Publications by authors named "Jesús Vioque"

201 Publications

Longitudinal changes in adherence to the portfolio and DASH dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors in the PREDIMED-Plus study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 18;40(5):2825-2836. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas Municipal d`Investigació Médica (IMIM), Barcelona, Spain.

Background & Aims: The Portfolio and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets have been shown to lower cardiometabolic risk factors in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, the Portfolio diet has only been assessed in RCTs of hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, to assess the Portfolio diet in a population with metabolic syndrome (MetS), we conducted a longitudinal analysis of one-year data of changes in the Portfolio and DASH diet scores and their association with cardiometabolic risk factors in Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial.

Methods: PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing clinical trial (Trial registration: ISRCTN89898) conducted in Spain that includes 6874 older participants (mean age 65 y, 48% women) with overweight/obesity fulfilling at least three criteria for MetS. Data for this analysis were collected at baseline, six months and one year. Adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diet scores were derived from a validated 143-item food frequency questionnaire. We used linear mixed models to examine the associations of 1-SD increase and quartile changes in the diet scores with concomitant changes in cardiometabolic risk factors.

Results: After adjusting for several potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in the Portfolio diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (β [95% CI]: -0.02% [-0.02, -0.01], P < 0.001), fasting glucose (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.83, -0.11], P = 0.01), triglycerides (-1.29 mg/dL [-2.31, -0.28], P = 0.01), waist circumference (WC) (-0.51 cm [-0.59, -0.43], P < 0.001), and body mass index (BMI) (-0.17 kg/m [-0.19, -0.15], P < 0.001). A 1-SD increase in the DASH diet score was significantly associated with lower HbA1c (-0.03% [-0.04, -0.02], P < 0.001), glucose (-0.84 mg/dL [-1.18, -0.51], P < 0.001), triglycerides (-3.38 mg/dL [-4.37, -2.38], P < 0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (-0.47 mg/dL [-0.91, -0.04], P = 0.03), WC (-0.69 cm [-0.76, -0.60 cm], P < 0.001), BMI (-0.25 kg/m [-0.28, -0.26 kg/m], P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (-0.57 mmHg [-0.81, -0.32 mmHg], P < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-0.15 mmHg [-0.29, -0.01 mmHg], P = 0.03), and with higher HDL-cholesterol (0.21 mg/dL [0.09, 0.34 mg/dL, P = 0.001]). Similar associations were seen when both diet scores were assessed as quartiles, comparing extreme categories of adherence.

Conclusions: Among older adults at high cardiovascular risk with MetS, greater adherence to the Portfolio and DASH diets showed significant favourable prospective associations with several clinically relevant cardiometabolic risk factors. Both diets are likely beneficial for cardiometabolic risk reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.016DOI Listing
March 2021

Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Determinants Among Pregnant Women: The NELA Cohort.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 10;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), 30120 Murcia, Spain.

The Mediterranean diet represents one of the most studied dietary patterns; however, there is no single tool for measuring the grade of adherence and no single set of criteria for adapting these indices to pregnant women. We characterized the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MDA) of pregnant women participating in the NELA (Nutrition in Early Life and Asthma) cohort and identified the sociodemographic determinants and lifestyle habits associated with a higher risk of a low MDA. Maternal diet during gestation was assessed by a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) ( = 665). We estimated the Relative Mediterranean Diet score (rMED), Alternative Mediterranean Diet score (aMED), and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). Multivariate regression models were performed to identify the sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with each index. Mothers with a lower age and more previous deliveries had a greater probability of low MDA ( < 0.05). For the aMED index only, mothers with university education and/or who practiced sport activities for two or more hours per week had a lower probability of a low MDA ( < 0.01). The three indices classified the NELA cohort as having a medium level of adherence. These results may be improved by designing intervention strategies and dietary recommendations for both maternal and offspring health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070446PMC
April 2021

Coffee Consumption and All-Cause, Cardiovascular, and Cancer Mortality in an Adult Mediterranean Population.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 9;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de Alicante, ISABIAL-UMH, 03010 Alicante, Spain.

We assessed the association between usual coffee consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular (CV), and cancer mortality in an adult population in Spain, taking into account both the amount and type of coffee consumed. We used baseline data on coffee consumption and other personal variables, and the number of deaths during an 18-year follow-up period, for 1567 participants aged 20 years and older from the Valencia Nutrition Study in Spain. Total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During the 18-year follow-up period, 317 died; 115 due to CV disease and 82 due to cancer. Compared with no-consumption, the consumption of ≤1 cup per day and >1 cup per day of coffee was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, HR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56-0.97) and HR 0.56 (95% CI: 0.41-0.77), respectively. A lower cancer mortality was observed among drinkers of more than 1 cup per day compared with nondrinkers, HR 0.41 (95% CI 0.20-0.86). Regarding the type of coffee, only the overall consumption of caffeinated coffee was associated with lower all-cause mortality at 12 and 18 years of follow-up, HR = 0.66 (95% CI:0.46-0.94) and HR = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44-0.79), respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests that the moderate consumption of coffee, particularly caffeinated coffee (range 1-6.5 cups per day), is associated with a lower all-cause and cancer mortality after a long follow-up period. No significant association was found between coffee consumption and CVD mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070495PMC
April 2021

Psychological and metabolic risk factors in older adults with a previous history of eating disorder: A cross-sectional study from the Predimed-Plus study.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Consorcio CIBER, M.P. Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.

