Publications by authors named "Jesse McKenney"

180 Publications

YAP1-TFE3 Gene Fusion Variant in Clear Cell Stromal Tumor of Lung: Report of Two Cases in Support of a Distinct Entity.

Histopathology 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA.

Aims: Clear cell (hemangioblastoma-like) stromal tumor of the lung is a newly described, rare pulmonary neoplasm. Recurrent YAP1-TFE3 gene fusions have recently been reported in three cases. We describe two additional cases and confirm the characteristic YAP1-TFE3 gene fusion.

Methods And Results: Two mesenchymal tumors of lung were identified from our soft tissue pathology consultation service and RNA sequencing was performed. Both cases were in male patients, aged 35 and 77 years old. Both presented as solitary lung nodules measuring 3.9 and 7.5 cm in greatest dimension. Histopathologically, the tumors were composed of epithelioid to plump spindled cells arranged in packets and solid sheets. The cells showed fusiform to ovoid nuclei with open chromatin, variably prominent nucleoli, and scant to moderate, clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm. Cytologic atypia and significant mitotic activity were minimal. None of the tumors expressed lineage-specific immunophenotypic markers. Both cases were diffusely positive for nuclear TFE3. Unlike YAP1-TFE3 fused epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, for which the fusion breakpoint occurs in YAP1 exon 1 and TFE3 exons 4 or 6, the fusion breakpoints of these tumors are located in YAP1 exon 4 and TFE3 exon 7. Following complete surgical resection, neither of the tumors has recurred or metastasized (follow-up period 6-7 months).

Conclusions: We validate the presence of YAP1-TFE3 gene fusion in a unique primary mesenchymal tumor of lung, adding additional support for clear cell stromal tumor of the lung as a distinct entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14437DOI Listing
June 2021

CD34-negative Solitary Fibrous Tumor: A Clinicopathologic Study of 25 Cases and Comparison With Their CD34-positive Counterparts.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, Robert J. Tomsich Pathology & Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

CD34-negative solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare and have not been comprehensively studied. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of SFT confirmed with STAT6 immunohistochemistry and/or STAT6 gene fusion between 2013 and 2020 and collected pertinent clinicopathologic parameters. Of a total of 244 cases, 25 (10%) lacked CD34 expression by immunohistochemistry. Compared with CD34-positive SFT, CD34-negative SFT are more likely to arise in the head and neck area (32% vs. 24%, P=0.02) and present as metastatic disease (28% vs. 1%, P<0.0001). A significantly higher percentage of CD34-negative SFT exhibit high-grade cytologic atypia (hypercellularity, round cell or anaplastic morphology, nuclear pleomorphism, etc.) (48% vs. 22%, P=0.0073). There are no significant differences in the distributions of age, sex, tumor size, mitotic count, tumor necrosis, or risk stratification between CD34-negative and CD34-positive SFT. In addition, only 56% of CD34-negative SFT display a typical hemangiopericytoma-like vascular pattern. Special histologic features among CD34-negative SFT include prominent alternating hypercellular or fibrous and hypocellular myxoid areas with curvilinear vessels mimicking low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma, pulmonary edema-like microcystic changes, and prominent amianthoid collagen fibers. In conclusion, compared with their CD34-positive counterparts, CD34-negative SFT is more likely to present as metastatic disease, show high-grade nuclear atypia, and lack the characteristic hemangiopericytoma-like vasculature, posing a unique diagnostic challenge. The use of STAT6 immunohistochemistry and/or molecular studies may be prudent in soft tissue tumors that appear CD34 negative and lack conventional SFT histopathologic characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001717DOI Listing
April 2021

The Genitourinary Pathology Society Update on Classification of Variant Histologies, T1 Substaging, Molecular Taxonomy, and Immunotherapy and PD-L1 Testing Implications of Urothelial Cancers.

Adv Anat Pathol 2021 Jul;28(4):196-208

Department of Pathology, West German Cancer Center/University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg.

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in bladder cancer focusing on important topics of high interest for the practicing surgical pathologist and urologist. This review represents the second of 2 manuscripts ensuing from this effort. Herein, we address the effective reporting of bladder cancer, focusing particularly on newly published data since the last 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In addition, this review focuses on the importance of reporting bladder cancer with divergent differentiation and variant (subtypes of urothelial carcinoma) histologies and the potential impact on patient care. We provide new recommendations for reporting pT1 staging in diagnostic pathology. Furthermore, we explore molecular evolution and classification, emphasizing aspects that impact the understanding of important concepts relevant to reporting and management of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000309DOI Listing
July 2021

The Genitourinary Pathology Society Update on Classification and Grading of Flat and Papillary Urothelial Neoplasia With New Reporting Recommendations and Approach to Lesions With Mixed and Early Patterns of Neoplasia.

Adv Anat Pathol 2021 Jul;28(4):179-195

Medicine.

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in bladder neoplasia with a focus on issues relevant to the practicing surgical pathologist for the understanding and effective reporting of bladder cancer, emphasizing particularly on the newly accumulated evidence post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The work is presented in 2 manuscripts. Here, in the first, we revisit the nomenclature and classification system used for grading flat and papillary urothelial lesions centering on clinical relevance, and on dilemmas related to application in routine reporting. As patients of noninvasive bladder cancer frequently undergo cystoscopy and biopsy in their typically prolonged clinical course and for surveillance of disease, we discuss morphologies presented in these scenarios which may not have readily applicable diagnostic terms in the WHO classification. The topic of inverted patterns in urothelial neoplasia, particularly when prominent or exclusive, and beyond inverted papilloma has not been addressed formally in the WHO classification. Herein we provide a through review and suggest guidelines for when and how to report such lesions. In promulgating these GUPS recommendations, we aim to provide clarity on the clinical application of these not so uncommon diagnostically challenging situations encountered in routine practice, while also importantly advocating consistent terminology which would inform future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000308DOI Listing
July 2021

