the lowest with the metabolic panel (11%) and the highest with the largest nonimmune hydrops fetalis panel (62%). The largest nonimmune hydrops fetalis targeted gene panel would have had a diagnostic yield of 18% compared with 29% with exome sequencing. The exome sequencing platform used provided 30× or more coverage for all of the exons on the commercial targeted gene panels, supporting our assumption of 100% analytical sensitivity for exome sequencing.

Conclusion: The broader coverage of exome sequencing for genetically heterogeneous disorders, such as nonimmune hydrops fetalis, made it a superior alternative to targeted gene panel testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.07.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8748274PMC
January 2022

Preference for secondary findings in prenatal and pediatric exome sequencing.

Prenat Diagn 2022 05 7;42(6):753-761. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: We aimed to determine the frequency of accepting secondary findings in families undergoing exome sequencing in prenatal and pediatric settings.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of prospectively enrolled patients undergoing trio exome sequencing for congenital anomalies or developmental disorders in prenatal and pediatric settings, in which families were offered receiving secondary findings (initially assessed in the proband and, if identified, then in the parents). The primary outcome was frequency of accepting secondary findings. Secondary outcomes included frequency of acceptance in prenatal versus pediatric settings, and sociodemographic differences between those who accepted versus declined secondary findings.

Results: There were 682 families included in the cohort (289 prenatal and 393 pediatric). Overall, 84% (576/682) of families accepted secondary findings: 86.2% (249/289) of families undergoing prenatal versus 83.2% (327/393) pediatric (p = 0.30) testing. Secondary findings were identified in 2.6% (15/576) of cases, with no difference between prenatal and pediatric settings. There were no differences in sociodemographics between families that accepted versus declined secondary findings.

Conclusion: The majority of families undergoing exome sequencing accepted secondary findings; this did not differ in prenatal versus pediatric settings. This highlights the need for guidance surrounding the offer of secondary findings in the prenatal setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8630094PMC
May 2022

De novo variants in SNAP25 cause an early-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

Genet Med 2021 04 10;23(4):653-660. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Institute of Child Health, University Collge London, London, UK.

Purpose: This study aims to provide a comprehensive description of the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of SNAP25 developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (SNAP25-DEE) by reviewing newly identified and previously reported individuals.

Methods: Individuals harboring heterozygous missense or loss-of-function variants in SNAP25 were assembled through collaboration with international colleagues, matchmaking platforms, and literature review. For each individual, detailed phenotyping, classification, and structural modeling of the identified variant were performed.

Results: The cohort comprises 23 individuals with pathogenic or likely pathogenic de novo variants in SNAP25. Intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy were identified as the core symptoms of SNAP25-DEE, with recurrent findings of movement disorders, cerebral visual impairment, and brain atrophy. Structural modeling for all variants predicted possible functional defects concerning SNAP25 or impaired interaction with other components of the SNARE complex.

Conclusion: We provide a comprehensive description of SNAP25-DEE with intellectual disability and early-onset epilepsy mostly occurring before the age of two years. These core symptoms and additional recurrent phenotypes show an overlap to genes encoding other components or associated proteins of the SNARE complex such as STX1B, STXBP1, or VAMP2. Thus, these findings advance the concept of a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that may be termed "SNAREopathies."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01020-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Genomic analysis in myeloid sarcoma and comparison with paired acute myeloid leukemia.

Hum Pathol 2021 02 21;108:76-83. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, United States; Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, United States. Electronic address:

Myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by extramedullary proliferation of myeloid blasts. Owing to the rarity of MS, the clonal evolution of cell populations giving rise to MS is not well understood. To study the genomic signature of MS, we used a capture-based next-generation sequencing panel targeting 479 cancer genes to interrogate the genetic variants present in MS samples and compared their genetic profiles with their paired AML samples from a cohort of seven individuals. We identified a spectrum of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and a spectrum of copy number alterations in MS. Our study found that variant profiles observed in MS were generally similar to AML from the same individual, supporting the notion that these tumors are derived from a common precursor, rather than de novo tumors in a susceptible host. In addition, MS cases with a higher number of SNVs show worse clinical outcomes than MS with a lower number of SNVs. Identification of these abnormalities could potentially contribute to improved prognostic classification and identify new therapeutic targets for MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.11.005DOI Listing
February 2021