Goals: To explore affective and cognitive status, later in life, in individuals with and without previous history of eating disorder (ED), and also its association with higher risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptomatology.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 6756 adults, aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and MetS participating in the Predimed-Plus study was conducted. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires to examine lifetime history of ED, according to DSM-5 criteria, and other psychopathological and neurocognitive factors. Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were also collected.

Results: Of the whole sample, 24 individuals (0.35%) reported a previous history of ED. In this subsample, there were more women and singles compared to their counterparts, but they also presented higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher cognitive impairment, but also higher body mass index (BMI) and severe obesity, than those without lifetime ED.

Conclusions: This is one of the first studies to analyse the cognitive and metabolic impact of a previous history of ED. The results showed that previous ED was associated with greater affective and cognitive impairment, but also with higher BMI, later in life. No other MetS risk factors were found, after controlling for relevant variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2833DOI Listing
April 2021

Consumption of caffeinated beverages and kidney function decline in an elderly Mediterranean population with metabolic syndrome.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8719. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Unitat de Nutrició, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Rovira i Virgili University, 43201, Reus, Spain.

It remains unclear whether caffeinated beverages could have deleterious renal effects in elderly population with underlying comorbid conditions. We investigated the associations between coffee, tea, or caffeine intake and 1-year changes in glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a large Spanish cohort of overweight/obese elderly with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This prospective analysis includes 5851 overweight/obese adults (55-75 years) with MetS from the PREDIMED-Plus study. We assessed coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption from a validated food-frequency questionnaire and creatinine-based eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Multivariate-adjusted regression models were applied to test associations between baseline coffee, tea, or caffeine intake and 1-year eGFR changes. Caffeinated coffee (> 2 cups/day) and tea (at least 1 cup/day) drinkers had 0.88 and 0.93 mL/min/1.73 m greater eGFR decrease respectively, compared to those with less than 1 cup/day of coffee consumption or non-tea drinkers. Furthermore, caffeinated coffee consumption of > 2 cups/day was associated with 1.19-fold increased risk of rapid eGFR decline > 3 mL/min/1.73 m (95% CI 1.01-1.41). Similarly, individuals in the highest (median, 51.2 mg/day) tertile of caffeine intake had a 0.87 mL/min/1.73 m greater eGFR decrease. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with eGFR changes. In conclusion, higher consumption of caffeinated coffee, tea, and caffeine was associated with a greater 1-year eGFR decline in overweight/obese adults with MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88028-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062443PMC
April 2021

Fruit consumption and cardiometabolic risk in the PREDIMED-plus study: A cross-sectional analysis.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Consorcio CIBER, M.P. Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background And Aims: Total fruit consumption is important for cardiovascular disease prevention, but also the variety and form in which is consumed. The aim of the study was to assess the associations between total fruit, subgroups of fruits based on their color and fruit juices consumption with different cardiometabolic parameters.

Methods And Results: A total of 6633 elderly participants (aged 55-75 years) with metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus study were included in this analysis. Fruit and fruit juice consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Linear regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between exposure variables (total fruit, subgroups based on the color, and fruit juices) and different cardiometabolic risk factors. Individuals in the highest category of total fruit consumption (≥3 servings/d) had lower waist circumference (WC) (β = -1.04 cm; 95%CI:-1.81, -0.26), fasting glucose levels (β = -2.41 mg/dL; 95%CI(-4.19, -0.63) and LDL-cholesterol (β = -4.11 mg/dL; 95%CI:-6.93, -1.36), but, unexpectedly, higher systolic blood pressure (BP) (β = 1.84 mmHg; 95%CI: 0.37, 3.30) and diastolic BP (β = 1.69 mmHg; 95%CI:0.83, 2.56) when compared to those in the lowest category of consumption (<1 servings/d). Participants consuming ≥1 serving/day of total fruit juice had lower WC (β = -0.92 cm; 95%CI:-1.56, -0.27) and glucose levels (β = -1.59 mg/dL; 95%CI:-2.95, -0.23) than those consuming <1 serving/month. The associations with cardiometabolic risk factors differed according to the color of fruits.

Conclusion: Fruit consumption is associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors in Mediterranean elders with metabolic syndrome. The associations regarding BP levels could be attributed, at least partially, to reverse causality bias inherent to the cross-sectional design of the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.02.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Pre and postnatal exposure to mercury and respiratory health in preschool children from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohort Study.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 20;782:146654. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Effects of mercury on maturing immune system have been reported, however the association with respiratory and allergy problems during infancy remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pre and postnatal mercury exposure and respiratory and allergy problems among preschool children and to examine the role of potential modifying factors. Study subjects were children participant in Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2008). We measured total mercury levels in cord blood (n = 1868) and hair at 4 years of age (n = 1347). Respiratory outcomes (wheezing, severe wheezing, chestiness, persistent cough, eczema and otitis) were obtained by questionnaires administered to parents. Associations were investigated by logistic regression adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle-related variables in each cohort and subsequent meta-analysis. We tested effect modification by factors related to individual susceptibility, diet and co-exposure with other pollutants. The geometric mean of cord blood and hair total mercury was 8.20 μg/L and 0.97 μg/g, respectively. No statistically significant association between pre or postnatal mercury exposure and respiratory and allergy outcomes was found. Notwithstanding, lower maternal intake of fruits and vegetables increased the risk of some respiratory outcomes due to the prenatal exposure to mercury (p < 0.05). Moreover, an inverse association between prenatal mercury exposure and some respiratory outcomes was observed among children with higher maternal exposure to organocholorine compounds or smoking (p < 0.05). Also, sex and postnatal smoking exposure modulated mercury postnatal effects on persistent cough (p < 0.05). In conclusion, no association between pre and postnatal mercury exposure and respiratory and allergy problems among the whole population at study was found. However, diet and other toxicants could modulate this relation, especially during prenatal period. More research on this topic is warranted due to the limited evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146654DOI Listing
March 2021

Self-Reported DHA Supplementation during Pregnancy and Its Association with Obesity or Gestational Diabetes in Relation to DHA Concentration in Cord and Maternal Plasma: Results from NELA, a Prospective Mother-Offspring Cohort.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 4;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), 30120 Murcia, Spain.

