Publications by authors named "Jerzy Hohendorff"

18 Publications

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Intermittently Scanned Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data of Polish Patients from Real-Life Conditions: More Scanning and Better Glycemic Control Compared to Worldwide Data.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Randomized trials and observational studies have shown that the use of FreeStyle Libre intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring system (isCGMS) is associated with improved glycemic indices and quality of life. In this retrospective, real-world data analysis, we described country-specific glucometrics among isCGMS users from Poland and compared them with international data. The analyzed time period for the Polish data ranged between August 2016 and August 2020, and the analyzed time period for the international data ranged from September 2014 to August 2020. Data from the Polish population were collected from 10,679 readers and 92,627 sensors with 113 million automatically recorded glucose readings. The worldwide database included information from 981,876 readers and 11,179,229 sensors with 13.1 billion glucose readings. On average, the users of isCGMS from Poland performed substantially more scans/day (21.2 ± 14.2 vs. 13.2 ± 10.7), achieved lower eHbA1c (7.0% ± 1.2% vs. 7.5% ± 1.5%), and spent more time-in-range (TIR) (64.2% ± 17.3% vs. 58.1% ± 20.3%) and less time-above-range (TAR) (29.7% ± 18.0% vs. 36.6% ± 21.3%) ( < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Moreover, they were more likely to achieve TIR >70% (36.3% vs. 28.8%), but spent more time-below-range (TBR) (4.7% vs. 3.6%). Our results confirmed that analyzed glucometrics improve as the scan rate frequency increases. However, at a similar scanning frequency to the comparative group, users from Poland achieved lower eHbA1c, higher TIR, and lower TAR, but higher TBR. We report more scanning and better glycemic control in isCGMS users in Poland than worldwide. The cause of this observation remains unknown. Our data also show that in real-life practice, a large number of patients may be willing to perform scanning more frequently than it is usually assumed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2021.0034DOI Listing
April 2021

Physiological Characteristics of Type 1 Diabetes Patients during High Mountain Trekking.

J Diabetes Res 2020 15;2020:8068710. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

In this study, the aim was to provide observational data from an ascent to the summit of Mount Damavand (5670 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l), Iran) by a group of people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), with a focus on their physiological characteristics. After a 3-day expedition, 18 T1DM patients, all treated with personal insulin pumps, successfully climbed Mount Damavand. Information was collected on their physiological and dietary behaviors, as well as medical parameters, such as carbohydrate consumption, glucose patterns, insulin dosing, and the number of hypo- and hyperglycemic episodes during this time frame. The participants consumed significantly less carbohydrates on day 3 compared to day 1 (16.4 vs. 23.1 carbohydrate units; = 0.037). Despite this, a gradual rise in the mean daily glucose concentration as measured with a glucometer was observed. Interestingly, the patients did not fully respond to higher insulin delivery as there was no significant difference in mean daily insulin dose during the expedition. There were more hyperglycemic episodes (≥180 mg/dL) per patient on day 3 vs. day 1 ( < 0.05) and more severe hyperglycemic episodes (>250 mg/dL) per patient on days 2 ( < 0.05) and 3 ( < 0.05) vs. day 1. In summary, high mountain trekking is feasible for T1DM patients with good glycemic control and no chronic complications. However, some changes in dietary preferences and an observable rise in glucose levels may occur. This requires an adequate therapeutic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8068710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519997PMC
September 2020

Negative pressure wound therapy affects circulating plasma microRNAs in patients with diabetic foot ulceration.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2020 Jul 10;165:108251. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland; University Hospital, Krakow, Poland. Electronic address:

Aims: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is commonly used in diabetic foot ulceration (DFU). The molecular mechanisms of NPWT action, particularly outside of the wound site, have not been described. We assessed NPWT's effect on circulating miRNA expression levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with DFU.

Methods: We examined 34 T2DM patients treated with either NPWT (n = 24) or standard therapy (ST, n = 10). The group assignment was based on clinical criteria and local practice. Next-generation sequencing-based microRNA expression was determined on the patient's plasma collected before therapy and after 8 days.

Results: NPWT patients were similar to the ST group in terms of age, BMI, and HbA1c level; however, they differed by mean wound area (12.6 cm vs. 1.1 cm p = 0.0005). First, we analyzed the change of miRNA after NPWT or ST and observed an upregulation of let-7f-2 only in the NPWT group. Then, we analyzed the differential expression between NPWT and ST groups, looking at possible wound size effects. We found 12 differentially expressed miRNAs in pre-treatment comparison, including let-7f-2, while in post-treatment analysis we identified 28 miRNAs. The pathway enrichment analysis suggests that identified miRNAs may be involved in wound healing, particularly through angiogenesis.