ISUP Consensus Definition of Cribriform Pattern Prostate Cancer.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Aug;45(8):1118-1126

Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The presence of a cribriform pattern is now recognized as a clinically important, independent adverse prognostic indicator for prostate cancer. For this reason the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) recently recommended its inclusion in standard reporting. In order to improve interobserver agreement as to the diagnosis of cribriform patterns, the ISUP assembled an international panel of 12 expert urogenital pathologists for the purpose of drafting a consensus definition of cribriform pattern in prostate cancer, and provide their opinions on a set of 32 images and on potential diagnostic criteria. These images were selected by the 2 nonvoting convenors of the study and included the main categories where disagreement was anticipated. The Delphi method was applied to promote consensus among the 12 panelists in their review of the images during 2 initial rounds of the study. Following a virtual meeting, convened to discuss selected images and diagnostic criteria, the following definition for cribriform pattern in prostate cancer was approved: "A confluent sheet of contiguous malignant epithelial cells with multiple glandular lumina that are easily visible at low power (objective magnification ×10). There should be no intervening stroma or mucin separating individual or fused glandular structures" together with a set of explanatory notes. We believe this consensus definition to be practical and that it will facilitate reproducible recognition and reporting of this clinically important pattern commonly seen in prostate cancer. The images and the results of the final Delphi round are available at the ISUP website as an educational slide set (https://isupweb.org/isup/blog/slideshow/cribriform-slide-deck/).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001728DOI Listing
August 2021

Re-evaluating tumors of purported specialized prostatic stromal origin reveals molecular heterogeneity, including non-recurring gene fusions characteristic of uterine and soft tissue sarcoma subtypes.

Mod Pathol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Tumors of purported specialized prostatic stromal origin comprise prostatic stromal sarcomas (PSS) and stromal tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP). Prior studies have described their clinicopathologic characteristics, but the molecular features remain incompletely understood. Moreover, these neoplasms are morphologically heterogeneous and the lack of specific adjunctive markers of prostatic stromal lineage make precise definition more difficult, leading some to question whether they represent a specific tumor type. In this study, we used next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing to profile 25 primary prostatic mesenchymal neoplasms of possible specialized prostatic stromal origin, including cases originally diagnosed as PSS (11) and STUMP (14). Morphologically, the series comprised 20 cases with solid architecture (11 PSS and 9 STUMP) and 5 cases with phyllodes-like growth pattern (all STUMP). Combined DNA and RNA sequencing results demonstrated that 19/22 (86%) cases that underwent successful sequencing (either DNA or RNA) harbored pathogenic somatic variants. Except for TP53 alterations (6 cases), ATRX mutations (2 cases), and a few copy number variants (-13q, -14q, -16q and +8/8p), the findings were largely nonrecurrent. Eight gene rearrangements were found, and 4 (NAB2-STAT6, JAZF1-SUZ12, TPM3-NTRK1 and BCOR-MAML3) were useful for reclassification of the cases as specific entities. The present study shows that mesenchymal neoplasms of the prostate are morphologically and molecularly heterogeneous and include neoplasms that harbor genetic aberrations seen in specific mesenchymal tumors arising in other anatomic sites, including soft tissue and the uterus. These data suggest that tumors of purported specialized prostatic stromal origin may perhaps not represent a single diagnostic entity or specific disease group and that alternative diagnoses should be carefully considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00818-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Computationally Derived Cribriform Area Index from Prostate Cancer Hematoxylin and Eosin Images Is Associated with Biochemical Recurrence Following Radical Prostatectomy and Is Most Prognostic in Gleason Grade Group 2.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Administration Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The presence of invasive cribriform adenocarcinoma (ICC), an expanse of cells containing punched-out lumina uninterrupted by stroma, in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens has been associated with biochemical recurrence (BCR). However, ICC identification has only moderate inter-reviewer agreement.

Objective: To investigate quantitative machine-based assessment of the extent and prognostic utility of ICC, especially within individual Gleason grade groups.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A machine learning approach was developed for ICC segmentation using 70 RP patients and validated in a cohort of 749 patients from four sites whose median year of surgery was 2007 and with median follow-up of 28 mo. ICC was segmented on one representative hematoxylin and eosin RP slide per patient and the fraction of tumor area composed of ICC, the cribriform area index (CAI), was measured.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The association between CAI and BCR was measured in terms of the concordance index (c index) and hazard ratio (HR).

Results And Limitations: CAI was correlated with BCR (c index 0.62) in the validation set of 411 patients with ICC morphology, especially those with Gleason grade group 2 cancer (n = 192; c index 0.66), and was less prognostic when patients without ICC were included (c index 0.54). A doubling of CAI in the group with ICC morphology was prognostic after controlling for Gleason grade, surgical margin positivity, preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, pathological T stage, and age (HR 1.19, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.38; p = 0.018).

Conclusions: Automated image analysis and machine learning could provide an objective, quantitative, reproducible, and high-throughput method of quantifying ICC area. The performance of CAI for grade group 2 cancer suggests that for patients with little Gleason 4 pattern, the ICC fraction has a strong prognostic role.

Patient Summary: Machine-based measurement of a specific cell pattern (cribriform; sieve-like, with lots of spaces) in images of prostate specimens could improve risk stratification for patients with prostate cancer. In the future, this could help in expanding the criteria for active surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2021.04.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Urine cytology findings in patients with biopsy-confirmed urothelial carcinoma in situ with plasmacytoid features.

Cancer Cytopathol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Urine cytology is an important screening tool in the diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Diagnosis in urine samples follows criteria outlined by The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology (TPS). However, cytologic characteristics of the recently described urothelial carcinoma in situ with plasmacytoid features (P-CIS) have not been described, and it is unknown whether they conform to TPS criteria for high-grade urothelial carcinoma. This study was aimed at better characterizing possibly unique cytologic features of P-CIS.