Molecular Insights in Transmission of Cancer From an Organ Donor to Four Transplant Recipients.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 11 2;18(11):1446-1452. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

11Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Organ donors are systematically screened for infection, whereas screening for malignancy is less rigorous. The true incidence of donor-transmitted malignancies is unknown due to a lack of universal tumor testing in the posttransplant setting. Donor-transmitted malignancy may occur even when not suspected based on donor or recipient factors, including age and time to cancer diagnosis. We describe the detection of a gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma transmitted from a young donor to 4 transplant recipients. Multidimensional histopathologic and genomic profiling showed a CDH1 mutation and MET amplification, consistent with gastric origin. At the time of writing, one patient in this series remains alive and without evidence of cancer after prompt organ explant after cancer was reported in other recipients. Because identification of a donor-derived malignancy changes management, our recommendation is to routinely perform short tandem repeat testing (or a comparable assay) immediately upon diagnosis of cancer in any organ transplant recipient. Routine testing for a donor-origin cancer and centralized reporting of outcomes are necessary to establish a robust evidence base for the future development of clinical practice guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7622DOI Listing
November 2020

Variant Classification Concordance using the ACMG-AMP Variant Interpretation Guidelines across Nine Genomic Implementation Research Studies.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 11 26;107(5):932-941. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, Partners HealthCare Personalized Medicine, Boston, MA 02139, USA.

Harmonization of variant pathogenicity classification across laboratories is important for advancing clinical genomics. The two CLIA-accredited Electronic Medical Record and Genomics Network sequencing centers and the six CLIA-accredited laboratories and one research laboratory performing genome or exome sequencing in the Clinical Sequencing Evidence-Generating Research Consortium collaborated to explore current sources of discordance in classification. Eight laboratories each submitted 20 classified variants in the ACMG secondary finding v.2.0 genes. After removing duplicates, each of the 158 variants was annotated and independently classified by two additional laboratories using the ACMG-AMP guidelines. Overall concordance across three laboratories was assessed and discordant variants were reviewed via teleconference and email. The submitted variant set included 28 P/LP variants, 96 VUS, and 34 LB/B variants, mostly in cancer (40%) and cardiac (27%) risk genes. Eighty-six (54%) variants reached complete five-category (i.e., P, LP, VUS, LB, B) concordance, and 17 (11%) had a discordance that could affect clinical recommendations (P/LP versus VUS/LB/B). 21% and 63% of variants submitted as P and LP, respectively, were discordant with VUS. Of the 54 originally discordant variants that underwent further review, 32 reached agreement, for a post-review concordance rate of 84% (118/140 variants). This project provides an updated estimate of variant concordance, identifies considerations for LP classified variants, and highlights ongoing sources of discordance. Continued and increased sharing of variant classifications and evidence across laboratories, and the ongoing work of ClinGen to provide general as well as gene- and disease-specific guidance, will lead to continued increases in concordance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.09.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675005PMC
November 2020

Exome Sequencing for Prenatal Diagnosis in Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis.

N Engl J Med 2020 10 7;383(18):1746-1756. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

From the University of California, San Francisco (T.N.S., B.R.L., S.L.D., S.P., A.F., A.M.S., P.D., U.H., J.V.Z., S.J.S., T.C.M., M.E.N.), the University of California, San Diego (R.R.A., L.C.L.), the University of California, Los Angeles (I.D., K.H., A.M.), the University of California, Irvine (J.D., J.J., C.U.), and the University of California, Davis (N.M.B., N.T.F.).

Background: The cause of most fetal anomalies is not determined prenatally. Exome sequencing has transformed genetic diagnosis after birth, but its usefulness for prenatal diagnosis is still emerging. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), a fetal abnormality that is often lethal, has numerous genetic causes; the extent to which exome sequencing can aid in its diagnosis is unclear.

Methods: We evaluated a series of 127 consecutive unexplained cases of NIHF that were defined by the presence of fetal ascites, pleural or pericardial effusions, skin edema, cystic hygroma, increased nuchal translucency, or a combination of these conditions. The primary outcome was the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing for detecting genetic variants that were classified as either pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to the criteria of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of cases associated with specific genetic disorders and the proportion of variants that were inherited.

