Publications by authors named "Jess Elizabeth Rasalam"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Breast milk contains red cell isohaemagglutinins: An observational study of 176 mothers.

Vox Sang 2022 Jun 26;117(6):847-852. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.

Background And Objectives: Maternal antibodies are transferred to the child, predominantly IgG, via the transplacental route, and mostly IgA through breast milk. Cases reported by us and others have shown the transfer of red cell allo-antibodies through breast milk. This study was conducted to assess the presence of isohaemagglutinins in breast milk, the range of titres, and the correlation between breast milk and maternal plasma titres.

Materials And Methods: A total of 176 mothers were recruited in this study. Breast milk was collected after sufficient feeding was established and within 2-5 days of delivery in a sterile container without any anticoagulant. Antibody screen, identification and titres were performed on maternal plasma as well as breast milk.

Results: Anti-A and anti-B in breast milk corresponding to their respective maternal blood groups were found in all the samples. This study has shown titres in the breast milk of anti-A and anti-B ranging from 2 to 1024 in both saline and Coombs phases. There was no association between plasma and breast milk titres, thus making it impossible to predict which mother may potentially transfer a larger amount of these haemagglutinins. Isotypes of anti-A and anti-B were evaluated in both plasma and breast milk of 11 samples, which showed predominantly IgG in 7 (63.63%) and predominantly IgA in 4 (36.36%) samples.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the presence of a wide range of titres for IgG antibodies of the ABO blood group system in breast milk. The clinical impact of this finding needs to be studied further, as it assumes great relevance in developing countries where anaemia continues to challenge young infants.
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June 2022

Factors associated with mortality among moderate and severe patients with COVID-19 in India: a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2021 10 4;11(10):e050571. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Infectious Diseases, Kasturba Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Objective: Large data on the clinical characteristics and outcome of COVID-19 in the Indian population are scarce. We analysed the factors associated with mortality in a cohort of moderately and severely ill patients with COVID-19 enrolled in a randomised trial on convalescent plasma.

Design: Secondary analysis of data from a Phase II, Open Label, Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Convalescent Plasma to Limit COVID-19 Associated Complications in Moderate Disease.

Setting: 39 public and private hospitals across India during the study period from 22 April to 14 July 2020.

Participants: Of the 464 patients recruited, two were lost to follow-up, nine withdrew consent and two patients did not receive the intervention after randomisation. The cohort of 451 participants with known outcome at 28 days was analysed.

Primary Outcome Measure: Factors associated with all-cause mortality at 28 days after enrolment.

Results: The mean (SD) age was 51±12.4 years; 76.7% were males. Admission Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 2.4±1.1. Non-invasive ventilation, invasive ventilation and vasopressor therapy were required in 98.9%, 8.4% and 4.0%, respectively. The 28-day mortality was 14.4%. Median time from symptom onset to hospital admission was similar in survivors (4 days; IQR 3-7) and non-survivors (4 days; IQR 3-6). Patients with two or more comorbidities had 2.25 (95% CI 1.18 to 4.29, p=0.014) times risk of death. When compared with survivors, admission interleukin-6 levels were higher (p<0.001) in non-survivors and increased further on day 3. On multivariable Fine and Gray model, severity of illness (subdistribution HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.35, p<0.001), PaO/FiO ratio <100 (3.47, 1.64-7.37, p=0.001), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio >10 (9.97, 3.65-27.13, p<0.001), D-dimer >1.0 mg/L (2.50, 1.14-5.48, p=0.022), ferritin ≥500 ng/mL (2.67, 1.44-4.96, p=0.002) and lactate dehydrogenase ≥450 IU/L (2.96, 1.60-5.45, p=0.001) were significantly associated with death.

Conclusion: In this cohort of moderately and severely ill patients with COVID-19, severity of illness, underlying comorbidities and elevated levels of inflammatory markers were significantly associated with death.

Trial Registration Number: CTRI/2020/04/024775.
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October 2021