Maternal supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) during pregnancy has been recommended due to its role in infant development, but its effect on materno-fetal DHA status is not well established. We evaluated the associations between DHA supplementation in pregnant women with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal and neonatal DHA status. Serum fatty acids (FA) were analyzed in 641 pregnant women (24 weeks of gestation) and in 345 venous and 166 arterial cord blood samples of participants of the NELA cohort. Obese women ( = 47) presented lower DHA in serum than those lean ( = 397) or overweight ( = 116) before pregnancy. Linoleic acid in arterial cord was elevated in obese women, which indicates lower fetal retention. Maternal DHA supplementation (200 mg/d) during pregnancy was associated with enhanced maternal and fetal DHA levels regardless of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), although higher arterial DHA in overweight women indicated an attenuated response. Maternal DHA supplementation was not associated with cord venous DHA in neonates of mothers with GDM. The cord arteriovenous difference was similar for DHA between GDM and controls. In conclusion, maternal DHA supplementation during pregnancy enhanced fetal DHA status regardless of the pre-pregnancy BMI while GDM may reduce the effect of DHA supplementation in newborns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13030843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000695PMC
March 2021

High Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Moderate Fat Intake Are Associated with Higher Carotenoid Concentration in Human Plasma.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Carotenoids are pigments contained mainly in fruit and vegetables (F&V) that have beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Due to their lipophilic nature, co-ingestion of fat appears to increase their bioavailability via facilitating transfer to the aqueous micellar phase during digestion. However, the extent to which high fat intake may contribute to increased carotenoid plasma concentrations is still unclear. The objective was to examine the degree to which the consumption of different amounts of both carotenoid-rich foods and fats is associated with plasma carotenoid concentrations within a Mediterranean lifestyle context (subsample from the PREDIMED-Plus study baseline) where consumption of F&V and fat is high. The study population was categorized into four groups according to their self-reported consumption of F&V and fat. Carotenoids were extracted from plasma samples and analyzed by HPLC-UV-VIS-QqQ-MS/MS. Carotenoid systemic concentrations were greater in high consumers of F&V than in low consumers of these foods (+3.04 μmol/L (95% CI: 0.90, 5.17), -value = 0.005), but circulating concentrations seemed to decrease when total fat intake was very high (-2.69 μmol/L (-5.54; 0.16), -value = 0.064). High consumption of F&V is associated with greater systemic levels of total carotenoids, in particular when fat intake is low-to-moderate rather than very high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10030473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002704PMC
March 2021

Variety in fruits and vegetables, diet quality and lifestyle in an older adult mediterranean population.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 24;40(4):1510-1518. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background And Aims: Previous studies, mainly focused on quantity rather than variety, have shown beneficial associations between the amount of fruit and vegetable consumed, diet quality and healthy lifestyle. The aim is to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, diet quality and lifestyle in an elderly Mediterranean population, considering both variety and the combination of quantity and variety (QV).

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 6647 participants (51.6% of males) was conducted in the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. A variety score was created as the sum of vegetables and/or fruits consumed at least once per month using food frequency questionnaires. Dietary Reference Intakes (EAR and IA values) were used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intake of dietary fiber and micronutrients. Logistic regression models were performed to examine the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and not meeting the DRIs, by tertiles of fruit and vegetable variety and QV categories.

Results: Participants with higher fruit and vegetable variety score reported a significant higher intake of fiber, vitamins, minerals and flavonoids and were significantly more likely to be physically active and non-smoker. Besides, higher variety in fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with lower prevalence of having an inadequate intake of fiber [(0.13 (0.11-0.16)], two or more [(0.17 (0.14-0.21)], three or more [(0.15 (0.13-0.18)] and four or more [(0.11 (0.10-0.14)] micronutrients in our participants. Higher quantity and variety in fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with lower prevalence of having an inadequate intake of fiber [(0.05 (0.04-0.06)], two or more [(0.08 (0.06-0.10)], three or more [(0.08 (0.06-0.09)] and four or more [(0.06 (0.05-0.07)] micronutrients.

Conclusion: Greater variety in fruit and vegetable intake was associated with better nutrient adequacy, diet quality and healthier lifestyle in an elderly Mediterranean population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.02.024DOI Listing
April 2021

Contribution of ultra-processed foods in visceral fat deposition and other adiposity indicators: Prospective analysis nested in the PREDIMED-Plus trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Research Group on Nutritional Epidemiology & Cardiovascular Physiopathology (NUTRECOR), Health Research Institute of the Balearic Islands (IdISBa), University Hospital Son Espases (HUSE), Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Consorcio CIBER, M.P. Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.

Background & Aims: Ultra-processed food and drink products (UPF) consumption has been associated with obesity and its-related comorbidities. Excess of visceral fat, which appears with increasing age, has been considered as the culprit contributing to adiposity-associated adverse health outcomes. However, none of previous studies elucidated the link between UPF and directly quantified adiposity and its distribution. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between concurrent changes in UPF consumption and objectively assessed adiposity distribution.