Results: In 37 of the 127 cases (29%), we identified diagnostic genetic variants, including those for disorders affecting the RAS-MAPK cell-signaling pathway (known as RASopathies) (30% of the genetic diagnoses); inborn errors of metabolism and musculoskeletal disorders (11% each); lymphatic, neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular, and hematologic disorders (8% each); and others. Prognoses ranged from a relatively mild outcome to death during the perinatal period. Overall, 68% of the cases (25 of 37) with diagnostic variants were autosomal dominant (of which 12% were inherited and 88% were de novo), 27% (10 of 37) were autosomal recessive (of which 95% were inherited and 5% were de novo), 1 was inherited X-linked recessive, and 1 was of uncertain inheritance. We identified potentially diagnostic variants in an additional 12 cases.

Conclusions: In this large case series of 127 fetuses with unexplained NIHF, we identified a diagnostic genetic variant in approximately one third of the cases. (Funded by the UCSF Center for Maternal-Fetal Precision Medicine and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03412760.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2023643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650529PMC
October 2020

Molecularly Classified Uterine FIGO Grade 3 Endometrioid Carcinomas Show Distinctive Clinical Outcomes But Overlapping Morphologic Features.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 03;45(3):421-429

Departments of Pathology.

FIGO grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC) is a heterogenous group of tumors with variable molecular and clinicopathologic characteristics but is treated clinically as a single entity. There is a need for additional objective markers to help guide management. The aim of this study was to evaluate a cohort of FIGO grade 3 EEC to validate the prognostic impact of molecular classification using POLE mutation (POLE-mut) analysis and immunohistochemistry for p53 and mismatch repair proteins. A secondary aim was to assess for any morphologic or immunophenotypic correlates among the molecular groups. Ninety-five cases of FIGO grade 3 EEC who underwent a hysterectomy at our institution were identified. Ten tumors (11%) harbored POLE-mut, 35 tumors (37%) showed mismatch repair deficiency, 18 tumors (19%) showed aberrant p53 staining (p53-ab), and 26 cases (27%) lacked all of these findings and were classified as no specific molecular profile. Six separate cases harbored >1 abnormality (multiple classifier), 5 of which had POLE-mut. The POLE-mut group and multiple classifier group showed excellent clinical outcomes, the p53-ab group showed the worst clinical outcomes and the 2 remaining groups showed intermediate prognosis. While the POLE-mut tumors showed a statistically significant enrichment for morphologic features including serous-like atypia and lymphocytic infiltrates, these findings were seen across all 4 molecular groups. There was no correlation between molecular grouping and tumor immunophenotypic findings, but overall 18% and 24% of tumors were completely negative for PAX-8 and estrogen receptor, respectively. Five CTNNB1 mutations were identified, 3 of which occurred in the context of a POLE-mut (including 1 multiple classifier case with MLH1/PMS2 loss). Thus our study corroborates the prognostic impact of molecular classification of high-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus, achieved by readily available immunohistochemical stains in addition to POLE-mut analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001598DOI Listing
March 2021

The expanding spectrum of NFIB-associated phenotypes in a diverse patient population-A report of two new patients.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 12 9;182(12):2959-2963. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

NFIB (Nuclear Factor I B) haploinsufficiency has recently been identified as a cause of intellectual disability and macrocephaly. Here we describe two patients with pathogenic variants in NFIB. The first is a 6-year-old Latino male with developmental delays, mild hypotonia, facial anomalies, and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings comprising mild thinning of the corpus callosum, with more marked thinning of the splenium and blunting of the rostrum and cavum septum pellucidum. Exome sequencing identified a previously described de novo variant in NFIB, c.265C>T, predicting p.Arg89Ter. The second is a 5-year-old Latino male with developmental delays, hypotonia, dysmorphic features, a preauricular tag and pit, a small ventricular septal defect, and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings including a dysmorphic corpus callosum and a small posterior fossa. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray identified a 92 kb interstitial deletion at 9p23 including several exons of NFIB and no other known genes. Our two patients add to the knowledge of this rare condition through our addition of new brain MRI findings and dysmorphic features. Additionally, these are the first known Latino patients to be described with NFIB haploinsufficiency, expanding our understanding of the associated facial features in diverse populations. Further data are needed to determine genotype-phenotype relationships for NFIB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61852DOI Listing
December 2020

A missense variant, p.(Ile269Asn), in MC4R as a secondary finding in a child with BCL11A-related intellectual disability.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Sep 10;63(9):103969. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Institute for Human Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