Conclusion: We found initial evidence that NPWT in T2DM patients with DFU affects miRNA expression in plasma. Additionally, some differences in plasma miRNA expression may be related to wound size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108251DOI Listing
July 2020

NPWT in diabetic foot wounds-a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Endocrine 2020 04 9;68(1):44-55. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Purpose: Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is an adjunct modality in diabetic foot ulcerations (DFUs). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown its advantage over standard approaches; however, data from observational studies remain scarce.We performed a systematic review of observational non-RCTs evaluating NPWT efficacy and safety in patients with DFU.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched for observational studies involving NPWT. The results of single-arm studies were presented as percentages of patients with the outcome of interest. A meta-analysis of comparative studies provided point estimates of outcomes. Continuous outcomes were reported as either weighted or standardized mean differences and dichotomous data as relative risks (RR).

Results: The search identified 16 relevant observational studies, 12 single-arm, and 4 comparative, reporting on a total of 18,449 patients with DFU, of whom 1882 were managed with NPWT. In the NPWT-treated patients, ulcers were larger (average size range 6.6-27.9 cm), as compared with controls (≤3 cm). The pooled results showed healing and major amputation in 51% and 5% of NPWT patients, respectively. The meta-analysis of comparative studies revealed lower risk of major amputation [RR = 0.23 (0.07; 0.80)] in NPWT-treated patients. The pooled results for healing rate and risk of any amputation were inconclusive due to large between-study heterogeneity. Overall, 6 deaths out of 158 patients were reported, none of them related to NPWT. Serious adverse events occurred in 6% of patients on NPWT.

Conclusions: This systematic review of observational studies provided supportive evidence that NWPT is an efficient and safe adjunct treatment in the management of DFUs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-019-02164-9DOI Listing
April 2020

Effects of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Levels of Angiopoetin-2 and Other Selected Circulating Signaling Molecules in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

J Diabetes Res 2019 28;2019:1756798. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Background And Aims: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are linked to amputations and premature deaths. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used for DFUs. The mechanism of NPWT's action may be associated with its influence on circulating molecules. We assessed NPWT's effect on the plasma levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a key regulator of angiogenesis, and its microvesicular receptors (Tie2) as well as the microvesicles (MVs) themselves in DFU patients.

Materials And Methods: We included 69 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and neuropathic, noninfected DFUs-49 were treated with NPWT and 20 were treated with standard therapy (ST). Assigning patients to the NPWT group was not random but based on DFU characteristics, especially wound area. Ang2 was measured by ELISA in the entire group, while in a subgroup of 19 individuals on NPWT and 10 on ST, flow cytometry was used to measure Tie2+ and the corresponding isotype control (Iso+) and annexin V (AnnV+) as well as total MVs. Measurements were performed at the beginning and after 8 ± 1 days of therapy.

Results: Treatment groups were similar for basic characteristics but differed by their median DFU areas (10.3 (4.2-18.9) vs. 1.3 (0.9-3.4) cm, = 0.0001). At day 0, no difference was observed in Ang2 levels, total MVs, MV Tie+, and MV AnnV+ between the groups. Ang2 decreased after 8 days in the NPWT group, unlike in the ST group (3.54 (2.40-5.40) vs. 3.32 (2.33-4.61), = 0.02, and 3.19 ± 1.11 vs. 3.19 ± 1.29 ng/mL, = 0.98, respectively). No other parameters were identified that may have been influenced by the NPWT treatment.

Conclusion: NPWT in T2DM patients with neuropathic, noninfected DFU seems to lead to reduction of the Ang2 level. Influencing the level of Ang2 may constitute one of NPWT-related mechanisms to accelerate wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/1756798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6855047PMC
April 2020

The utility of MODY Probability Calculator in probands of families with early-onset autosomal dominant diabetes from Poland.

Minerva Med 2019 Dec 14;110(6):499-506. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland -

Background: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) accounts for 1-2% of all diabetes cases. Unfortunately, circa 90% of MODY cases are misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes. A proper genetic diagnosis based on automatic sequencing is crucial for the use of a tailored treatment. However, this method is still expensive and, thus, patients' selection for testing should be performed precisely. In 2012, an easy-to-use tool was developed in Exeter, UK, to support genetic testing for MODY in the British population. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of MODY Probability Calculator in probands from Polish families with early-onset autosomal dominant diabetes.

