Publications by authors named "Jessica Mayeux"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mechanisms of Environment-Induced Autoimmunity.

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 01 28;61:135-157. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Although numerous environmental exposures have been suggested as triggers for preclinical autoimmunity, only a few have been confidently linked to autoimmune diseases. For disease-associated exposures, the lung is a common site where chronic exposure results in cellular toxicity, tissue damage, inflammation, and fibrosis. These features are exacerbated by exposures to particulate material, which hampers clearance and degradation, thus facilitating persistent inflammation. Coincident with exposure and resulting pathological processes is the posttranslational modification of self-antigens, which, in concert with the formation of tertiary lymphoid structures containing abundant B cells, is thought to promote the generation of autoantibodies that in some instances demonstrate major histocompatibility complex restriction. Under appropriate gene-environment interactions, these responses can have diagnostic specificity. Greater insight into the molecular and cellular requirements governing this process, especially those that distinguish preclinical autoimmunity from clinical autoimmunedisease, may facilitate determination of the significance of environmental exposures in human autoimmune disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-031320-111453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166384PMC
January 2021

Facial shape and allometry quantitative trait locus intervals in the Diversity Outbred mouse are enriched for known skeletal and facial development genes.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(6):e0233377. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute and McCaig Bone and Joint Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, AB, Canada.

The biology of how faces are built and come to differ from one another is complex. Discovering normal variants that contribute to differences in facial morphology is one key to untangling this complexity, with important implications for medicine and evolutionary biology. This study maps quantitative trait loci (QTL) for skeletal facial shape using Diversity Outbred (DO) mice. The DO is a randomly outcrossed population with high heterozygosity that captures the allelic diversity of eight inbred mouse lines from three subspecies. The study uses a sample of 1147 DO animals (the largest sample yet employed for a shape QTL study in mouse), each characterized by 22 three-dimensional landmarks, 56,885 autosomal and X-chromosome markers, and sex and age classifiers. We identified 37 facial shape QTL across 20 shape principal components (PCs) using a mixed effects regression that accounts for kinship among observations. The QTL include some previously identified intervals as well as new regions that expand the list of potential targets for future experimental study. Three QTL characterized shape associations with size (allometry). Median support interval size was 3.5 Mb. Narrowing additional analysis to QTL for the five largest magnitude shape PCs, we found significant overrepresentation of genes with known roles in growth, skeletal and facial development, and sensory organ development. For most intervals, one or more of these genes lies within 0.25 Mb of the QTL's peak. QTL effect sizes were small, with none explaining more than 0.5% of facial shape variation. Thus, our results are consistent with a model of facial diversity that is influenced by key genes in skeletal and facial development and, simultaneously, is highly polygenic.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233377PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274373PMC
August 2020

Ebola-Specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-Cell Responses in Sierra Leonean Ebola Virus Survivors With or Without Post-Ebola Sequelae.

J Infect Dis 2020 10;222(9):1488-1497

Viral-Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Scripps Research, La Jolla, California, USA.

Background: Ebola virus (EBOV) disease has killed thousands of West and Central Africans over the past several decades. Many who survive the acute disease later experience post-Ebola syndrome, a constellation of symptoms whose causative pathogenesis is unclear.

Methods: We investigated EBOV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses in 37 Sierra Leonean EBOV disease survivors with (n = 19) or without (n = 18) sequelae of arthralgia and ocular symptoms. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus encoding EBOV antigens. We also studied the presence of EBOV-specific immunoglobulin G, antinuclear antibodies, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies, rheumatoid factor, complement levels, and cytokine levels in these 2 groups.

Results: Survivors with sequelae had a significantly higher EBOV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell response. No differences in EBOV-specific immunoglobulin G, antinuclear antibody, or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody levels were found. Survivors with sequelae showed significantly higher rheumatoid factor levels.

Conclusion: EBOV-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were significantly higher in Ebola survivors with post-Ebola syndrome. These findings suggest that pathogenesis may occur as an immune-mediated disease via virus-specific T-cell immune response or that persistent antigen exposure leads to increased and sustained T-cell responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529037PMC
October 2020

Development of experimental silicosis in inbred and outbred mice depends on instillation volume.