Methods: The authors collected urine cytology specimens from patients with subsequent bladder biopsy-proven P-CIS. Specimens were re-reviewed according to the TPS criteria. The proposed cytologic features of P-CIS (eccentric, enlarged, and hyperchromatic nuclei) were evaluated; this included the reproducibility of 3 cytopathologists for the proposed cytologic features.

Results: Seventy-four urine specimens from 18 patients with P-CIS-diagnosed bladder biopsies were identified. The TPS diagnoses of the 74 urine cytology specimens were as follows: negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (n = 26), atypical urothelial cells (n = 26), suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (n = 12), and high-grade urothelial carcinoma (n = 10). Only 7 urine specimens met the proposed cytologic criteria for P-CIS, and they had TPS diagnoses of negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (n = 1), atypical urothelial cells (n = 3), and high-grade urothelial carcinoma (n = 3). The κ interobserver agreement ranged from poor to fair.

Conclusion: The features of P-CIS on urine cytology are subtle and infrequently reproducible and often do not meet the TPS criteria for diagnosis as high-grade urothelial carcinoma. In specimens that do not meet TPS criteria for high-grade urothelial carcinoma, P-CIS cytology in isolation would be best classified as atypical urothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22445DOI Listing
April 2021

TRIM63 is a sensitive and specific biomarker for MiT family aberration-associated renal cell carcinoma.

Mod Pathol 2021 Aug 14;34(8):1596-1607. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiT) family aberration-associated renal cell carcinoma (MiTF-RCC) is a subtype of renal cell carcinoma harboring recurrent chromosomal rearrangements involving TFE3 or TFEB genes. MiTF-RCC is morphologically diverse, can histologically resemble common RCC subtypes like clear cell RCC and papillary RCC, and often poses a diagnostic challenge in genitourinary clinical and pathology practice. To characterize the MiTF-RCC at the molecular level and identify biomarker signatures associated with MiTF-RCC, we analyzed RNAseq data from MiTF-RCC, other RCC subtypes and benign kidney. Upon identifying TRIM63 as a cancer-specific biomarker in MiTF-RCC, we evaluated its expression independently by RNA in situ hybridization (RNA-ISH) in whole tissue sections from 177 RCC cases. We specifically included 31 cytogenetically confirmed MiTF-RCC cases and 70 RCC cases suspicious for MiTF-RCC in terms of clinical and morphological features, to evaluate and compare TRIM63 RNA-ISH results with the results from TFE3/TFEB fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which is the current clinical standard. We confirmed that TRIM63 mRNA was highly expressed in all classes of MiTF-RCC compared to other renal tumor categories, where it was mostly absent to low. While the TRIM63 RNA-ISH and TFE3/TFEB FISH results were largely concordant, importantly, TRIM63 RNA-ISH was strongly positive in TFE3 FISH false-negative cases with RBM10-TFE3 inversion. In conclusion, TRIM63 can serve as a diagnostic marker to distinguish MiTF-RCC from other renal tumor subtypes with overlapping morphology. We suggest a combination of TFE3/TFEB FISH and TRIM63 RNA-ISH assays to improve the accuracy and efficiency of MiTF-RCC diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis of MiTF-RCC and other RCC subtypes would enable effective targeted therapy and avoid poor therapeutic response due to tumor misclassification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00803-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298271PMC
August 2021

New developments in existing WHO entities and evolving molecular concepts: The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) update on renal neoplasia.

Mod Pathol 2021 Jul 4;34(7):1392-1424. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) reviewed recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification, to provide an update on existing entities, including diagnostic criteria, molecular correlates, and updated nomenclature. Key prognostic features for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain WHO/ISUP grade, AJCC/pTNM stage, coagulative necrosis, and rhabdoid and sarcomatoid differentiation. Accrual of subclonal genetic alterations in clear cell RCC including SETD2, PBRM1, BAP1, loss of chromosome 14q and 9p are associated with variable prognosis, patterns of metastasis, and vulnerability to therapies. Recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines increasingly adopt immunotherapeutic agents in advanced RCC, including RCC with rhabdoid and sarcomatoid changes. Papillary RCC subtyping is no longer recommended, as WHO/ISUP grade and tumor architecture better predict outcome. New papillary RCC variants/patterns include biphasic, solid, Warthin-like, and papillary renal neoplasm with reverse polarity. For tumors with 'borderline' features between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC, a term "oncocytic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential, not further classified" is proposed. Clear cell papillary RCC may warrant reclassification as a tumor of low malignant potential. Tubulocystic RCC should only be diagnosed when morphologically pure. MiTF family translocation RCCs exhibit varied morphologic patterns and fusion partners. TFEB-amplified RCC occurs in older patients and is associated with more aggressive behavior. Acquired cystic disease (ACD) RCC-like cysts are likely precursors of ACD-RCC. The diagnosis of renal medullary carcinoma requires a negative SMARCB1 (INI-1) expression and sickle cell trait/disease. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma (MTSCC) can be distinguished from papillary RCC with overlapping morphology by losses of chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 22. MTSCC with adverse histologic features shows frequent CDKN2A/2B (9p) deletions. BRAF mutations unify the metanephric family of tumors. The term "fumarate hydratase deficient RCC" ("FH-deficient RCC") is preferred over "hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome-associated RCC". A low threshold for FH, 2SC, and SDHB immunohistochemistry is recommended in difficult to classify RCCs, particularly those with eosinophilic morphology, occurring in younger patients. Current evidence does not support existence of a unique tumor subtype occurring after chemotherapy/radiation in early childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00779-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Distal Tubular Hyperplasia: A Proposal for a Unique Form of Renal Tubular Proliferation Distinct From Papillary Adenoma.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 04;45(4):516-522