Methods: We have performed a retrospective analysis of 155 probands who were qualified for genetic testing between 2006 and 2018. Probands were recruited for MODY testing based on the following criteria: 1) early age of diagnosis (≤35 years); 2) a positive, multigenerational family history of diabetes. Automatic sequencing, Sanger and, in case of initial negative results, new generation sequencing (NGS) of a set of 28 genes, were performed. MODY Probability was calculated on the website www.diabetesgenes.org.

Results: The group of probands consisted of 64 GCK-, 37 HNF1A-, and three HNF4A-MODY patients and 51 NGS-negative subjects. The median positive predictive value (PPV) was 75.5% (95% CI: 75.5-75.5%), 49.4% (95% CI: 24.4-75.5%), 45.5% (95% CI: 21.0-75.5%) and 49.4% (95% CI: 32.9-75.5%) for GCK-, HNF1A-, HNF4A-MODY and NGS-negative, respectively. The discriminative accuracy, as expressed by AUC, of PPV between MODY and NGS negative groups was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52-0.71) with the corresponding sensitivity of 71.2% and specificity of 51.0%.

Conclusions: In this highly pre-selected group of probands that were qualified for genetic testing based on clinical features, the use of MODY Probability Calculator would not substantially improve the patients' selection process for genetic testing. Further efforts to improve this tool are desirable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.19.06053-1DOI Listing
December 2019

Risk factors of hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes individuals during intensive sport exercise-Data from the SPORTGIVECHANCE event.

Int J Clin Pract 2019 Nov 4;73(11):e13411. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Aims: Fear of hypoglycaemia seems to be one of the strongest barrier to physical activity for individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).The aim of the study was to describe clinical characteristics of participants with T1DM in the intense sporting event of runs and bike rides"SPORTGIVECHANCE-Diabetic runners and cyclists for more sport for all in Europe", and investigate factors associated with self-reported hypoglycaemia episodes during the competition, in particular the use of continuous and flash glucose monitoring systems (CGM/FGM).

Methods: The sporting event took place in Spoleto, Italy from 30 August 2018 to 2 September 2018. An online survey was distributed among 150 participants with diabetes. Only T1DM patients were invited to complete the survey that included questions on baseline clinical characteristics as well as glucose control and meal related issues during the competition. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with reported hypoglycaemia.

Results: There were 35 T1DM individuals who completed the questionnaire: eight subjects were continuous glucose monitoring system (CGM) users, 10 used flash glucose monitoring systems (FGM), while the others performed self-measured blood glucose measurements (SMBG) on glucose meters. Mild hypoglycaemia episodes during the competition were reported by four CGM/FGM users and six non-users (OR: 0.73, CI: 0.34-1.53). No severe hypoglycaemic episode was reported. Body mass index (BMI) (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.01-2.13) and subjectively very hard or maximal intensity of the competition (OR: 4.90, CI: 1.51-15.89) were associated with a higher risk of hypoglycaemia.

Conclusions: Data obtained from the self-selected sample of T1DM patients suggests that T1DM individuals can participate in intense sport competitions with moderate risk of mild hypoglycaemia regardless of CGM/FGM or SMBG use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13411DOI Listing
November 2019

Predictors of neutrophil extracellular traps markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus: associations with a prothrombotic state and hypofibrinolysis.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019 04 16;18(1):49. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 80 Pradnicka St., 31-202, Krakow, Poland.

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased neutrophil extracellular traps formation (NETosis). We investigated predictors of NETosis and cell death markers in circulating blood and their association with a prothrombotic state in T2DM.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study involving 113 T2DM patients aged 63.7 ± 8.2 years, we investigated citrullinated histone H3 (H3Cit), cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (cfDNA), myeloperoxidase, neutrophil elastase, and inflammation markers, along with thrombin generation (TG), plasma clot lysis time (CLT), clot permeability (K) and fibrinolysis inhibitors.

Results: On multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender, predictors of high H3Cit (≥ 7.36 ng/mL, upper quartile) were: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 7.0% and interleukin-6. Interleukin-6 was also found to be a predictor of high cfDNA (≥ 2.84 µg/mL, upper quartile) along with glucose. Citrullinated histone H3 and cfDNA correlated positively with CLT and inversely with K, while TG associated solely with cfDNA. These associations were not seen with myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. Patients with previous myocardial infarction (n = 21, 18.6%) had higher H3Cit (+108%, p < 0.001) and cfDNA (+45%, p = 0.022). On multivariable analysis adjusted for potential confounders, H3Cit and cfDNA, along with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and concomitant cardiovascular disease, were predictors of CLT. Citrullinated histone H3 alone was a predictor of K and only cfDNA was a predictor of peak thrombin generated.