We describe a three year old female who underwent clinical exome sequencing and was diagnosed with BCL11A-related intellectual disability/Dias-Logan syndrome due to a de novo, heterozygous variant in the BCL11A gene, NM_018014.3:c.148C > T; p.(Gln50*). A missense variant in MC4R, NM_005912.3:c.806T > A; p.(Ile269Asn), was also reported as a secondary finding. In her family, her father, paternal aunt, and paternal uncle were all reported to have height and weight measurements suggestive of Class 3 obesity with BMI>40 kg/m. The MC4R gene is not currently listed among those recommended for reporting of secondary findings by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG). The identification of genetic risk factors for obesity is an emerging field without established guidelines for the care of patients who are found to have a predisposing genetic variant for obesity as a secondary finding. Management suggestions include interventions for weight-management, early screening for obesity-related co-morbidities, such as diabetes and dyslipidemia, and targeted therapies, such as MC4R agonists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.103969DOI Listing
September 2020

Pediatric bithalamic gliomas have a distinct epigenetic signature and frequent EGFR exon 20 insertions resulting in potential sensitivity to targeted kinase inhibition.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 06 17;139(6):1071-1088. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Nicklaus Children's Hospital, Miami, FL, USA.

Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors of childhood, and the genetic drivers and optimal therapeutic strategies for many of the different subtypes remain unknown. Here, we identify that bithalamic gliomas harbor frequent mutations in the EGFR oncogene, only rare histone H3 mutation (in contrast to their unilateral counterparts), and a distinct genome-wide DNA methylation profile compared to all other glioma subtypes studied to date. These EGFR mutations are either small in-frame insertions within exon 20 (intracellular tyrosine kinase domain) or missense mutations within exon 7 (extracellular ligand-binding domain) that occur in the absence of accompanying gene amplification. We find these EGFR mutations are oncogenic in primary astrocyte models and confer sensitivity to specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors dependent on location within the kinase domain or extracellular domain. We initiated treatment with targeted kinase inhibitors in four children whose tumors harbor EGFR mutations with encouraging results. This study identifies a promising genomically-tailored therapeutic strategy for bithalamic gliomas, a lethal and genetically distinct brain tumor of childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02155-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792550PMC
June 2020

Next-Generation Sequencing of Retinoblastoma Identifies Pathogenic Alterations beyond RB1 Inactivation That Correlate with Aggressive Histopathologic Features.

Ophthalmology 2020 06 12;127(6):804-813. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Purpose: To determine the usefulness of a comprehensive, targeted-capture next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay for the clinical management of children undergoing enucleation for retinoblastoma.

Design: Cohort study.

Participants: Thirty-two children with retinoblastoma.

Methods: We performed targeted NGS using the UCSF500 Cancer Panel (University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue along with constitutional DNA isolated from peripheral blood, buccal swab, or uninvolved optic nerve. Peripheral blood samples were also sent to a commercial laboratory for germline RB1 mutation testing.

Main Outcome Measures: Presence or absence of germline RB1 mutation or deletion, tumor genetic profile, and association of genetic alterations with clinicopathologic features.

Results: Germline mutation or deletion of the RB1 gene was identified in all children with bilateral retinoblastoma (n = 12), and these NGS results were 100% concordant with commercial germline RB1 mutation analysis. In tumor tissue tested with NGS, biallelic inactivation of RB1 was identified in 28 tumors and focal MYCN amplification was identified in 4 tumors (2 with wild-type RB1 and 2 with biallelic RB1 inactivation). Additional likely pathogenic alterations beyond RB1 were identified in 13 tumors (41%), several of which have not been reported previously in retinoblastoma. These included focal amplifications of MDM4 and RAF1, as well as damaging mutations involving BCOR, ARID1A, MGA, FAT1, and ATRX. The presence of additional likely pathogenetic mutations beyond RB1 inactivation was associated with aggressive histopathologic features, including higher histologic grade and anaplasia, and also with both unilateral and sporadic disease.

