Publications by authors named "Jessica Dalrymple"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The use of the MSVT in children and adolescents with epilepsy.

Appl Neuropsychol Child 2020 Oct-Dec;9(4):323-328. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Neuropsychology Service, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, Canada.

Pediatric neuropsychologists are increasingly recognizing the importance of performance validity testing during evaluations. The use of such measures to detect insufficient effort is of particular importance in pediatric epilepsy evaluations, where test results are often used to guide surgical decisions and failure to detect poor task engagement can result in postsurgical cognitive decline. The present investigation assesses the utility of the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) in 104 clinically referred children and adolescents with epilepsy. Though the overall failure rate was 15.4% of the total group, children with 2nd grade or higher reading skills (a requirement of the task) passed at a very high rate (96.6%). Of the three failures, two were unequivocally deemed true positives, while the third failed due to extreme somnolence during testing. Notably, for those with ≥2nd grade reading levels, MSVT validity indices were unrelated to patient age, intellectual functioning, or age of epilepsy onset, while modest relations were seen with specific memory measures, number of epilepsy medications, and seizure frequency. Despite these associations, however, this did not result in more failures in this population of children and adolescents with substantial neurologic involvement, as pass rates exceeded 92% for those with intellectual disability, high seizure frequency, high medication burden, and even prior surgical resection of critical memory structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2020.1750127DOI Listing
April 2020

Optimal defaults as a strategy to improve selections from children's menus in full-service theme park dining.

Appetite 2020 09 8;152:104697. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Nutritional Sciences/Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, 321 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

An "optimal default" refers to a pre-selected default option that promotes an outcome intended to be favorable to the individual and/or society at large. Optimal defaults preserve the decision-maker's ability to opt-out of the default and choose an alternative option. This behavioral economics strategy has been shown to nudge both child and adult consumers toward healthier food selections. Full-service restaurants with children's menus are key settings for implementing this approach. The current field study manipulated children's menus at two theme park restaurants, testing the effects of three different item presentations (i.e., lower-energy-dense default, standard fare default, and free array menus). Each menu was presented to consumers for 1 week at a time, in random order. Full choice was preserved with all menu options appearing across conditions, with non-default items listed as available upon request. The restaurants tracked food orders during each of the three weeks. Results showed that positioning lower-energy-dense foods as default menu choices increased the likelihood of lower-energy-dense menu selections and decreased the likelihood that customers would "opt-out" for standard fare. There were also significant differences in total caloric value of food ordered across conditions, with the optimal default menu condition promoting the lowest potential energy intake. This study further supports the effectiveness of optimal defaults to increase healthy food choices for children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2020.104697DOI Listing
September 2020

Memory in children with epilepsy: Utility of the WRAML-2 in generalized and focal epilepsy syndromes.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 12 26;89:30-36. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Neuropsychology Service, Alberta Children's Hospital, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Canada.

The material-specific model for memory impairment predicts that verbal memory deficits are seen with left temporal seizures, and visual memory deficits are seen with right temporal seizures (Henkin et al., 2005). In pediatric epilepsy, seizure pathology has not always yielded the expected material-specific memory profiles. This study used the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning-Second Edition (WRAML-2) to assess memory functioning among pediatric patients with epilepsy. The WRAML-2 was administered to 180 youth with epilepsy during their neuropsychological evaluations. Memory and recognition scores correlated significantly with epilepsy severity variables. There were no significant differences in verbal and visual memory and recognition index scores among patients with generalized epilepsy or among those with lateralized or localized electroencephalography (EEG) patterns and lesions on imaging. However, clinically meaningful verbal versus visual discrepancy scores were significantly related to lateralized abnormalities on EEG and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. Most patients with right hemisphere pathology showed the expected material-specific visual memory deficits, while fewer than 15% of the left hemisphere cases showed the expected verbal memory deficits. Over one-third of those with identified left-sided pathology showed clinically significant deficits in visual memory. Findings are incongruent with the material-specific memory model and reflect the fact that early developmental neurological insults can lead to functional reorganization/crowding effects in children with left hemisphere epilepsy. On exploratory analyses, there were no significant differences in discrepancy scores among participants with left, right, and bilateral languages on Wada and functional MRI (fMRI). However, those with right and bilateral language dominance were more likely to show discrepancies that were incongruent with the material-specific model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.10.002DOI Listing
December 2018