Publications by authors named "Jessica R Carney"

4 Publications

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The Role of Anger in Traumatic Harm and Recovery for Sexual Violence Survivors.

J Trauma Dissociation 2021 Jun 10:1-13. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Psychotherapy, Private Practice, Berkeley, California, USA.

Sexual violence is a strong predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Sexual violence survivors presenting for PTSD treatment may experience and express a range of distressing emotions. An extensive body of research guides clinical conceptualization and targeting of fear responses in PTSD treatment. Models to guide clinicians in working with posttraumatic anger, in contrast, are scarce. To address this gap, we: 1) provide a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on sexual violence, anger, and trauma recovery among sexual violence survivors; 2) integrate this literature with social functionalist theories of anger; and 3) discuss implications of this integration for adaptively leveraging anger in psychological treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2021.1934937DOI Listing
June 2021

Parameters of Aggressive Behavior in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Military Personnel: A Secondary Analysis of Three Randomized Controlled Trials of Evidence-Based PTSD Treatments.

Behav Ther 2021 01 30;52(1):136-148. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine.

Aggressive behavior is prevalent among veterans of post-9/11 conflicts who have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, little is known about whether PTSD treatments reduce aggression or the direction of the association between changes in PTSD symptoms and aggression in the context of PTSD treatment. We combined data from three clinical trials of evidence-based PTSD treatment in service members (N = 592) to: (1) examine whether PTSD treatment reduces psychological (e.g., verbal behavior) and physical aggression, and; (2) explore temporal associations between aggressive behavior and PTSD. Both psychological (Estimate = -2.20, SE = 0.07) and physical aggression (Estimate = -0.36, SE = 0.05) were significantly reduced from baseline to posttreatment follow-up. Lagged PTSD symptom reduction was not associated with reduced reports of aggression; however, higher baseline PTSD scores were significantly associated with greater reductions in psychological aggression (exclusively; ß = -0.67, 95% CI = -1.05, -0.30, SE = -3.49). Findings reveal that service members receiving PTSD treatment report substantial collateral changes in psychological aggression over time, particularly for participants with greater PTSD symptom severity. Clinicians should consider cotherapies or alternative ways of targeting physical aggression among service members with PTSD and alternative approaches to reduce psychological aggression among service members with relatively low PTSD symptom severity when considering evidence-based PTSD treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2020.03.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Factors related to parenting confidence among pregnant women experiencing intimate partner violence.

Psychol Trauma 2021 Mar 29;13(3):385-393. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Psychology.

Objective: Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is associated with perinatal health problems and postpartum psychopathology. Prenatal IPV is also detrimental to a mother's perceptions of her unborn child, which may impact early parenting skills and contribute to negative effects on infant development. This study explored factors associated with parenting confidence among IPV-exposed pregnant women.

Method: Participants included 137 women who experienced IPV during pregnancy ( = 27.3 years; 66.9% African American/Black). Hierarchical linear regression modeling was used to examine factors that may be related to parenting confidence, with number of children and number of pregnancy complications entered in Model 1, adverse childhood experiences and IPV severity added in Model 2, and depressive symptoms and resilience added in Model 3.

Results: All models were significant, with the final model accounting for 23.2% of the variance in parenting confidence, F(6, 130) = 6.53, < .001, ² = .23. In this model, having other children (β = .18, = .023), fewer pregnancy complications (β = -.19, = .019), and higher resilience (β = .33, < .001) were associated with higher parenting confidence.

Conclusions: Results suggest that intervention strategies that promote resilience and address pregnant women's health concerns may facilitate greater parenting confidence among IPV-exposed pregnant women. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000985DOI Listing
March 2021

Defining and Measuring Moral Injury: Rationale, Design, and Preliminary Findings From the Moral Injury Outcome Scale Consortium.

J Trauma Stress 2019 06 4;32(3):363-372. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center (MAVERIC), VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

In the current paper, we first describe the rationale for and methodology employed by an international research consortium, the Moral Injury Outcome Scale (MIOS) Consortium, the aim of which is to develop and validate a content-valid measure of moral injury as a multidimensional outcome. The MIOS Consortium comprises researchers and clinicians who work with active duty military service members and veterans in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia, and Canada. We describe the multiphase psychometric development process being conducted by the Consortium, which will gather phenomenological data from service members, veterans, and clinicians to operationalize subdomains of impact and to generate content for a new measure of moral injury. Second, to illustrate the methodology being employed by the Consortium in the first phase of measure development, we present a small subset of preliminary results from semistructured interviews and questionnaires conducted with care providers (N = 26) at three of the 10 study sites. The themes derived from these initial preliminary clinician interviews suggest that exposure to potentially morally injurious events is associated with broad psychological/behavioral, social, and spiritual/existential impacts. The early findings also suggest that the outcomes associated with acts of commission or omission and events involving others' transgressions may overlap. These results will be combined with data derived from other clinicians, service members, and veterans to generate the MIOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22380DOI Listing
June 2019