Methods: A subsample of 1485 PREDIMED-Plus participants (Spanish men and women aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome) underwent body composition measurements. Consumption of UPF at baseline, 6 and 12 months was evaluated using a validated 143-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Food items (g/day) were categorized according to their degree of processing using NOVA system. Regional adiposity (visceral fat (in g) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio) and total fat mass (in g) at three time points were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and were normalized using sex-specific z-scores. The association of changes in UPF consumption, expressed as the percentage of total daily intake (daily g of UPF/total daily g of food and beverage intake∗100), with adiposity changes was evaluated using linear mixed-effects models.

Results: On average, the consumption of UPF accounted for 8.11% (SD 7.41%) of total daily intake (in grams) at baseline. In multivariable-adjusted model, 10% daily increment in consumption of UPF was associated with significantly (all p-values <0.05) greater accumulation of visceral fat (β 0.09 z-scores, 95% CI 0.05; 0.13), android-to-gynoid fat ratio (0.05, 0.00; 0.09) and total fat (0.09, 0.06; 0.13).

Conclusion: A higher consumption of UPF was associated with greater age-related visceral and overall adiposity accumulation. Further studies are warranted to confirm these results in other populations and settings.

Trial Registration: The trial was registered at the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870) with number 89898870 and registration date of 24 July 2014, retrospectively registered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.01.019DOI Listing
January 2021

Urinary arsenic species and methylation efficiency during pregnancy: Concentrations and associated factors in Spanish pregnant women.

Environ Res 2021 May 17;196:110889. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Arsenic (As) is considered to be toxic for humans, the main routes of exposure being through drinking water and the diet. Once ingested, inorganic arsenic can be methylated sequentially to monomethyl and dimethyl arsenicals. Several factors can affect both As exposure and methylation efficiency.

Objectives: To describe the urinary concentrations of the different As species and evaluate the methylation efficiency during pregnancy, as well as their associated factors in a birth cohort of pregnant Spanish women.

Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study were 1017 pregnant women from two areas of Spain who had taken part in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) project (2003-2008). Total As (organic and inorganic compounds) and its main metabolites (monomethylarsonic acid, [MMA], dimethylarsinic acid, [DMA], inorganic As [iAs]) and arsenobetaine [AB]) were measured in urine samples collected during the first trimester. Sociodemographic and dietary information was collected through questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression models were used to explore the association between As species concentrations and covariates. Arsenic methylation efficiency was determined through the percentages of the metabolites and using As methylation phenotypes, obtained from principal component analysis.

Results: Median urine concentrations were 33.0, 21.6, 6.5, 0.35 and 0.33 μg/g creatinine for total As, AB, DMA, MMA and iAs, respectively. Daily consumption of rice and seafood during the first trimester of pregnancy were positively associated with the concentration of As species (i.e., β [CI95%] = 0.36 [0.09, 0.64] for rice and iAs, and 1.06 [0.68, 1.44] for seafood and AB). TAs, AB and iAs concentrations, and DMA and MMA concentrations were associated with legume and vegetable consumption, respectively. The medians of the percentage of As metabolites were 89.7 for %DMA, 5.1 for %MMA and 4.7 for %iAs. Non-smoker women and those with higher body mass index presented a higher methylation efficiency (denoted by a higher %DMA and lower %MMA).

Discussion: Certain dietary, lifestyle, and environmental factors were observed to have an influence on both As species concentrations and methylation efficiency in our population. Further birth cohort studies in low exposure areas are necessary to improve knowledge about arsenic exposure, especially to inorganic forms, and its potential health impact during childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110889DOI Listing
May 2021

Gut Microbiota Profile and Changes in Body Weight in Elderly Subjects with Overweight/Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 10;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, 43201 Reus, Spain.

Gut microbiota is essential for the development of obesity and related comorbidities. However, studies describing the association between specific bacteria and obesity or weight loss reported discordant results. The present observational study, conducted within the frame of the PREDIMED-Plus clinical trial, aims to assess the association between fecal microbiota, body composition and weight loss, in response to a 12-month lifestyle intervention in a subsample of 372 individuals (age 55-75) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. Participants were stratified by tertiles of baseline body mass index (BMI) and changes in body weight after 12-month intervention. General assessments, anthropometry and biochemical measurements, and stool samples were collected. 16S amplicon sequencing was performed on bacterial DNA extracted from stool samples and microbiota analyzed. Differential abundance analysis showed an enrichment of , UCG-001 and , associated with a higher weight loss after 12-month of follow-up, whereas in the cross-sectional analysis, and were enriched in the lowest tertile of baseline BMI. Our findings suggest that fecal microbiota plays an important role in the control of body weight, supporting specific genera as potential target in personalized nutrition for obesity management. A more in-depth taxonomic identification method and the need of metabolic information encourages to further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916506PMC
February 2021

Effect of an Intensive Weight-Loss Lifestyle Intervention on Kidney Function: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Am J Nephrol 2021 8;52(1):45-58. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Large randomized trials testing the effect of a multifactorial weight-loss lifestyle intervention including Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on renal function are lacking. Here, we evaluated the 1-year efficacy of an intensive weight-loss intervention with an energy-reduced MedDiet (erMedDiet) plus increased physical activity (PA) on renal function.