Conclusions: Comprehensive NGS analysis reliably detects relevant mutations, amplifications, and chromosomal copy number changes in retinoblastoma. The presence of genetic alterations beyond RB1 inactivation correlates with aggressive histopathologic features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246167PMC
June 2020

A novel truncating variant in ring finger protein 113A (RNF113A) confirms the association of this gene with X-linked trichothiodystrophy.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 03 27;182(3):513-520. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Division of Medical Genetics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

We describe an 11-year old boy with severe global developmental delays, failure to thrive and growth retardation, refractory seizures with recurrent status epilepticus, hypogammaglobulinemia, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and duodenal strictures. He had facial and skin findings compatible with trichothiodystrophy, including sparse and brittle hair, thin eyebrows, and dry skin. Exome sequencing showed a hemizygous, truncating variant in RNF113A, c.903_910delGCAGACCA, predicting p.(Gln302fs*12), that was inherited from his mother. Although his clinical features overlap closely with features described in the two previously reported male first cousins with RNF113A loss of function mutations, the duodenal strictures seen in this patient have not been reported. Interestingly, the patient's mother had short stature and 100% skewed X-inactivation as seen in other obligate female carriers. A second male with developmental delays, microcephaly, seizures, ambiguous genitalia, and facial anomalies that included sparse and brittle hair, thin eyebrows and dry skin was recently reported to have c.897_898delTG, predicting p.(Cys299*) in RNF113A and we provide additional clinical details for this patient. This report further supports deleterious variants in RNF113A as a cause of a novel trichothiodystrophy syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61450DOI Listing
March 2020

Clinicopathologic and molecular features of intracranial desmoplastic small round cell tumors.

Brain Pathol 2020 03 29;30(2):213-225. Epub 2019 Dec 29.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs) are highly aggressive sarcomas that most commonly occur intra-abdominally, and are defined by EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion. Intracranial DSRCTs are exceptionally rare with only seven previously reported fusion-positive cases. Herein, we evaluate the clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features of five additional examples. All patients were male (age range 6-25 years; median 11 years), with four tumors located supratentorially and one within the posterior fossa. The histologic features were highly variable including small cell, embryonal, clear cell, rhabdoid, anaplastic and glioma-like appearances. A prominent desmoplastic stroma was seen in only two cases. The mitotic index ranged from <1 to 12/10 HPF (median 5). While all tumors showed strong desmin positivity, epithelial markers such as EMA, CAM 5.2 and other keratins were strongly positive in only one, focally positive in two and negative in two cases. EWSR1-WT1 gene fusion was present in all cases, with accompanying mutations in the TERT promoter or STAG2 gene in individual cases. Given the significant histologic diversity, in the absence of genetic evaluation these cases could easily be misinterpreted as other entities. Desmin immunostaining is a useful initial screening method for consideration of a DSRCT diagnosis, prompting confirmatory molecular testing. Demonstrating the presence of an EWSR1-WT1 fusion provides a definitive diagnosis of DSRCT. Genome-wide methylation profiles of intracranial DSRCTs matched those of extracranial DSRCTs. Thus, despite the occasionally unusual histologic features and immunoprofile, intracranial DSRCTs likely represent a similar, if not the same, entity as their soft tissue counterpart based on the shared fusion and methylation profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780368PMC
March 2020

Myxoid glioneuronal tumor, PDGFRA p.K385-mutant: clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic features.

Brain Pathol 2020 05 6;30(3):479-494. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

"Myxoid glioneuronal tumor, PDGFRA p.K385-mutant" is a recently described tumor entity of the central nervous system with a predilection for origin in the septum pellucidum and a defining dinucleotide mutation at codon 385 of the PDGFRA oncogene replacing lysine with either leucine or isoleucine (p.K385L/I). Clinical outcomes and optimal treatment for this new tumor entity have yet to be defined. Here, we report a comprehensive clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic assessment of eight cases. In addition to its stereotypic location in the septum pellucidum, we identify that this tumor can also occur in the corpus callosum and periventricular white matter of the lateral ventricle. Tumors centered in the septum pellucidum uniformly were associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, whereas tumors centered in the corpus callosum and periventricular white matter did not demonstrate hydrocephalus. While multiple patients were found to have ventricular dissemination or local recurrence/progression, all patients in this series remain alive at last clinical follow-up despite only biopsy or subtotal resection without adjuvant therapy in most cases. Our study further supports "myxoid glioneuronal tumor, PDGFRA p.K385-mutant" as a distinct CNS tumor entity and expands the spectrum of clinicopathologic and radiologic features of this neoplasm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780370PMC
May 2020

Hormone receptor expression of colorectal cancer diagnosed during the peri-partum period.