Conclusions: In T2DM, NETosis detectable in circulating blood is associated with inflammatory state and a prothrombotic state, especially hypofibrinolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0850-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469138PMC
April 2019

A decision algorithm to identify patients with high probability of monogenic diabetes due to HNF1A mutations.

Endocrine 2019 04 18;64(1):75-81. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Purpose: To investigate the utility of biomarkers of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory features to improve diagnostic accuracy and provide a diagnostic algorithm for HNF1A MODY.

Methods: We examined 77 patients with HNF1A MODY, 88 with GCK MODY mutations, 99 with type 1 diabetes, and 92 with type 2 diabetes. In addition to 1,5-AG and hsCRP, we considered body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, and fasting serum C-peptide as potential biomarkers. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were used in marker evaluation.

Results: Concentration of hsCRP was lowest in HNF1A MODY (0.51 mg/l) and highest in type 2 diabetes (1.33 mg/l). The level of 1,5-AG was lowest in type 1 diabetes and HNF1A MODY, 3.8 and 4.7 μg/ml, respectively, and highest (11.2 μg/ml) in GCK MODY. In the diagnostic algorithm, we first excluded patients with type 1 diabetes based on low C-peptide (C-statistic 0.98) before using high BMI and C-peptide to identify type 2 diabetes patients (C-statistic 0.92). Finally, 1,5-AG and hsCRP in conjunction yielded a C-statistic of 0.86 in discriminating HNF1A from GCK MODY. We correctly classified 92.9% of patients with type 1 diabetes, 84.8% with type 2 diabetes, 64.9% HNF1A MODY, and 52.3% GCK MODY patients.

Conclusions: Plasma 1,5-AG and serum hsCRP do not discriminate sufficiently HNF1A MODY from common diabetes types, but could be potentially useful in prioritizing Sanger sequencing of HNF1A gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-019-01863-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453873PMC
April 2019

Plasma Protein Oxidation as a Determinant of Impaired Fibrinolysis in Type 2 Diabetes.

Thromb Haemost 2019 Feb 3;119(2):213-222. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Objective:  We investigated clinical and laboratory determinants of plasma protein oxidation and its associations with clot fibrinolysis in type 2 diabetes patients.

Materials And Methods:  Our cross-sectional study consisted of 246 type 2 diabetic patients, 143 (58%) with concomitant cardiovascular disease (CVD), including 41 (17%) with previous myocardial infarction (MI). We measured total protein carbonylation (PC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) along with clot lysis time (CLT) and clot permeation ( ), fibrinogen, plasminogen, α-2-antiplasmin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and thrombomodulin.

Results:  Total PC correlated positively, while TAC correlated inversely with glycated haemoglobin and diabetes duration (all  < 0.05). Diabetic patients with CVD had higher total PC, TBARS and lower TAC compared with the remainder (all  < 0.001). Among correlations of total PC with , PAI-1, thrombomodulin and TAFI, the strongest was with CLT ( = 0.687, all  < 0.01). High total PC, defined as ≥ 3.45 nmol/mg, was predicted by time since diabetes diagnosis ≥ 5 years (odds ratio [OR]: 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36-6.63) and previous MI (OR: 11.31, 95% CI: 4.37-29.32). After adjustment for potential confounders, total PC accounted for 34.9% of the total variance in CLT. Total PC at a cut-off of 3.44 nmol/mg showed high discriminatory power for identifying patients with prolonged CLT (area under the curve: 0.845, 95% CI: 0.792-0.898,  < 0.001).

Conclusion:  Elevated plasma PC, largely driven by a long history of diabetes and concomitant CVD, is an important determinant of hypofibrinolysis in type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1676609DOI Listing
February 2019

Negative pressure wound therapy use in diabetic foot syndrome-from mechanisms of action to clinical practice.

Eur J Clin Invest 2019 Apr 29;49(4):e13067. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Background: Diabetes and its complications constitute a rising medical challenge. Special attention should be given to diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) due to its high rate of associated amputation and mortality. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a frequently used supportive modality in a diabetic foot with ulcerations (DFUs).