Methods: Randomized controlled "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea-Plus" (PREDIMED-Plus) trial is conducted in 23 Spanish centers comprising 208 primary care clinics. Overweight/obese (n = 6,719) adults aged 55-75 years with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned (1:1) to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention with an erMedDiet, PA promotion, and behavioral support (intervention) or usual-care advice to adhere to an energy-unrestricted MedDiet (control) between September 2013 and December 2016. The primary outcome was 1-year change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Secondary outcomes were changes in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), incidence of moderately/severely impaired eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) and micro- to macroalbuminuria (UACR ≥30 mg/g), and reversion of moderately (45 to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) to mildly impaired GFR (60 to <90 mL/min/1.73 m2) or micro- to macroalbuminuria.

Results: After 1 year, eGFR declined by 0.66 and 1.25 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 0.58 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% CI: 0.15-1.02). There were no between-group differences in mean UACR or micro- to macroalbuminuria changes. Moderately/severely impaired eGFR incidence and reversion of moderately to mildly impaired GFR were 40% lower (HR 0.60; 0.44-0.82) and 92% higher (HR 1.92; 1.35-2.73), respectively, in the intervention group.

Conclusions: The PREDIMED-Plus lifestyle intervention approach may preserve renal function and delay CKD progression in overweight/obese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513664DOI Listing
February 2021

Are Dietary Indices Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Its Phenotypes? A Preliminary Study.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Division of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Murcia School of Medicine, 30100 Espinardo Murcia, Spain.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder which impairs ovarian function. The adherence to healthy dietary patterns and physical exercise are the first line of recommended treatment for PCOS patients, but it is yet unclear what type of diet is more adequate. In this case-control study, we explored associations between adherence to five dietary quality indices and the presence of PCOS. We enrolled 126 cases of PCOS and 159 controls living in Murcia (Spain). Diagnostic of PCOS and its phenotypes were established following the Rotterdam criteria (hyperandrogenism (H), oligoanovulation (O), polycystic ovaries morphology (POM)). We used a validated food frequency questionnaires to calculate the scores of five dietary indices: alternate Healthy Eating index (AHEI), AHEI-2010, relative Mediterranean Dietary Score (rMED), alternate Mediterranean Dietary Score (aMED) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios and confidence intervals. In the multivariable analysis, AHEI-2010 index was inversely associated with Hyperandrogenism + Oligoanovulation PCOS phenotype (OR vs. = 0.1; 95% CI: (0.0; 0.9); P = 0.02). We did not find any statistical significant association between dietary indices and total anovulatory or ovulatory PCOS. However, further studies with higher sample sizes exploring these associations among the diverse phenotypes of PCOS are highly warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911683PMC
January 2021

The Use of Lower or Higher Than Recommended Doses of Folic Acid Supplements during Pregnancy Is Associated with Child Attentional Dysfunction at 4-5 Years of Age in the INMA Project.

Nutrients 2021 Jan 23;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria y Biomédica de Alicante, ISABIAL-UMH, 03010 Alicante, Spain.

We assessed the association between the use of lower- and higher-than-recommended doses of folic acid supplements (FAs) during pregnancy and attentional function in boys and girls at age of 4-5. We analyzed data from 1329 mother-child pairs from the mother-child cohort INfancia y Medio Ambiente Project (INMA) study. Information on FAs use during pregnancy was collected in personal interviews at weeks 12 and 30, and categorized in <400, 400-999 (recommended dose), and ≥1000 μg/day. Child attentional function was assessed by Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test. Multivariable regression analyses were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and beta coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to recommended FAs doses, the periconceptional use of <400 and ≥1000 μg/day was associated with higher risk of omission errors-IRR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01; 1.29) and IRR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.33), respectively. The use of FAs < 400 μg/day and ≥1000 μg/day was significantly associated with deficits of attentional function only in boys. FAs use < 400 μg/day was associated with higher omission errors with IRR = 1.22 and increased hit reaction time (HRT) β = 34.36, and FAs use ≥ 1000 μg/day was associated with increased HRT β = 33.18 and HRT standard error β = 3.31. The periconceptional use of FAs below or above the recommended doses is associated with deficits of attentional function in children at age of 4-5, particularly in boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912326PMC
January 2021

Milk and Dairy Products Intake Is Related to Cognitive Impairment at Baseline in Predimed Plus Trial.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 04 5;65(7):e2000728. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Unit of Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition, Institut Hospital del Mar de Investigaciones Médicas Municipal d`Investigació Médica (IMIM)., Carrer del Dr. Aiguader, 88., Barcelona, 08003, Spain.

Scope: To examine the association between milk and dairy products intake and the prevalence of cognitive decline among Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

Methods And Results: Cross-sectional analyses are performed on baseline data from 6744 adults (aged 55-75 years old). Intake of milk and dairy products is estimated using a food frequency questionnaire grouped into quartiles. The risk of developing cognitive impairment is based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). A higher prevalence of cognitive decline was found in subjects who consumed more grams. Patients with worse MMSE score (10-24) consumed a mean of 395.14 ± 12.21 g, while patients with better MMSE score (27-30) consumed a mean of 341.23 ± 2.73 g (p < 0.05). Those subjects with the lower milk consumption (<220 g/day) had a higher MMSE score (28.35 ± 0.045). Higher intake of fermented dairy products was observed in participants with a lower MMSE score (OR 1.340, p = 0.003). A positive correlation was found between the consumption of whole milk and the MMSE score (r = 0.066, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that greater consumption of milk and dairy products could be associated with greater cognitive decline according to MMSE. Conversely, consumption of whole-fat milk could be linked with less cognitive impairment in the cross-sectional study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202000728DOI Listing
April 2021

[Reduction of red and processed meats in the Spanish population: What is its impact on total and cardiovascular mortality?]