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

We identified an unusual pattern of renal tubular proliferation associated with chronic renal disease, found in 23 patients, diffusely (n=12), or focally (n=11). Incidence was 5% of end-stage renal disease kidneys from one institution (8/177) and 7/23 patients with acquired cystic kidney disease-associated renal cell carcinoma from another. Most (19 patients) had 1 or more neoplasms including papillary (n=9), acquired cystic kidney disease (n=8), clear cell (n=4), or clear cell papillary (n=3) renal cell carcinoma. All (20 men, 3 women) had end-stage renal disease. The predominant pattern (n=18) was the indentation of chronic inflammation into renal tubules forming small polypoid structures; however, 5 had predominantly hyperplastic epithelium with less conspicuous inflammation. In 14 patients both patterns were appreciable, whereas the remainder had only the inflammatory pattern. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, PAX8, and GATA3. Staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase was negative or weak, dramatically less intense than papillary neoplasms or proximal tubules. CD3 and CD20 showed a mixture of B and T lymphocytes in the inflammatory areas. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed no trisomy 7 or 17 or loss of Y (n=9). We describe a previously uncharacterized form of renal tubular proliferation that differs from papillary adenoma (with weak or negative alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, lack of trisomy 7 or 17, and sometimes diffuse distribution). On the basis of consistent staining for high-molecular-weight cytokeratin and GATA3, we propose the name distal tubular hyperplasia for this process. Future studies will be helpful to assess preneoplastic potential and etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001680DOI Listing
April 2021

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Prostate Cancer, Version 1.2021.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 02 2;19(2):134-143. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah; and.

The NCCN Guidelines for Prostate Cancer address staging and risk assessment after a prostate cancer diagnosis and include management options for localized, regional, and metastatic disease. Recommendations for disease monitoring and treatment of recurrent disease are also included. The NCCN Prostate Cancer Panel meets annually to reevaluate and update their recommendations based on new clinical data and input from within NCCN Member Institutions and from external entities. This article summarizes the panel's discussions for the 2021 update of the guidelines with regard to systemic therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0008DOI Listing
February 2021

Novel, emerging and provisional renal entities: The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) update on renal neoplasia.

Mod Pathol 2021 Jun 1;34(6):1167-1184. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) undertook a critical review of the recent advances in renal neoplasia, particularly focusing on the newly accumulated evidence post-2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. In the era of evolving histo-molecular classification of renal neoplasia, morphology is still key. However, entities (or groups of entities) are increasingly characterized by specific molecular features, often associated either with recognizable, specific morphologies or constellations of morphologies and corresponding immunohistochemical profiles. The correct diagnosis has clinical implications leading to better prognosis, potential clinical management with targeted therapies, may identify hereditary or syndromic associations, which may necessitate appropriate genetic testing. We hope that this undertaking will further facilitate the identification of these entities in practice. We also hope that this update will bring more clarity regarding the evolving classification of renal neoplasia and will further reduce the category of "unclassifiable renal carcinomas/tumors". We propose three categories of novel entities: (1) "Novel entity", validated by multiple independent studies; (2) "Emerging entity", good compelling data available from at least two or more independent studies, but additional validation is needed; and (3) "Provisional entity", limited data available from one or two studies, with more work required to validate them. For some entities initially described using different names, we propose new terminologies, to facilitate their recognition and to avoid further diagnostic dilemmas. Following these criteria, we propose as novel entities: eosinophilic solid and cystic renal cell carcinoma (ESC RCC), renal cell carcinoma with fibromyomatous stroma (RCC FMS) (formerly RCC with leiomyomatous or smooth muscle stroma), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement-associated renal cell carcinoma (ALK-RCC). Emerging entities include: eosinophilic vacuolated tumor (EVT) and thyroid-like follicular renal cell carcinoma (TLFRCC). Finally, as provisional entities, we propose low-grade oncocytic tumor (LOT), atrophic kidney-like lesion (AKLL), and biphasic hyalinizing psammomatous renal cell carcinoma (BHP RCC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00737-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Urothelial carcinoma in situ: diagnostic update.

Authors:
Jesse K McKenney

Pathology 2021 Jan 21;53(1):86-95. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Based on the current WHO 2016 classification, the spectrum of flat urothelial lesions with atypia includes reactive urothelial atypia, urothelial atypia of unknown significance, urothelial dysplasia, and urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). Classification along this continuous spectrum of atypia can be one of the most challenging areas in all genitourinary pathology. This review will focus on the diagnosis of urothelial CIS in routine clinical practice, emphasising histological criteria, histological spectrum (i.e., 'variant' types), adjunctive immunohistochemistry, intraoperative evaluation, and distinction from its morphological mimics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2020.10.001DOI Listing
January 2021

PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome: A Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Young Female.

Urology 2021 Feb 21;148:113-117. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

PTEN Hamartoma-Tumor-Syndrome (PHTS) describes a series of conditions characterized by germline-mutation of the PTEN tumor-suppressor gene. PHTS patients have an increased lifetime risk of multiple malignancies, including thyroid, breast, and endometrial cancers. PHTS patients also have 20-30 fold increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) compared to age-matched controls. As with many hereditary RCC syndromes, tumors present early and multifocally. We present a case of one of the youngest patients diagnosed with RCC in PHTS and review the urologic implications of this syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.11.024DOI Listing
February 2021

Similarities and Differences in the 2019 ISUP and GUPS Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Grading: A Guide for Practicing Pathologists.

Adv Anat Pathol 2021 Jan;28(1):1-7

Urology, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN.