Design: Here, we reviewed the current knowledge concerning the tissue and molecular mechanisms of NPWT action with an emphasis on diabetes research followed by a summary of clinical DFU studies and practice guidelines.

Results: Negative pressure wound therapy action results in two types of tissue deformations-macrodeformation, such as wound contraction, and microdeformation occurring at microscopic level. Both of them stimulate a wound healing cascade including tissue granulation promotion, vessel proliferation, neoangiogenesis, epithelialization and excess extracellular fluid removal. On the molecular level, NPWT results in an alteration towards more pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory conditions. It increases expression of several key growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2, while expression of inflammatory cytokinesis reduced. The NPWT application also alters the presence and function of matrix metalloproteinases. Clinical studies in DFU patients showed a superiority of NPWT over standard therapy in terms of efficacy outcomes, primarily wound healing and amputation rate, without a rise in adverse events. International guidelines point to NPWT as an important adjuvant therapy in DFU whose use is expected to increase.

Conclusions: This current knowledge improves our understanding of NPWT action and its tailoring for application in diabetic patients. It may inform the development of new treatments for DFU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13067DOI Listing
April 2019

Insulin pump settings and glucose patterns during a 1008-km non-stop bicycle race in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Acta Diabetol 2019 05 15;56(5):593-595. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 15 Kopernika Street, 31-501, Kraków, Poland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-018-1254-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451704PMC
May 2019

Quality of life assessment in patients with HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY.

Endocrine 2019 05 12;64(2):246-253. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Aim: The impact of maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) on quality of life (QoL) has never been examined. We assessed disease impact on QoL among patients with HNF1A-MODY and GCK mutation carrier status.

Methods: The study included 80 patients with HNF1A-MODY and 89 GCK gene mutation carriers. We also examined 128 type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients for comparison. Diabetes-specific QoL was assessed using the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life questionnaire.

Results: HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY groups had similar mean age (41.7 vs. 38.0 years, respectively) and BMI (24.1 vs. 24.3 kg/m), whereas T1DM patients were on average younger (34.2 years) with similar BMI (25.0 kg/m). Less than a third of GCK mutation carriers were on pharmacotherapy (n = 20, 31%), while the majority of HNF1A mutation carriers used oral drugs or insulin (n = 66, 82.5%). While current QoL was similar across the three groups (p = 0.66), two other major indices-the impact of diabetes on QoL and the average weighted impact (AWI)-differed among them (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The impact of diabetes on patient QoL and AWI observed in both MODY groups was smaller than in T1DM. Etiological diagnosis of diabetes and a diagnosis of retinopathy were the only independent factors influencing the impact of diabetes on QoL and AWI in regression analysis. In HNF1A-MODY, all three major indices of QoL were more heavily influenced for patients on insulin in comparison to other treatment sub-groups.

Conclusion: MODY has a smaller negative impact on QoL compared to T1DM. Mode of treatment further stratifies QoL decline for HNF1A-MODY subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-018-1812-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6531383PMC
May 2019

Safe Completion of a Trail Running Ultramarathon by Four Men with Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2018 02 2;20(2):147-152. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

2 Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Kraków, Poland .

In this brief report, we describe the feat of four men with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who decided to take part in a mountain ultramarathon in Bieszczady, Poland on May 27, 2016. Before participating in the competition, they asked two diabetologists for a consultation and to assist in diabetic control during the marathon. The aim of the study was to assess the metabolic safety in people with T1DM during extreme physical exertion in a mountain ultramarathon. All subjects were treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The marathon route was 82 km, and the sum of the climbs and descents was 3235 and 3055 m, respectively. Diabetologists controlled glucose levels using a glucometer, plasma lactate levels, and ketones in the capillary blood. In addition, they monitored the intake of carbohydrates and fluids. Clinical tests were performed at the three checkpoints (at 32, 49, and 66 km) during the race and after completing the race (at 82 km). This study shows that extreme physical exertion by a person with type 1 diabetes is possible. All subjects avoided severe hypoglycemia by significantly reducing their insulin dose and consuming additional carbohydrates. Such actions, despite the occurrence of hyperglycemia >250 mg/dL did not result in ketoacidosis. Safe participation in mountain ultramarathons by people with type 1 diabetes can be achieved if they undertake appropriate physical and diabetologic preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2017.0296DOI Listing
February 2018

Type 1 Diabetes at High Altitude: Performance of Personal Insulin Pumps and Patient Metabolic Control.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2017 10 23;19(10):600-602. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

1 Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Kraków, Poland .

