Publications by authors named "Jesús Pablo García-Cambero"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Presence of diclofenac, estradiol, and ethinylestradiol in Manzanares River (Spain) and their toxicity to zebrafish embryo development.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Unity of Antibacterial Resistance, Spanish Food Safety and Nutrition Agency, Madrid, Spain.

Diclofenac (DCF), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and 17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) are emerging pollutants included in the first watch list agreed by European countries and set in the EU Water Directive. The objective of the present study was the analytical monitoring of DCF, E2, and EE2 in surface water and sediment of the Manzanares River in a stretch that crosses the city of Madrid, Spain, and to assess whether such environmental levels could affect the development of aquatic vertebrates through a zebrafish embryo-larval assay. Samples taken during two campaigns in the spring of 2015 were analyzed for DCF, E2, and EE2 by LC-MS or GC-MS. The levels of E2 and EE2 measured in surface water and sediments of the Manzanares were within the ranges reported in other Spanish and European studies; however, DCF levels were higher in the present study. The zebrafish embryos exposed to the Manzanares River water (0-144h) showed lethal effects and sublethal effects (developmental delay, bradycardia, and reduced locomotion). Nevertheless, these effects were not primarily associated with the levels of DCF, E2, and EE2 present in the Manzanares River, because representative mixtures of the field study prepared in the laboratory did not exhibit such toxicity to the zebrafish embryos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14167-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Identification of Off-Patent Drugs That Show Synergism with Amphotericin B or That Present Antifungal Action against Cryptococcus neoformans and spp.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 03 24;64(4). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Mycology Reference Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain

Amphotericin B (AmB) is the antifungal with the strongest fungicidal activity, but its use has several limitations, mainly associated with its toxicity. Although some lipidic and liposomal formulations that present reduced toxicity are available, their price limits their application in developing countries. Flucytosine (5FC) has shown synergistic effect with AmB for treatment of some fungal infections, such as cryptococcosis, but again, its price is a limitation for its use in many regions. In the present work, we aimed to identify new drugs that have a minor effect on , reducing its growth in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of AmB. In the initial screening, we found fourteen drugs that had this pattern. Later, checkerboard assays of selected compounds, such as erythromycin, riluzole, nortriptyline, chenodiol, nisoldipine, promazine, chlorcyclizine, cloperastine, and glimepiride, were performed and all of them confirmed for their synergistic effect (fractional inhibitory concentration index [FICI] < 0.5). Additionally, toxicity of these drugs in combination with AmB was tested in mammalian cells and in zebrafish embryos. Harmless compounds, such as the antibiotic erythromycin, were found to have synergic activity with AmB, not only against but also against some spp., in particular against In parallel, we identified drugs that had antifungal activity against and found 43 drugs that completely inhibited the growth of this fungus, such as ciclopirox and auranofin. Our results expand our knowledge about antifungal compounds and open new perspectives in the treatment of invasive mycosis based on repurposing off-patent drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01921-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179310PMC
March 2020

Converging hazard assessment of gold nanoparticles to aquatic organisms.

Chemosphere 2013 Oct 31;93(6):1194-200. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Toxicology Area, National Centre for Environmental Health, ISCIII Health Institute, Ctra Majadahonda-Pozuelo km 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are being increasingly used because of their huge diversity of applications, and consequently, elevated levels in the environment are expected. However, due to their physico-chemical properties and functionalization a high variety of Au-NPs can be found, and complete toxicological information for each type of Au-NPs still lacks, and even, the toxicological information for the same species is sometimes contradictory. Therefore, hazard assessment should be done case by case. Hence, the objective of this study was to obtain ecotoxicological information of the same Au-NPs in aquatic organisms and to find a rationale for Au-NPs toxicity. For such a purpose, bare and hyaluronic acid capped Au-NPs (12.5 nm) along with Au-NPs bulk material were tested on freshwater algae, Daphnia and zebrafish. Results showed that while gold nanoparticles were found to be harmless to the tested organisms, the soluble gold showed to be toxic to algae and Daphnia, with an LC50 between 1 and 2 mg L(-1). Comparing our results with those gathered in the literature, it appears that a common hazard assessment of Au-NPs on the studied organisms can be elucidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.074DOI Listing
October 2013

River waters induced neurotoxicity in an embryo-larval zebrafish model.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2012 Oct 18;84:84-91. Epub 2012 Aug 18.

Toxicology Area, National Centre for Environmental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ctra Majadahonda-Pozuelo Km 2, 28220 Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Some investigations have revealed an increased release of psychoactive drugs into the aquatic environments near big cities. However, despite the alert generated by the presence of such neurotoxic compounds, there is a lack of studies evaluating the impact on living organisms. One solution consists in the development of bioassays able to address specific risks, such as neurotoxicity, but on the other hand suitable to assess complex matrices like river samples. The objective of this work was to assess surface water toxicity by means of a zebrafish embryo-larval combined toxicity assay, which is based on a variety of toxicological endpoints, especially those related to neurodevelopment. For such a purpose, we selected the Tagus River in which a previous monitoring study revealed the presence of psychoactive drugs. Results showed that most of the toxicological endpoints evaluated remained unaltered in the exposed embryos, except for the tail length that was larger in the exposed larvae, and the locomotor activity in the 6-day larvae, which was decreased in four groups of exposure (n=5 sampling points). In the absence of systemic toxicity, changes in larval locomotion are indicative of neurotoxicity. This result suggests that the Tagus River can convey neurotoxic compounds at levels that may represent an early and specific threat over the aquatic species of vertebrates, what can have dramatic consequences under the ecological point of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2012.06.029DOI Listing
October 2012

Glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in common carp after exposure to simazine.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2009 Jan 19;27(1):30-8. Epub 2008 Aug 19.

Department of Animal Health, Veterinary Faculty, University of Extremadura, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, P.O. Box 643, 10071 Caceres, Spain.

Several water contamination incidents with simazine have occurred in the province of Badajoz (Spain). Simazine residues were also detected in drinking water, increasing public health concern. Since little information was found concerning the effects of sublethal concentrations of simazine on aquatic organisms, we investigated some oxidative stress biomarkers in tissues of carps from contaminated waters. Results confirmed an increase in tissue reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde levels in carps inhabiting one of the contaminated ponds. To assess the biological significance of this finding, a laboratory study in which carps were exposed to simazine at 45μgL(-1) (10-fold that of the natural water levels) for 90 days was developed. The results obtained in the field study were not confirmed in the laboratory exposure, where no differences were seen between the control and the exposure groups. Therefore, carps did not suffer oxidative stress phenomena by the presence of the simazine, at concentrations found in both studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2008.08.003DOI Listing
January 2009