Publications by authors named "Jeremy Supple"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Calculation algorithms and penumbra: Underestimation of dose in organs at risk in dosimetry audits.

Med Phys 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate overdose to organs at risk (OARs) observed in dosimetry audits in Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms and Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation (LBTE) algorithms. The impact of penumbra modeling on OAR dose was assessed with the adjustment of MC modeling parameters and the clinical relevance of the audit cases was explored with a planning study of spine and head and neck (H&N) patient cases.

Methods: Dosimetric audits performed by the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) of 43 anthropomorphic spine plans and 1318 C-shaped target plans compared the planned dose to doses measured with ion chamber, microdiamond, film, and ion chamber array. An MC EGSnrc model was created to simulate the C-shape target case. The electron cut-off energy E was set at 500, 200, and 10 keV, and differences between 1 and 3 mm voxel were calculated. A planning study with 10 patient stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) spine plans and 10 patient H&N plans was calculated in both Acuros XB (AXB) v15.6.06 and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) v15.6.06. The patient contour was overridden to water as only the penumbral differences between the two different algorithms were under investigation.

Results: The dosimetry audit results show that for the SBRT spine case, plans calculated in AXB are colder than what is measured in the spinal cord by 5%-10%. This was also observed for other audit cases where a C-shape target is wrapped around an OAR where the plans were colder by 3%-10%. Plans calculated with Monaco MC were colder than measurements by approximately 7% with the OAR surround by a C-shape target, but these differences were not noted in the SBRT spine case. Results from the clinical patient plans showed that the AXB was on average 7.4% colder than AAA when comparing the minimum dose in the spinal cord OAR. This average difference between AXB and AAA reduced to 4.5% when using the more clinically relevant metric of maximum dose in the spinal cord. For the H&N plans, AXB was cooler on average than AAA in the spinal cord OAR (1.1%), left parotid (1.7%), and right parotid (2.3%). The EGSnrc investigation also noted similar, but smaller differences. The beam penumbra modeled by E  = 500 keV was steeper than the beam penumbra modeled by E  = 10 keV as the full scatter is not accounted for, which resulted in less dose being calculated in a central OAR region where the penumbra contributes much of the dose. The dose difference when using 2.5 mm voxels of the center of the OAR between 500 and 10 keV was 3%, reducing to 1% between 200 and 10 keV.

Conclusions: Lack of full penumbral modeling due to approximations in the algorithms in MC based or LBTE algorithms are a contributing factor as to why these algorithms under-predict the dose to OAR when the treatment volume is wrapped around the OAR. The penumbra modeling approximations also contribute to AXB plans predicting colder doses than AAA in areas that are in the vicinity of beam penumbra. This effect is magnified in regions where there are many beam penumbras, for example in the spinal cord for spine SBRT cases.
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July 2021

Measuring the dose in bone for spine stereotactic body radiotherapy.

Phys Med 2021 Apr 25;84:265-273. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Melbourne, Australia.

Purpose: Current quality assurance of radiotherapy involving bony regions generally utilises homogeneous phantoms and dose calculations, ignoring the challenges of heterogeneities with dosimetry problems likely occurring around bone. Anthropomorphic phantoms with synthetic bony materials enable realistic end-to-end testing in clinical scenarios. This work reports on measurements and calculated corrections required to directly report dose in bony materials in the context of comprehensive end-to-end dosimetry audit measurements (63 plans, 6 planning systems).

Materials And Methods: Radiochromic film and microDiamond measurements were performed in an anthropomorphic spine phantom containing bone equivalent materials. Medium dependent correction factors, k, were established using 6 MV and 10 MV Linear Accelerator Monte Carlo simulations to account for the detectors being calibrated in water, but measuring in regions of bony material. Both cortical and trabecular bony material were investigated for verification of dose calculations in dose-to-medium (D) and dose-to-water (D) scenarios.

Results: For D calculations, modelled correction factors for cortical and trabecular bone in film measurements, and for trabecular bone in microDiamond measurements were 0.875(±0.1%), 0.953(±0.3%) and 0.962(±0.4%), respectively. For D calculations, the corrections were 0.920(±0.1%), 0.982(±0.3%) and 0.993(±0.4%), respectively. In the audit, application of the correction factors improves the mean agreement between treatment plans and measured microDiamond dose from -2.4%(±3.9%) to 0.4%(±3.7%).