Contemporary subspecialization of practice in prostate pathology has seen a transition to complex, nuanced reporting, where a growing number of histopathologic parameters may signal differences in patient management. In this context, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) and the Genitourinary Pathology Society (GUPS) both published proceedings papers on the grading of prostate cancer in 2019. Overall, the 2 prostate cancer grading manuscripts reached many of the same conclusions and recommendations. Yet, each consensus was conducted somewhat differently, and in a couple of key areas, each reached different conclusions and recommendations. Herein, sourced from the experience and viewpoints of members of both societies, we provide the practicing pathologist a summary of the shared recommendations, and of the discordances. It is anticipated that these 2 documents will inform future iterations of recommendations and guidelines for reporting prostate cancer by organizations such as the College of American Pathologists, the Royal College of Pathologists, and the European Society of Pathology, which will promote best practices for their respective constituents. Our goal is to provide the practicing pathologist a useful catalog of the main points of both, allowing each practitioner to make informed decisions and understand any divergent opinions as may arise between observers for individual cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000287DOI Listing
January 2021

EWSR1-PATZ1-rearranged sarcoma: a report of nine cases of spindle and round cell neoplasms with predilection for thoracoabdominal soft tissues and frequent expression of neural and skeletal muscle markers.

Mod Pathol 2021 04 4;34(4):770-785. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Charles University, Plzen, Czech Republic.

The knowledge of clinical features and, particularly, histopathological spectrum of EWSR1-PATZ1-rearranged spindle and round cell sarcomas (EPS) remains limited. For this reason, we report the largest clinicopathological study of EPS to date. Nine cases were collected, consisting of four males and five females ranging in age from 10 to 81 years (average: 49 years). Five tumors occurred in abdominal wall soft tissues, three in the thorax, and one in the back of the neck. Tumor sizes ranged from 2.5 to 18 cm (average 6.6 cm). Five patients had follow-up with an average of 38 months (range: 18-60 months). Two patients had no recurrence or metastasis 19 months after diagnosis. Four patients developed multifocal pleural or pulmonary metastasis and were treated variably by surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The latter seemed to have little to no clinical benefit. One of the four patients was free of disease 60 months after diagnosis, two patients were alive with disease at 18 and 60 months, respectively. Morphologically, low, intermediate, and high-grade sarcomas composed of a variable mixture of spindled, ovoid, epithelioid, and round cells were seen. The architectural and stromal features also varied, resulting in a broad morphologic spectrum. Immunohistochemically, the following markers were most consistently expressed: S100-protein (7/9 cases), GFAP (7/8), MyoD1 (8/9), Pax-7 (4/5), desmin (7/9), and AE1/3 (4/9). By next-generation sequencing, all cases revealed EWSR1-PATZ1 gene fusion. In addition, 3/6 cases tested harbored CDKN2A deletion, while CDKN2B deletion and TP53 mutation were detected in one case each. Our findings confirm that EPS is a clinicopathologic entity, albeit with a broad morphologic spectrum. The uneventful outcome in some of our cases indicates that a subset of EPS might follow a more indolent clinical course than previously appreciated. Additional studies are needed to validate whether any morphological and/or molecular attributes have a prognostic impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-00684-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinicopathologic Study of Gleason Pattern 5 Prostatic Adenocarcinoma With "Single-cell" Growth Reveals 2 Distinct Types, One With "Plasmacytoid" Features.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 12;44(12):1635-1642

Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Each Gleason score category of prostatic adenocarcinoma (or Grade Group) may encompass a diverse group of architectural patterns such as well-formed glands, poorly formed glands, cribriform structures, single cells, and/or solid sheets. We have noted heterogeneity within the single-cell subtype of Gleason pattern 5 prostatic adenocarcinoma that has not been fully addressed. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed a series of radical prostatectomies with high-grade prostatic adenocarcinoma (Grade Group 4 or 5), identifying tumors with a component of single-cell infiltration. Additional cases identified prospectively were also included. TNM status, association with other histologic patterns, and clinical follow-up status were determined. Immunohistochemistry for NKX3.1, E-cadherin, p120 catenin, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were performed in each case. Eighteen cases with a component of well-developed Gleason pattern 5 characterized by single infiltrative cells that comprised ≥5% of the tumor were identified (15/202 retrospective radical prostatectomies with the high-grade disease [7.5%]). The single-cell pattern ranged from 5% to 50% of the tumor volume, with 5 cases containing ≥40%, and variable secondary architecture included diffuse infiltrating single cells with targetoid growth pattern around benign glands, solid expansive nests of noncohesive cells, and corded/single file growth pattern. Further morphologic analysis demonstrated 2 distinct histologic subtypes: (1) (subtype 1; n=9) monomorphic "plasmacytoid" tumor cells with eccentrically placed nuclei and variable intracytoplasmic vacuoles with bland cytology and discohesion and (2) (subtype 2; n=9) more cohesive tumor cells with greater cytologic atypia characterized by prominent nucleoli, greater variability in nuclear size/shape, occasional mitotic figures, and more irregular infiltration. By immunohistochemistry, NKX3.1 nuclear expression and PSA cytoplasmic expression was retained in all cases. Concomitant membranous E-cadherin loss and strong cytoplasmic p120 catenin expression were present in 5 of the 18 (28%) cases, all in subtype 1 (5/9, 56%). Overall, 56% (10/18) of patients had advanced-stage disease (≥pT3b), and 70% (7/10) of these patients had associated lymphovascular invasion. All patients had concomitant cribriform patterns of carcinoma. The outcome was available for 14 patients: 4 died of unknown cause; 6 had biochemical recurrence with distant bone metastasis in 5 of the 6; and 4 patients with <3 years of follow-up currently have undetectable serum PSA levels (2 patients received salvage radiotherapy with androgen deprivation and 2 remain on routine follow-up). In summary, the single-cell pattern of Gleason pattern 5 prostatic adenocarcinoma is uniformly associated with other high-risk histologic patterns (eg, cribriform growth), and high-stage disease with distant metastasis is not uncommon. Our data suggest that the "single-cell" Gleason pattern 5 prostatic adenocarcinoma contains 2 distinct subtypes. Somatic CDH1 alterations may play a role in the development of the "plasmacytoid" pattern characterized by monomorphic cytology with concomitant E-cadherin loss and aberrant p120 catenin expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001550DOI Listing
December 2020