Endocr Connect 2019 Aug;8(8):1149-1158

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) during the peri-partum period is challenging to diagnose due to the overlapping symptoms of CRC and pregnancy. This is the first case series to investigate clinicopathologic, hormonal and molecular features of CRC diagnosed during the peri-partum period. We hypothesized that advanced presentations of CRC could possibly be mitigated by pregnancy-related hormonal factors.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of five women diagnosed with CRC during the peri-partum period and studied the clinical and molecular features of their cancer.

Results: All patients presented with stage IV CRC at diagnosis; three had primary tumors in the rectum and two had primary tumors in the sigmoid colon. The liver was the most common metastatic site (three of five women). Immunohistochemistry stains were negative for estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), and one tumor demonstrated low-level positivity for PR (1%). Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsies from each case were tested with next-generation sequencing and found that all tumors were mismatch repair (MMR) proficient, and three harbored a KRAS mutation. Germline testing showed no predisposition to CRC; however, several somatic variants of undetermined significance (VUS) were identified.

Discussion: CRC in the peri-partum period poses significant risk factors for presentations with advanced disease due to diagnostic challenges. While our study provides no evidence that pathogenesis of CRC during pregnancy is driven by elevated estrogen and/or progesterone levels during pregnancy, additional putative etiologic factors, including placental growth factors, the immunosuppressive state of pregnancy and other physiologic processes during pregnancy, warrant future study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-19-0063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686950PMC
August 2019

TP53 structural variants in metastatic prostatic carcinoma.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(6):e0218618. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Sequencing data have been instrumental in identifying oncogenic drivers in prostatic carcinoma and highlighting biomarkers that define aggressive disease. A review of a series of 30 primary and metastatic prostatic carcinomas clinically sequenced at our cancer genomics laboratory utilizing a targeted gene panel identified recurrent structural variants in the TP53 gene. These structural variants were found in 27% of all sequenced cases and represented 36% of the cases with metastatic disease. TP53 structural rearrangements have been previously reported in a significant subset of osteosarcomas, where they result in loss of p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Similarly, in our prostate cases with TP53 structural rearrangements for which tissue was available for testing, we find loss of p53 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. In the eight TP53-rearranged cases, concurrent PTEN loss was identified in 4 cases, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion in 5 cases, and AR and FOXA1 amplification in 1 case each. Our results from this small case series suggest that TP53 rearrangements with loss of expression represent a frequent alternative mechanism of inactivation of this key tumor suppressor gene with potential utility as a marker of aggressive disease. Recognition of this TP53 rearrangement pathway is essential to accurately identify prostatic carcinomas with loss of TP53 function.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218618PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6583940PMC
February 2020

High-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR exon 15 internal tandem duplication-a comprehensive clinical, radiographic, pathologic, and genomic analysis.

Brain Pathol 2020 01 10;30(1):46-62. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

High-grade neuroepithelial tumor with BCOR exon 15 internal tandem duplication (HGNET BCOR ex15 ITD) is a recently proposed tumor entity of the central nervous system (CNS) with a distinct methylation profile and characteristic genetic alteration. The complete spectrum of histologic features, accompanying genetic alterations, clinical outcomes, and optimal treatment for this new tumor entity are largely unknown. Here, we performed a comprehensive assessment of 10 new cases of HGNET BCOR ex15 ITD. The tumors mostly occurred in young children and were located in the cerebral or cerebellar hemispheres. On imaging all tumors were large, well-circumscribed, heterogeneous masses with variable enhancement and reduced diffusion. They were histologically characterized by predominantly solid growth, glioma-like fibrillarity, perivascular pseudorosettes, and palisading necrosis, but absence of microvascular proliferation. They demonstrated sparse to absent GFAP expression, no synaptophysin expression, variable OLIG2 and NeuN positivity, and diffuse strong BCOR nuclear positivity. While BCOR exon 15 internal tandem duplication was the solitary pathogenic alteration identified in six cases, four cases contained additional alterations including CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, TERT amplification or promoter hotspot mutation, and damaging mutations in TP53, BCORL1, EP300, SMARCA2 and STAG2. While the limited clinical follow-up in prior reports had indicated a uniformly dismal prognosis for this tumor entity, this cohort includes multiple long-term survivors. Our study further supports inclusion of HGNET BCOR ex15 ITD as a distinct CNS tumor entity and expands the known clinicopathologic, radiographic, and genetic features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859193PMC
January 2020
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