Sci Rep 2019 10 2;9(1):14190. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

There is considerable variation in methods to induce experimental silicosis with the effects of dose and route of exposure being well documented. However, to what extent the volume of silica suspension alters the dispersion and severity of silicosis has not been adequately investigated. In this study, the optimal volume of a crystalline silica suspension required to obtain uniform distribution and greatest incidence and severity of silicosis was determined in inbred and outbred mice. Silica dispersal, detected by co-inspiration with India ink and polarized light microscopy, was highly dependent upon volume. Furthermore, although peribronchitis, perivasculitis, and increases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell numbers were detected a lower doses and volumes, significant alveolitis required exposure to 5 mg of silica in 50 μl. This dose and volume of transoral instillation led to a greater penetrance of silicosis in the genetically heterogeneous Diversity Outbred strain as well as greater alveolar inflammation typical of the silicosis in human disease. These findings underscore the critical importance of instillation volume on the induction, severity, and type of inflammatory pathology in experimental silicosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-50725-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6775097PMC
October 2019

Silica exposure and chronic virus infection synergistically promote lupus-like systemic autoimmunity in mice with low genetic predisposition.

Clin Immunol 2019 08 5;205:75-82. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Considerable evidence indicates that autoimmune disease expression depends on both genetic and environmental factors. Among potential environmental triggers, occupational airway exposure to crystalline silica and virus infections have been linked to lupus and other autoimmune diseases in both humans and mouse models. Here, we hypothesized that combined silica and virus exposures synergize and induce autoimmune manifestations more effectively than single exposure to either of these factors, particularly in individuals with low genetic predisposition. Accordingly, infection with the model murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomenigitis virus (LCMV) in early life, followed by airway exposure to crystalline silica in adult life, induced lupus-like autoantibodies to several nuclear self-antigens including chromatin, RNP and Sm, concurrent with kidney lesions, in non-autoimmune C57BL/6 (B6) mice. In contrast, given individually, LCMV or silica were largely ineffectual in this strain. These results support a multihit model of autoimmunity, where exposure to different environmental factors acting on distinct immunostimulatory pathways complements limited genetic predisposition and increases the risk of autoimmunity above a critical threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2019.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6646094PMC
August 2019

Silicosis and Silica-Induced Autoimmunity in the Diversity Outbred Mouse.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:874. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Epidemiological studies have confidently linked occupational crystalline silica exposure to autoimmunity, but pathogenic mechanisms and role of genetic predisposition remain poorly defined. Although studies of single inbred strains have yielded insights, understanding the relationships between lung pathology, silica-induced autoimmunity, and genetic predisposition will require examination of a broad spectrum of responses and susceptibilities. We defined the characteristics of silicosis and autoimmunity and their relationships using the genetically heterogeneous diversity outbred (DO) mouse population and determined the suitability of this model for investigating silica-induced autoimmunity. Clinically relevant lung and autoimmune phenotypes were assessed 12 weeks after a transoral dose of 0, 5, or 10 mg crystalline silica in large cohorts of DO mice. Data were further analyzed for correlations, hierarchical clustering, and sex effects. DO mice exhibited a wide range of responses to silica, including mild to severe silicosis and importantly silica-induced systemic autoimmunity. Strikingly, about half of PBS controls were anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) positive, however, few had disease-associated specificities, whereas most ANAs in silica-exposed mice showed anti-ENA5 reactivity. Correlation and hierarchical clustering showed close association of silicosis, lung biomarkers, and anti-ENA5, while other autoimmune characteristics, such as ANA and glomerulonephritis, clustered separately. Silica-exposed males had more lung inflammation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells, IL-6, and autoantibodies. DO mice are susceptible to both silicosis and silica-induced autoimmunity and show substantial individual variations reflecting their genetic diverseness and the importance of predisposition particularly for autoimmunity. This model provides a new tool for deciphering the relationship between silica exposure, genes, and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5932595PMC
July 2019

Developmental constraint through negative pleiotropy in the zygomatic arch.

Evodevo 2018 27;9. Epub 2018 Jan 27.

2Alberta Children's Hospital Institute for Child and Maternal Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB Canada.

Background: Previous analysis suggested that the relative contribution of individual bones to regional skull lengths differ between inbred mouse strains. If the negative correlation of adjacent bone lengths is associated with genetic variation in a heterogeneous population, it would be an example of negative pleiotropy, which occurs when a genetic factor leads to opposite effects in two phenotypes. Confirming negative pleiotropy and determining its basis may reveal important information about the maintenance of overall skull integration and developmental constraint on skull morphology.

Results: We identified negative correlations between the lengths of the frontal and parietal bones in the midline cranial vault as well as the zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of the maxilla, which contribute to the zygomatic arch. Through gene association mapping of a large heterogeneous population of Diversity Outbred (DO) mice, we identified a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 17 driving the antagonistic contribution of these two zygomatic arch bones to total zygomatic arch length. Candidate genes in this region were identified and real-time PCR of the maxillary processes of DO founder strain embryos indicated differences in the RNA expression levels for two of the candidate genes, and .