Urothelial Carcinomas With Trophoblastic Differentiation, Including Choriocarcinoma: Clinicopathologic Series of 16 Cases.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 10;44(10):1322-1330

Robert J Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Trophoblastic differentiation (including choriocarcinoma) arising in urothelial carcinoma has been described in numerous case reports, but never in a single series. We present a series of these tumors, describing the morphologic spectrum, applying traditional and novel immunohistochemical stains, and characterizing clinical follow-up. We identified 16 cases, arising predominantly in the bladder (N=14), but also the ureter (N=1) and prostatic urethra (N=1). Six of our cases (38%) contained invasive urothelial carcinoma with admixed syncytiotrophoblasts, 8 cases (50%) consisted of invasive urothelial carcinoma with choriocarcinoma, 1 case (6%) showed urothelial carcinoma in situ with associated choriocarcinoma, and 1 case (6%) consisted of pure choriocarcinoma. Other subtypes of variant morphology were seen in 5 of our cases (31%) and included squamous, glandular, lipoid, chordoid/myxoid, and sarcomatoid features. Given the limited specificity of human chorionic gonadotropin immunohistochemistry, we also studied the expression of a novel specific trophoblastic marker, hydroxyl-δ-5-steroid dehydrogenase, as well as Sal-like protein 4. Human chorionic gonadotropin expression was seen in nearly all cases (93%) but was often not limited to the trophoblastic component, staining the urothelial component also in 85% of the cases. Expression of hydroxyl-δ-5-steroid dehydrogenase was more sensitive and more specific, staining 100% of the cases and limited to trophoblasts in all but 1 case. Sal-like protein 4 expression was variable, staining trophoblast in only 50% of cases and staining the urothelial carcinoma component in 43% of those positive cases. Most of our tumors presented at a high stage and were associated with poor clinical outcomes, with at least muscle-invasive disease (pT2) in 10 of the 14 bladder tumors (71%), periureteric fat invasion in the ureter tumor (pT3), distant metastases in 7 of 16 cases (44%) and death of disease in 3 of the 15 patients with follow-up (20%). Our study describes a series of urothelial carcinomas with trophoblastic differentiation, demonstrating the morphologic spectrum of this entity, its frequent association with other subtypes of variant morphology, its characteristic immunoprofile, and its aggressive clinical behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001532DOI Listing
October 2020

Malignant solitary fibrous tumour of the prostate: four cases emphasising significant histological and immunophenotypical overlap with sarcomatoid carcinoma.

Pathology 2020 Oct 2;52(6):643-648. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Pathology, Robert J. Tomsich Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) is well-described in the urinary tract, but malignant examples are rare. We studied our experience with high grade malignant SFT of the prostate to address the degree of histological and immunophenotypical overlap with sarcomatoid carcinoma and prostatic stromal sarcoma. Four cases were identified from the surgical pathology consultation archives. All available H&E stained sections were reviewed. Immunostains for STAT6, CAM5.2, NKX3.1, PAX-8, GATA3, high molecular weight cytokeratin (34BE12), p40, and p63 were performed on available material. Each case was evaluated by three separate SFT prognostic risk models based on clinicopathological features, and for features of 'dedifferentiated SFT'. The patient's ages were 49, 55, 69, and 73 years. Three presented with symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia and one with haematuria. Tumour sizes were 5, 9, 13, and 13 cm. Mitotic rate ranged from 6 to 20 mitoses per 10 high power fields, and two cases showed abrupt transition from conventional SFT to areas with marked nuclear pleomorphism/anaplasia (i.e., 'de-differentiation'). Immunophenotypically, all four cases had strong and diffuse nuclear reactivity for STAT6. For other markers, three of three had both focal PR and GATA3 nuclear expression (up to 30% of cells). One case with 'dedifferentiated' features showed expression of multiple epithelial markers, including EMA (focal), high molecular weight cytokeratin (focal), p63, and p40. In summary, malignant SFT may rarely occur in the prostate and may closely mimic sarcomatoid carcinoma or prostatic stromal sarcoma, both histologically and immunophenotypically. Consideration of the diagnostic possibility of malignant SFT, recognition of unexpected GATA3 and PR expression, and utilisation of monoclonal STAT6 immunohistochemistry facilitate appropriate diagnosis at this unusual anatomical site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pathol.2020.06.004DOI Listing
October 2020

Identification of areas of grading difficulties in prostate cancer and comparison with artificial intelligence assisted grading.

Virchows Arch 2020 Dec 15;477(6):777-786. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) hosts a reference image database supervised by experts with the purpose of establishing an international standard in prostate cancer grading. Here, we aimed to identify areas of grading difficulties and compare the results with those obtained from an artificial intelligence system trained in grading. In a series of 87 needle biopsies of cancers selected to include problematic cases, experts failed to reach a 2/3 consensus in 41.4% (36/87). Among consensus and non-consensus cases, the weighted kappa was 0.77 (range 0.68-0.84) and 0.50 (range 0.40-0.57), respectively. Among the non-consensus cases, four main causes of disagreement were identified: the distinction between Gleason score 3 + 3 with tangential cutting artifacts vs. Gleason score 3 + 4 with poorly formed or fused glands (13 cases), Gleason score 3 + 4 vs. 4 + 3 (7 cases), Gleason score 4 + 3 vs. 4 + 4 (8 cases) and the identification of a small component of Gleason pattern 5 (6 cases). The AI system obtained a weighted kappa value of 0.53 among the non-consensus cases, placing it as the observer with the sixth best reproducibility out of a total of 24. AI may serve as a decision support and decrease inter-observer variability by its ability to make consistent decisions. The grading of these cancer patterns that best predicts outcome and guides treatment warrants further clinical and genetic studies. Results of such investigations should be used to improve calibration of AI systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02858-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683442PMC
December 2020