Aten Primaria 2021 02 7;53(2):101950. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad de Navarra; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra (IdiSNA), Pamplona, España; CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERobn), Instituto de Salud CarlosIII, Madrid, España; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan Scholl of Public Health, Boston, MA, Estados Unidos.

Objective: Quantify the impact of reducing the consumption of red/processed meats on cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality of the Spanish adult population based in 5 revisions published.

Participants And Main Measurements: We defined exposure as consumption of ≥3 servings/week of red or processed meats and considered four possible scenarios of exposed population (30%-60%). Based on data from the Spanish National Statistics Institute, we calculated the weighted mortality between 40 and 80years. Using the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) published by the referred revisions (RR=0.88; IC95%: 0.84-0.93 for all-cause mortality and RR=0.92; IC95%: 0.90-0.93 for cardiovascular mortality), we calculated the expected mortality rate in both exposed and unexposed categories. By multiplying these rates by the number of exposed individuals, we estimated the attributable number of yearly deaths.

Results: If 60% of the population was exposed, with a 95%CI, the number of cardiovascular deaths that could be averted each year if population consumed <3 servings/week of red or processed meats was between 2.112 and 3.055. If was exposed that 30%, the difference in the yearly number of potentially averted deaths was between 1.079 and 1.577.

Conclusions: Even under the most conservative assumption, the benefit, at the population level, of reducing red or processed meats consumption <3 servings/week on cardiovascular mortality is important. The conclusions of the recently published reviews contradicted their own results and contributed to a state of confusion that can create substantial harm for public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aprim.2020.08.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910693PMC
February 2021

Dietary inflammatory index of mothers during pregnancy and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms in the child at preschool age: a prospective investigation in the INMA and RHEA cohorts.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain.

Inflammation provides a substrate for mechanisms that underlie the association of maternal diet during pregnancy with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. However, no previous study has quantified the proinflammatory potential of maternal diet as a risk factor for ADHD. Thus, we evaluated the association of maternal dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores during pregnancy with ADHD symptoms in 4-year-old children born in two Mediterranean regions. We analyzed data from two population-based birth cohort studies-INMA (Environment and Childhood) four subcohorts in Spain (N = 2097), and RHEA study in Crete (Greece) (N = 444). The DII score of maternal diet was calculated based on validated food frequency questionnaires completed during pregnancy (12th and/or 32nd week of gestation). ADHD symptoms were assessed by ADHD-DSM-IV in INMA cohort and by ADHDT test in RHEA cohort, with questionnaires filled-out by teachers and parents, respectively. The associations between maternal DII and ADHD symptoms were analysed using multivariable-adjusted zero-inflated negative binomial regression models in each cohort study separately. Meta-analysis was conducted to combine data across the cohorts for fitting within one model. The DII was significantly higher in RHEA (RHEA = 2.09 [1.94, 2.24]) in comparison to INMA subcohorts (Asturias = - 1.52 [- 1.67, - 1.38]; Gipuzkoa = - 1.48 [- 1.64, - 1.33]; Sabadell = - 0.95 [- 1.07, - 0.83]; Valencia = - 0.76 [- 0.90, - 0.62]). Statistically significant reduced risk of inattention symptomatology (OR = 0.86; CI 95% = 0.77-0.96), hyperactivity symptomatology (OR = 0.82; CI 95% = 0.72-0.92) and total ADHD symptomatology (OR = 0.82; CI 95% = - 0.72 to 0.93) were observed with increased maternal DII in boys. No statistically significant associations were observed in girls between maternal DII and inattention, hyperactivity and total ADHD symptomatology. We found reduced risk of ADHD symptomatology with increased DII only in boys. This relationship requires further exploration in other settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-020-01705-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Metabolic Syndrome Features and Excess Weight Were Inversely Associated with Nut Consumption after 1-Year Follow-Up in the PREDIMED-Plus Study.

J Nutr 2020 12;150(12):3161-3170

CIBER Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain.

Background: High nut consumption has been previously associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) regardless of race and dietary patterns.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether changes in nut consumption over a 1-y follow-up are associated with changes in features of MetS in a middle-aged and older Spanish population at high cardiovascular disease risk.

Methods: This prospective 1-y follow-up cohort study, conducted in the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus randomized trial, included 5800 men and women (55-75 y old) with overweight/obesity [BMI (in kg/m2) ≥27 and <40] and MetS. Nut consumption (almonds, pistachios, walnuts, and other nuts) was assessed using data from a validated FFQ. The primary outcome was the change from baseline to 1 y in features of MetS [waist circumference (WC), glycemia, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure] and excess weight (body weight and BMI) according to tertiles of change in nut consumption. Secondary outcomes included changes in dietary and lifestyle characteristics. A generalized linear model was used to compare 1-y changes in features of MetS, weight, dietary intakes, and lifestyle characteristics across tertiles of change in nut consumption.

Results: As nut consumption increased, between each tertile there was a significant decrease in WC, TG, systolic blood pressure, weight, and BMI (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (only in women, P = 0.044). The interaction effect between time and group was significant for total energy intake (P < 0.001), adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) (P < 0.001), and nut consumption (P < 0.001). Across tertiles of increasing nut consumption there was a significant increase in extra virgin olive oil intake and adherence to the MedDiet; change in energy intake, on the other hand, was inversely related to consumption of nuts.

Conclusions: Features of MetS and excess weight were inversely associated with nut consumption after a 1-y follow-up in the PREDIMED-Plus study cohort. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN89898870.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa289DOI Listing
December 2020

Relationship between olive oil consumption and ankle-brachial pressure index in a population at high cardiovascular risk.