Conclusions: A genomic region underlying negative pleiotropy of two zygomatic arch bones was identified, which provides a mechanism for antagonism in component bone lengths while constraining overall zygomatic arch length. This type of mechanism may have led to variation in the contribution of individual bones to the zygomatic arch noted across mammals. Given that similar genetic and developmental mechanisms may underlie negative correlations in other parts of the skull, these results provide an important step toward understanding the developmental basis of evolutionary variation and constraint in skull morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13227-018-0092-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5787316PMC
January 2018

Induction of Systemic Autoimmunity by a Xenobiotic Requires Endosomal TLR Trafficking and Signaling from the Late Endosome and Endolysosome but Not Type I IFN.

J Immunol 2017 12 20;199(11):3739-3747. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Immunology and Microbiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037.

Type I IFN and nucleic acid-sensing TLRs are both strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of lupus, with most patients expressing IFN-induced genes in peripheral blood cells and with TLRs promoting type I IFNs and autoreactive B cells. About a third of systemic lupus erythematosus patients, however, lack the IFN signature, suggesting the possibility of type I IFN-independent mechanisms. In this study, we examined the role of type I IFN and TLR trafficking and signaling in xenobiotic systemic mercury-induced autoimmunity (HgIA). Strikingly, autoantibody production in HgIA was not dependent on the type I IFN receptor even in NZB mice that require type I IFN signaling for spontaneous disease, but was dependent on the endosomal TLR transporter UNC93B1 and the endosomal proton transporter, solute carrier family 15, member 4. HgIA also required the adaptor protein-3 complex, which transports TLRs from the early endosome to the late endolysosomal compartments. Examination of TLR signaling pathways implicated the canonical NF-κB pathway and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in autoantibody production, but not IFN regulatory factor 7. These findings identify HgIA as a novel type I IFN-independent model of systemic autoimmunity and implicate TLR-mediated NF-κB proinflammatory signaling from the late endocytic pathway compartments in autoantibody generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1700332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5698107PMC
December 2017

Tranexamic Acid in Anesthetic Management of Surgical Procedures.

AANA J 2016 Jun;84(3):201-9

Blood loss during surgical procedures poses a grave risk to the patient, but transfusion is costly and associated with adverse outcomes. Antifibrinolytics, however, offer an economical and effective means of decreasing blood loss associated with surgical procedures. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that blocks lysine-binding sites of fibrinogen and fibrin, preventing the breakdown of existing clots. This journal course reviews extensive research demonstrating that antifibrinolytics such as TXA decrease blood loss and in some studies reduce allogeneic transfusion requirements. In addition, this journal course addresses concerns that use of antifibrinolytics increases embolic events, reviews research that demonstrates TXA does not increase the incidence of vascular occlusive events, and describes methods of TXA use in cardiac and orthopedic surgical procedures, neurosurgery, and obstetrics. The Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist should consider the possibility, on a case-by-case basis, of using TXA in surgical procedures to reduce blood loss with minimal adverse effects.
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June 2016

Heightened cleavage of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase by ADAM metalloproteases may contribute to disease pathogenesis in SLE.

Clin Immunol 2016 08 27;169:58-68. Epub 2016 May 27.

The Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatic Diseases Division, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, United States; The Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5060, United States. Electronic address:

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by antibody-mediated chronic inflammation in the kidney, lung, skin, and other organs to cause inflammation and damage. Several inflammatory pathways are dysregulated in SLE, and understanding these pathways may improve diagnosis and treatment. In one such pathway, Axl tyrosine kinase receptor responds to Gas6 ligand to block inflammation in leukocytes. A soluble form of the Axl receptor ectodomain (sAxl) is elevated in serum from patients with SLE and lupus-prone mice. We hypothesized that sAxl in SLE serum originates from the surface of leukocytes and that the loss of leukocyte Axl contributes to the disease. We determined that macrophages and B cells are a source of sAxl in SLE and in lupus-prone mice. Shedding of the Axl ectodomain from the leukocytes of lupus-prone mice is mediated by the matrix metalloproteases ADAM10 and TACE (ADAM17). Loss of Axl from lupus-prone macrophages renders them unresponsive to Gas6-induced anti-inflammatory signaling in vitro. This phenotype is rescued by combined ADAM10/TACE inhibition. Mice with Axl-deficient macrophages develop worse disease than controls when challenged with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) sera in an induced model of nephritis. ADAM10 and TACE also mediate human SLE PBMC Axl cleavage. Collectively, these studies indicate that increased metalloprotease-mediated cleavage of leukocyte Axl may contribute to end organ disease in lupus. They further suggest dual ADAM10/TACE inhibition as a potential therapeutic modality in SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2016.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5193537PMC
August 2016

Genetic Interaction between Lyn, Ets1, and Btk in the Control of Antibody Levels.