High-altitude trekking can expose people to extreme environmental conditions, like low temperatures and hypobaric hypoxia. Such extreme conditions make it more difficult for people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) to maintain glycemic control. Intensive blood glucose monitoring using either glucose meters or continuous systems is imperative in these cases. In this observational study, we report metabolic control of T1DM patients and the performance of various insulin pumps at high altitude. All 19 patients with T1DM included in this study participated in the final step of the "5000 meters above sugar level" initiative, which involved trekking Damavand Mountain to an altitude of 5670 meters above sea level. We found that all pump models worked well without any disruption and no cases of diabetes decompensation or severe hypoglycemia occurred. Therefore, healthy, physically fit, and experienced individuals with T1DM should not be discouraged from participating in mountain trekking activities, as modern personal insulin pumps work well at high altitudes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2016.0452DOI Listing
October 2017

Changes in preconception treatment and glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a 15‑year single‑center follow‑up.

Pol Arch Med Wewn 2016 Aug 29;126(10):739-745. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

INTRODUCTION    Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with higher risk of complications. Strict glycemic control before conception reduces the risk of unfavorable outcomes. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to assess changes in clinical characteristics, preconception treatment, and glycemic control of women with T1DM at the first antinatal visit. PATIENTS AND METHODS    We analyzed the records from the first antenatal visit of 524 women with T1DM in the years 1998-2012. The follow‑up period was divided into 3 5‑year periods. RESULTS    Differences in the age of patients between the 3 follow‑up periods were observed (28.2 ±5.7 years for 1998-2002; 27.3 ±4.5 years for 2003-2007; and 29.4 ±4.8 years for 2008-2012; P <0.0001). The number of women planning pregnancy did not change and reached 32.1% in the first, 44.4% in the second, and 40.4% in the third period (P = 0.2). The use of rapid‑acting insulin analogues increased from 2.6% to 46.5% and then to 95.6% (P <0.001). The rate of therapy with personal insulin pumps before pregnancy increased from 4.6% in the first, through 23.5% in the second, to 33.3% in the third period (P <0.001). Over the subsequent periods, we observed a decrease in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at the first antenatal visit (from 7.4% ±1.6%, through 6.9% ±1.4%, to 7.0% ±1.4%; P = 0.06), as well as a decrease in HbA1c levels between the subgroups of women planning pregnancy (6.8% ±1.4%, 6.6% ±1.2%, and 6.1% ±0.8%, P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS    In the years 1998-2012, an increase in the use of insulin analogues and personal insulin pumps by women with T1DM before conception was observed, and these changes were accompanied by a slight improvement in glycemic control, particularly among women planning pregnancy. The percentage of women planning pregnancy did not change during the follow‑up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20452/pamw.3543DOI Listing
August 2016

Circulating ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in polygenic forms of diabetes mellitus.

Endocrine 2015 Dec 19;50(3):643-9. Epub 2015 May 19.

Department of Metabolic Diseases, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 15 Kopernika Street, 31-501, Krakow, Poland.

Ghrelin is a hormone that regulates appetite. It is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of varying forms of diabetes. In animal studies, the ghrelin expression was regulated by the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A). Mutations of the HNF1A gene cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We aimed to assess the circulating ghrelin levels in HNF1A-MODY and in other types of diabetes and to evaluate its association with HNF1A mutation status. Our cohort included 46 diabetic HNF1A gene mutation carriers, 55 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects, 42 type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients, and 31 glucokinase (GCK) gene mutation carriers with diabetes as well as 51 healthy controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration was measured using the immunoenzymatic assay with polyclonal antibody against the C-terminal fragment of its acylated and desacylated forms. Ghrelin concentrations were 0.75 ± 0.32, 0.70 ± 0.21, 0.50 ± 0.20, and 0.40 ± 0.16 ng/ml in patients with HNF1A-MODY, GCK-MODY, T1DM, and T2DM, respectively. The ghrelin levels were higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in T1DM and T2DM (p < 0.001 for all comparisons) but lower than in non-diabetic controls (1.02 ± 0.29 ng/ml, p < 0.001 for both comparisons). In the multivariate linear model, the differences between both MODY groups and common diabetes types remained significant. Analysis by a HNF1A mutation type indicated that ghrelin concentration is similar in patients with different types of sequence differences. Plasma ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in the common polygenic forms of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-015-0627-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4662709PMC
December 2015