The 2019 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 08;44(8):e87-e99

Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Five years after the last prostatic carcinoma grading consensus conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP), accrual of new data and modification of clinical practice require an update of current pathologic grading guidelines. This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the ISUP consensus meeting for grading of prostatic carcinoma held in September 2019, in Nice, France. Topics brought to consensus included the following: (1) approaches to reporting of Gleason patterns 4 and 5 quantities, and minor/tertiary patterns, (2) an agreement to report the presence of invasive cribriform carcinoma, (3) an agreement to incorporate intraductal carcinoma into grading, and (4) individual versus aggregate grading of systematic and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies. Finally, developments in the field of artificial intelligence in the grading of prostatic carcinoma and future research perspectives were discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382533PMC
August 2020

Novel insights into the mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor of the testis: detection of chromosomal aneuploidy and further morphological evidence supporting the neoplastic nature of the germ cell component.

Virchows Arch 2020 Nov 23;477(5):615-623. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

The existence of a true mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumor (MGSCT) of the testis remains controversial. Based on our experience with rare testicular tumors in this spectrum, we sought to perform a detailed clinicopathologic and molecular study of MGCSCT. Eight cases of testicular MGSCT were morphologically reviewed, screened for chromosomal aberrations (using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and low pass genomic sequencing), and analyzed by next generation sequencing (The Illumina TruSight Tumor 170). Immunohistochemistry for OCT3/4, Nanog, SALL4, DMRT1, and inhibin was performed on the cohort. Clinical data and follow-up were assessed by medical record review. All patients were karyotypically normal men aged 27-74 years (median 41). All tumors had a similar biphasic morphology characterized by various proportions of the sex cord component resembling granulosa cell tumor of adult type and the germ cell component cytomorphologically akin to spermatocytic tumor. Germ cells were haphazardly scattered throughout the tumor or arranged in larger groups, without tubular formation. In 4 cases, atypical mitoses were found within the germ cells. Additionally, in 2 cases there was invasion into the spermatic cord, adjacent hilar soft tissue and into the tumor capsule, which contained both tumor components. Immunohistochemically, focal nuclear expression of DMRT1 was found in the germ cell component in 7/7 analyzable tumors, while SALL4 was positive in 6 cases and negative in one case. All tumors were negative with OCT3/4 and Nanog. The sex cord stromal component had immunoreactivity for inhibin in 7/7 analyzable cases. Four of 8 cases were cytogenetically analyzable: 4/8 by low pass genomic sequencing and 2/8 by aCGH. The results of both methods correlated well, revealing mostly multiple chromosomal losses and gains. One case revealed loss of chromosome 21; 1 case had loss of chromosomes 21 and 22 and partial gain of 22; 1 case had loss of chromosomes 22 and Y, partial loss of X, and gain of chromosomes 20, 5, 8, 9, 12, and 13; and the remaining one gain of chromosomes 20, 3, 6, 8, 2x(9), 11, 2x(12), 13, 14, 18, and 19. Three cases were analyzable by NGS; clinically significant activating mutations of either FGFR3 or HRAS were not detected in any case. Follow-up was available for 4 patients (12, 24, 84, and 288 months) and was uneventful in all 4 cases. The identification of extratesticular invasion of both the germ cell and sex cord stromal components, the DMRT1 expression, and the presence of atypical mitoses in germ cells argue for the neoplastic nature of the germ cell component. The molecular genetic study revealing multiple chromosomal losses and gains in a subset of the cases provides the first evidence that molecular abnormalities occur in testicular MGSCT. Multiple chromosomal aneuploidies, namely, recurrent losses of chromosomes 21 and 22 and gains of 8, 9, 12, 13, and 20, indicate that the germ cell component might be related to the morphologically similar spermatocytic tumor, which is characterized by extensive aneuploidies including recurrent gains of chromosomes 9 and 20 and loss of chromosome 7. In summary, our data support that rare examples of true MGSCT of the testis do exist and they represent a distinct tumor entity with admixed adult-type granulosa cell tumor and spermatocytic tumor components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-02843-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma with 'micropapillary' architecture: clinicopathological study of 18 patients emphasising clinical outcomes.

Histopathology 2020 Nov 27;77(5):728-733. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

Pathology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Aims: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma is a recognised aggressive urothelial carcinoma variant. One prior study focusing on non-invasive (pTa) high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with micropapillary architecture has been reported.

Methods And Results: We collected bladder transurethral resection specimens showing non-invasive high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma with non-hierarchical secondary papillae lacking fibrovascular cores (i.e. micropapillary architecture). Cases with any invasive component or any prior history of invasive urothelial carcinoma were excluded. Twenty cases were identified from 16 male and two female patients (aged 55-86 years). Micropapillary architecture comprised from 10 to 95% (mean = 31%), but non-invasive cribriform (15 cases, comprising 5-60%, mean = 19%) and villoglandular patterns (nine cases, comprising 5-60%, mean = 24%) were commonly admixed. Treatment data were available for 16 patients: surveillance (n = 13), cystoprostatectomy (n = 1), BCG plus mitomycin (n = 1) and BCG (n = 1). Follow-up data were available from 16 patients (range = 1-128 months, mean = 50 months): 13 patients had no new occurrences to date (81%), two had stage progression to pT1 papillary urothelial carcinoma (13%) with one dying of other causes, and one died of other causes with no evidence of disease (6%).

Conclusion: Non-invasive urothelial carcinomas with micropapillary architecture are often admixed with non-invasive cribriform and villoglandular patterns. Stage progression to lamina propria invasion in only two of 16 patients (13%) is not higher than expected for otherwise typical pTa high-grade urothelial carcinomas and no progression to invasive micropapillary carcinoma was identified, adding further support to the current World Health Organisation recommendation excluding use of the term 'micropapillary' for pTa urothelial carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14161DOI Listing
November 2020

Immunohistochemistry in Surgical Pathology: Part 2.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 05;27(3):113

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000262DOI Listing
May 2020

Spatial density and diversity of architectural histology in prostate cancer: influence on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2020 Feb;10(2):326-339

Molecular Imaging Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: To assess the influence of specific histopathologic patterns on MRI diffusion characteristics by performing rigorous whole-mount/imaging registration and correlating histologic architectures observed in prostate cancer with diffusion characteristics in prostate MRIs.