J Immunol 2015 Sep 24;195(5):1955-63. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390; Department of Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390

Tight control of B cell differentiation into plasma cells (PCs) is critical for proper immune responses and the prevention of autoimmunity. The Ets1 transcription factor acts in B cells to prevent PC differentiation. Ets1(-/-) mice accumulate PCs and produce autoantibodies. Ets1 expression is downregulated upon B cell activation through the BCR and TLRs and is maintained by the inhibitory signaling pathway mediated by Lyn, CD22 and SiglecG, and SHP-1. In the absence of these inhibitory components, Ets1 levels are reduced in B cells in a Btk-dependent manner. This leads to increased PCs, autoantibodies, and an autoimmune phenotype similar to that of Ets1(-/-) mice. Defects in inhibitory signaling molecules, including Lyn and Ets1, are associated with human lupus, although the effects are more subtle than the complete deficiency that occurs in knockout mice. In this study, we explore the effect of partial disruption of the Lyn/Ets1 pathway on B cell tolerance and find that Lyn(+/-)Ets1(+/-) mice demonstrate greater and earlier production of IgM, but not IgG, autoantibodies compared with Lyn(+/-) or Ets1(+/-) mice. We also show that Btk-dependent downregulation of Ets1 is important for normal PC homeostasis when inhibitory signaling is intact. Ets1 deficiency restores the decrease in steady state PCs and Ab levels observed in Btk(-/-) mice. Thus, depending on the balance of activating and inhibitory signals to Ets1, there is a continuum of effects on autoantibody production and PC maintenance. This ranges from full-blown autoimmunity with complete loss of Ets1-maintaining signals to reduced PC and Ab levels with impaired Ets1 downregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1500165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4546901PMC
September 2015

A balance between B cell receptor and inhibitory receptor signaling controls plasma cell differentiation by maintaining optimal Ets1 levels.

J Immunol 2014 Jul 13;193(2):909-920. Epub 2014 Jun 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Center of Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203.

Signaling through the BCR can drive B cell activation and contribute to B cell differentiation into Ab-secreting plasma cells. The positive BCR signal is counterbalanced by a number of membrane-localized inhibitory receptors that limit B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Deficiencies in these negative signaling pathways may cause autoantibody generation and autoimmune disease in both animal models and human patients. We have previously shown that the transcription factor Ets1 can restrain B cell differentiation into plasma cells. In this study, we tested the roles of the BCR and inhibitory receptors in controlling the expression of Ets1 in mouse B cells. We found that Ets1 is downregulated in B cells by BCR or TLR signaling through a pathway dependent on PI3K, Btk, IKK2, and JNK. Deficiencies in inhibitory pathways, such as a loss of the tyrosine kinase Lyn, the phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP1) or membrane receptors CD22 and/or Siglec-G, result in enhanced BCR signaling and decreased Ets1 expression. Restoring Ets1 expression in Lyn- or SHP1-deficient B cells inhibits their enhanced plasma cell differentiation. Our findings indicate that downregulation of Ets1 occurs in response to B cell activation via either BCR or TLR signaling, thereby allowing B cell differentiation and that the maintenance of Ets1 expression is an important function of the inhibitory Lyn → CD22/SiglecG → SHP1 pathway in B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1400666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4082765PMC
July 2014

IL-21 promotes the production of anti-DNA IgG but is dispensable for kidney damage in lyn-/- mice.

Eur J Immunol 2013 Feb 18;43(2):382-93. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8884, USA.

The autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by loss of tolerance to nuclear Ags and a heightened inflammatory environment, which together result in end organ damage. Lyn-deficient mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus, lack an inhibitor of B-cell and myeloid cell activation. This results in B-cell hyper-responsiveness, plasma cell accumulation, autoantibodies, and glomerulonephritis (GN). IL-21 is associated with autoimmunity in mice and humans and promotes B-cell differentiation and class switching. Here, we explore the role of IL-21 in the autoimmune phenotypes of lyn(-/-) mice. We find that IL-21 mRNA is reduced in the spleens of lyn(-/-) IL-6(-/-) and lyn(-/-) Btk(lo) mice, neither of which produce pathogenic autoantibodies or develop significant GN. While IL-21 is dispensable for plasma cell accumulation and IgM autoantibodies in lyn(-/-) mice, it is required for anti-DNA IgG antibodies and some aspects of T-cell activation. Surprisingly, GN still develops in lyn(-/-) IL-21(-/-) mice. This likely results from the presence of IgG autoantibodies against a limited set of non-DNA Ags. These studies identify a specific role for IL-21 in the class switching of anti-DNA B cells and demonstrate that neither IL-21 nor anti-DNA IgG is required for kidney damage in lyn(-/-) mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.201142095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768150PMC
February 2013