Atherosclerosis 2020 12 10;314:48-57. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background And Aims: The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between the consumption of different categories of edible olive oils (virgin olive oils and olive oil) and olive pomace oil and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) in participants in the PREDIMED-Plus study, a trial of lifestyle modification for weight and cardiovascular event reduction in individuals with overweight/obesity harboring the metabolic syndrome.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Consumption of any category of olive oil and olive pomace oil was assessed through a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to assess associations between olive oil consumption and ABI. Additionally, ABI ≤1 was considered as the outcome in logistic models with different categories of olive oil and olive pomace oil as exposure.

Results: Among 4330 participants, the highest quintile of total olive oil consumption (sum of all categories of olive oil and olive pomace oil) was associated with higher mean values of ABI (beta coefficient: 0.014, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.002, 0.027) (p for trend = 0.010). Logistic models comparing the consumption of different categories of olive oils, olive pomace oil and ABI ≤1 values revealed an inverse association between virgin olive oils consumption and the likelihood of a low ABI (odds ratio [OR] 0.73, 95% CI [0.56, 0.97]), while consumption of olive pomace oil was positively associated with a low ABI (OR 1.22 95% CI [1.00, 1.48]).

Conclusions: In a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk, total olive oil consumption was associated with a higher mean ABI. These results suggest that olive oil consumption may be beneficial for peripheral artery disease prevention, but longitudinal studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.10.008DOI Listing
December 2020

Association between ankle-brachial index and cognitive function in participants in the PREDIMED-Plus study: cross-sectional assessment.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2020 Oct 31. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Institut d'Investigació Pere Virgili (IISPV), Reus, Tarragona, Spain.

Introduction And Objectives: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is an indicator of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of this study was to assess the association between PAD, measured with the ABI, and cognitive function in persons with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome.

Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study, which included 4898 participants (after exclusion of those without ABI measurements) aged between 55 and 75 years, and with overweight or obesity and metabolic syndrome. At the baseline assessment, we measured the ABI with a standardized protocol and assessed the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors (eg, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension). Cognitive function was evaluated using several tests validated for the Spanish population (mini-mental state examination [MMSE], phonological and semantic verbal fluency test, WAIS-III working memory index [WMI], parts A and B of the trail making test (TMT), and clock drawing test). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between the ABI and cognitive function.

Results: Among the participants, 3.4% had PAD defined as ABI ≤ 0.9, and 3.3% had arterial calcification defined as ABI ≥ 1.4. PAD was associated with age, systolic blood pressure and obesity indicators, while arterial calcification was also associated with obesity and diabetes. No significant associations were observed between cognitive function and ABI or PAD.

Conclusions: In our sample, the presence of PAD increased with age, blood pressure, and obesity. No significant association was observed between ABI, PAD, or cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2020.06.041DOI Listing
October 2020

Association between coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake with cognitive functioning: cross-sectional assessment in an elderly Mediterranean population.

Eur J Nutr 2020 Oct 30. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Joan XXIII University Hospital, Tarragona, Spain.

Purpose: Coffee is rich in compounds such as polyphenols, caffeine, diterpenes, melanoidins and trigonelline, which can stimulate brain activity. Therefore, the possible association of coffee consumption with cognition is of considerable research interest. In this paper, we assess the association of coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake with the risk of poor cognitive functioning in a population of elderly overweight/obese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods: PREDIMED-plus study participants who completed the Mini-Mental State Examination test (MMSE) (n = 6427; mean age = 65 ± 5 years) or a battery of neuropsychological tests were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake were assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the association between total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption or total dietary caffeine intake and cognitive impairment.

Results: Total coffee consumers and caffeinated coffee consumers had better cognitive functioning than non-consumers when measured by the MMSE and after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44-0.90 and OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.38-0.83, respectively). Results were similar when cognitive performance was measured using the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B). These associations were not observed for decaffeinated coffee consumption. Participants in the highest tertile of total dietary caffeine intake had lower odds of poor cognitive functioning than those in the reference tertile when screened by the MMSE (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.87) or other neurophysiological tests evaluating a variety of cognitive domains (i.e., CDT and TMT-A).

Conclusions: Coffee consumption and total dietary caffeine intake were associated with better cognitive functioning as measured by various neuropsychological tests in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly individuals with MetS.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN89898870. Registration date: July 24, 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02415-wDOI Listing
October 2020

Polyphenol Intake and Gastric Cancer Risk: Findings from the Stomach Cancer Pooling Project (StoP).

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 20;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Research Group in Gene-Environment Interactions and Health, Instituto de Biomedicina (IBIOMED), University of León, 24071 León, Spain.

Phenolic compounds may exert a favorable effect on the risk of several cancer types, including gastric cancer (GC). However, selected polyphenol classes have not been adequately investigated in relation to GC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols in relation to GC risk. We used data from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, including 10 studies from six countries (3471 GC cases and 8344 controls). We carried out an individual participant data pooled analysis using a two-stage approach. The summary odds ratios (ORs) of GC for each compound, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), were computed by pooling study specific ORs obtained through multivariate logistic regression, using random effect models. Inverse associations with GC emerged for total polyphenols (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54-0.81, for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake), total flavonoids (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90), anthocyanidins (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.92), flavanols (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.88), flavanones (OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.69), total phenolic acids (OR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.55-0.94), and hydroxybenzoic acids (OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.57-0.89). Results were consistent across strata of age, sex, social class, and smoking habit. Suggestive inverse associations were also found for flavonols (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.51-1.01) and hydroxycinnamic acids (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.58-1.06). Further investigations from longitudinal data are needed to confirm this association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12103064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588964PMC
October 2020

Dietary Quality Changes According to the Preceding Maximum Weight: A Longitudinal Analysis in the PREDIMED-Plus Randomized Trial.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 2;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 2.

CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

One-year dietary quality change according to the preceding maximum weight in a lifestyle intervention program (PREDIMED-Plus trial, 55-75-year-old overweight or obese adults; = 5695) was assessed. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. A total of 3 groups were made according to the difference between baseline measured weight and lifetime maximum reported weight: (a) participants entering the study at their maximum weight, (b) moderate weight loss maintainers (WLM), and (c) large WLM. Data were analyzed by General Linear Model. All participants improved average lifestyle. Participants entering the study at their maximum weight were the most susceptible to improve significantly their dietary quality, assessed by adherence to Mediterranean diet, DII and both healthful and unhealthful provegetarian patterns. People at maximum weight are the most benefitted in the short term by a weight management program. Long term weight loss efforts may also reduce the effect of a weight management program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12103023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600377PMC
October 2020

Adult height and risk of gastric cancer: a pooled analysis within the Stomach cancer Pooling Project.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2020 Sep 10. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: The association between height and risk of gastric cancer has been studied in several epidemiological studies with contrasting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between adult height and gastric cancer within a large pooled analysis of case-control studies members of the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium.

Methods: Data from 18 studies members of the StoP consortium were collected and analyzed. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between 10-cm increase in height and risk of gastric cancer. Age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, social class, geographical area and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) status were included in the regression model. Resulting estimates were then pooled with random-effect model. Analyses were conducted overall and in strata of selected variables.

Results: A total of 7562 cases and 19 033 controls were included in the analysis. The pooled OR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.87-1.05). A sensitivity analysis was performed restricting the results to the studies with information on H. pylori status, resulting in an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.79-1.20).

Conclusion: Our study does not support a strong and consistent association between adult height and gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000613DOI Listing
September 2020

Dietary folate intake and metabolic syndrome in participants of PREDIMED-Plus study: a cross-sectional study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Mar 24;60(2):1125-1136. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y la Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: We examined the association between dietary folate intake and a score of MetS (metabolic syndrome) and its components among older adults at higher cardiometabolic risk participating in the PREDIMED-Plus trial.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis with 6633 with overweight/obesity participants with MetS was conducted. Folate intake (per 100 mcg/day and in quintiles) was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We calculated a MetS score using the standardized values as shown in the formula: [(body mass index + waist-to-height ratio)/2] + [(systolic blood pressure + diastolic blood pressure)/2] + plasma fasting glucose-HDL cholesterol + plasma triglycerides. The MetS score as continuous variable and its seven components were the outcome variables. Multiple robust linear regression using MM-type estimator was performed to evaluate the association adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: We observed that an increase in energy-adjusted folate intake was associated with a reduction of MetS score (β for 100 mcg/day = - 0.12; 95% CI: - 0.19 to - 0.05), and plasma fasting glucose (β = - 0.03; 95% CI: - 0.05 to - 0.02) independently of the adherence to Mediterranean diet and other potential confounders. We also found a positive association with HDL-cholesterol (β = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.04-0.10). These associations were also observed when quintiles of energy-adjusted folate intake were used instead.

Conclusion: This study suggests that a higher folate intake may be associated with a lower MetS score in older adults, a lower plasma fasting glucose, and a greater HDL cholesterol in high-risk cardio-metabolic subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02364-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer risk in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4).

Eur J Cancer Prev 2020 09;29(5):408-415

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies.

Aim: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy.

Methods: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models.

Results: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before.

Conclusions: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000572DOI Listing
September 2020

Adherence to the Mediterranean Lifestyle and Desired Body Weight Loss in a Mediterranean Adult Population with Overweight: A PREDIMED-Plus Study.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 16;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 16.

CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBEROBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Background: Body weight dissatisfaction is a hindrance to following a healthy lifestyle and it has been associated with weight concerns.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean lifestyle (diet and exercise) and the desired body weight loss in an adult Mediterranean population with overweight.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis in 6355 participants (3268 men; 3087 women) with metabolic syndrome and BMI (Body mass index) between 27.0 and 40.0 kg/m (55-75 years old) from the PREDIMED-Plus trial. Desired weight loss was the percentage of weight that participants wished to lose. It was categorized into four cut-offs of this percentage (Q1: <10%, = 1495; Q2: 10-15%, = 1804; Q3: <15-20%, = 1470; Q4: ≥20%, = 1589). Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and a 17-item Mediterranean diet questionnaire. Physical activity was assessed by the validated Minnesota-REGICOR and the validated Spanish version of the Nurses' Health Study questionnaire.

Results: Participants reporting higher percentages of desired weight loss (Q3 and Q4) were younger, had higher real and perceived BMI and were more likely to have abdominal obesity. Desired weight loss correlated inversely to physical activity (Q1: 2106 MET min/week; Q4: 1585 MET min/week. < 0.001) and adherence to Mediterranean diet (Q1: 8.7; Q4: 8.3. < 0.001).

Conclusions: In older Mediterranean individuals with weight excess, desired weight loss was inversely associated with Mediterranean lifestyle adherence. Deeply rooted aspects of the MedDiet remained similar across groups. Longitudinal research is advised to be able to establish causality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12072114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400596PMC
July 2020