Methods: Fifty-two whole-mount pathology blocks from 15 patients who underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) at a single institution prior to radical prostatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Regions containing individual morphologic patterns (N=21 patterns, including variations of cribriforming, expansile sheets, single cells, patterns of early intraluminal complexity, and mucin rupture patterns) were digitally annotated by an expert genitourinary pathologist. Distinct tumor foci on each slide were also assigned a Gleason grade and scored as having any high-risk histologic pattern. Digital sections were aligned to MRI using a patient-specific mold and registered using local mean weighted piecewise transformation based on anatomic control points. Density and presence of morphological patterns was correlated to apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signal intensity using mixed effects model accounting for nested intra-foci, intra-patient correlation. Influence of intra-tumoral heterogeneity was assessed by affinity propagation clustering (APC) of morphology features and correlated to foci- and cluster-level ADC metrics.

Results: One hundred eleven distinct tumor foci were evaluated. Beta diversity, reflecting average morphology representation across inter- and intra-foci areas, demonstrated higher intra-tumor diversity within high-risk foci (P<0.05). ADC signal demonstrated an inverse correlation with foci-level Gleason grade (P>0.05), which was strengthened in cluster-level analysis for intra-foci regions containing high-risk morphologies (P=0.017). In voxel-based analysis, dense regions demonstrate lower ADC, but the presence and density for each morphology influenced ADC independently (ANOVA P<0.001).

Conclusions: Architectural features influence ADC characteristics of MRI, with more complex tumors having lower ADC values regulated by presence and density of specific morphologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims.2020.01.06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063286PMC
February 2020

Mitral and tricuspid stenosis caused by light chain cardiac amyloid deposition.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 06 16;7(3):1130-1135. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Cardiac amyloidosis results in an infiltrative restrictive cardiomyopathy, with a number of characteristic features: biventricular hypertrophy, abnormal myocardial global longitudinal strain with relative apical sparing, biatrial dilation, and small pericardial effusion along with conduction abnormalities. Amyloid deposits leading to hemodynamically significant valvular heart disease are very rare. We describe a rare case of concomitant moderately severe tricuspid and mitral valve stenosis because of ongoing amyloid deposition in a patient with progressive multiple myeloma and fat pad biopsy-proven light chain amyloidosis. Worsening infiltrative cardiomyopathy and valvulopathy despite evidence-based chemotherapy and heart failure pharmacotherapy led to end-stage disease and death. Valvular involvement in cardiac amyloidosis requires early recognition of the underlying disease condition to guide directed medical therapy and prevent its progression. In this instance, valvuloplasty or valve replacement is not a viable option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261535PMC
June 2020

Immunohistochemical staining patterns of Ki-67 and p53 in florid reactive urothelial atypia and urothelial carcinoma in situ demonstrate significant overlap.

Hum Pathol 2020 04 3;98:81-88. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35249, USA. Electronic address:

Flat urothelial lesions with atypia may pose significant diagnostic challenges. Given frequent increased proliferation rates in florid reactive urothelial atypia and limited studies on the interpretation of p53 stains in the urothelium (following current standard guidelines for correlation with P53 mutation status), we sought to further study the discriminatory value of Ki-67 and p53 for florid reactive urothelial atypia versus urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). Bladder specimens diagnosed as reactive urothelial atypia (n = 40) and CIS (n = 40) were assessed by immunohistochemical staining with antibodies for Ki-67, p53, CD44, and CK20. Immunoreactivity was scored based on percent cells positive for Ki-67 and pattern of reactivity with p53 (aberrant: diffuse strong positive or negative; normal: patchy/wild type). CD44 and CK20 reactivity patterns served as adjunctive internal validation controls for reactive urothelial atypia and CIS, as previously described. In reactive urothelial atypia, Ki-67 ranged from 0% to 90% (mean, 34% ± 26) with 30 cases (75%) having >10%. In CIS, Ki-67 ranged from 5% to 95% (mean, 50% ± 25) with 17 cases (43%) having >50%. In all 40 cases (100%) of reactive urothelial atypia, p53 expression had a wild-type pattern. In CIS, aberrant p53 expression was identified in 15 cases (37%): 3 cases (7%) were p53 negative (i.e. null phenotype) and 12 cases (30%) showed strong and diffuse nuclear reactivity (in >85% of cells). The remaining 25 cases (63%) of CIS had a p53 wild-type pattern of expression. Cytoplasmic CK20 immunoreactivity in umbrella cells was seen in 34 cases (85%) of reactive urothelial atypia, and 6 cases (15%) were negative. In addition, 35 cases (88%) of reactive urothelial atypia demonstrated full-thickness CD44 expression, while 5 cases (12%) had expression confined to the basal/parabasal layers of the urothelium. Strong and diffuse CK20 positivity was present in 39 cases (98%) of CIS, and patchy positivity was detected in 1 case (2%). None of the CIS cases overexpressed CD44: 16 cases (40%) showed focal expression in the nonneoplastic basal cell layer; 24 cases (60%) demonstrated no staining. In summary, Ki-67 has poor discriminatory value for reactive urothelial atypia versus CIS and adds little to the classic CK20/CD44 immunophenotype. While p53 sensitivity for CIS is relatively low (30%) and interpretation as either wild type or negative may be challenging in a small subset of cases, strong and diffuse nuclear reactivity was 100% specific in the distinction from florid reactive urothelial atypia in this cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.02.008DOI Listing
April 2020
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