Conclusion: Monte Carlo simulations provide a method for correcting the dose measured in bony materials allowing more accurate comparison with treatment planning system doses. In verification measurements, algorithm specific correction factors should be applied to account for variations in bony material for calculations based on D and D.
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April 2021

Dosimetric end-to-end tests in a national audit of 3D conformal radiotherapy.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2018 Apr 24;6:5-11. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS), Australian Radiation Protection and National Safety Agency (ARPANSA), 619 Lower Plenty Road, Yallambie, VIC 3085, Australia.

Background And Purpose: Independent dosimetry audits improve quality and safety of radiation therapy. This work reports on design and findings of a comprehensive 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) Level III audit.

Materials And Methods: The audit was conducted as onsite audit using an anthropomorphic thorax phantom in an end-to-end test by the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS). Absolute dose point measurements were performed with Farmer-type ionization chambers. The audited treatment plans included open and half blocked fields, wedges and lung inhomogeneities. Audit results were determined as Pass Optimal Level (deviations within 3.3%), Pass Action Level (greater than 3.3% but within 5%) and Out of Tolerance (beyond 5%), as well as Reported Not Scored (RNS). The audit has been performed between July 2012 and January 2018 on 94 occasions, covering approximately 90% of all Australian facilities.

Results: The audit pass rate was 87% (53% optimal). Fifty recommendations were given, mainly related to planning system commissioning. Dose overestimation behind low density inhomogeneities by the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) was identified across facilities and found to extend to beam setups which resemble a typical breast cancer treatment beam placement. RNS measurements inside lung showed a variation in the opposite direction: AAA under-dosed a target beyond lung and over-dosed the lung upstream and downstream of the target. Results also highlighted shortcomings of some superposition and convolution algorithms in modelling large angle wedges.

Conclusions: This audit showed that 3D-CRT dosimetry audits remain relevant and can identify fundamental global and local problems that also affect advanced treatments.
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April 2018

The Importance of Quasi-4D Path-Integrated Dose Accumulation for More Accurate Risk Estimation in Stereotactic Liver Radiotherapy.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2016 06 20;15(3):428-36. Epub 2015 May 20.

School of Applied Sciences and Health Innovations Research Institute, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia.

Intrafraction organ deformation may be accounted for by inclusion of temporal information in dose calculation models. In this article, we demonstrate a quasi-4-dimensional method for improved risk estimation. Conventional 3-dimensional and quasi-4-dimensional calculations employing dose warping for dose accumulation were undertaken for patients with liver metastases planned for 42 Gy in 6 fractions of stereotactic body radiotherapy. Normal tissue complication probabilities and stochastic risks for radiation-induced carcinogenesis and cardiac complications were evaluated for healthy peripheral structures. Hypothetical assessments of other commonly employed dose/fractionation schedules on normal tissue complication probability estimates were explored. Conventional 3-dimensional dose computation may result in significant under- or overestimation of doses to organ at risk. For instance, doses differ (on average) by 17% (σ = 14%) for the left kidney, by 14% (σ = 7%) for the right kidney, by 7% (σ = 9%) for the large bowel, and by 10% (σ = 14%) for the duodenum. Discrepancies in the excess relative risk range up to about 30%. The 3-dimensional approach was shown to result in cardiac complication risks underestimated by >20%. For liver stereotactic body radiotherapy, we have shown that conventional 3-dimensional dose calculation may significantly over-/underestimate dose to organ at risk (90%-120% of the 4-dimensional estimate for the mean dose and 20%-150% for D2%). Providing dose estimates that most closely represent the actual dose delivered will provide valuable information to improve our understanding of the dose response for partial volume irradiation using hypofractionated schedules. Excess relative risks of radiocarcinogenesis were shown to range up to approximately excess relative risk = 4 and the prediction thereof depends greatly on the use of either 3-dimensional or 4-dimensional methods (with corresponding results differing by tens of percent).
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June 2016

A planning study investigating dual-gated volumetric arc stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma.

Med Dosim 2015 11;40(1):82-8. Epub 2014 Dec 11.

Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Melbourne University, Melbourne, Australia; Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

This is a planning study investigating the dosimetric advantages of gated volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the end-exhale and end-inhale breathing phases for patients undergoing stereotactic treatment of primary renal cell carcinoma. VMAT plans were developed from the end-inhale (VMATinh) and the end-exhale (VMATexh) phases of the breathing cycle as well as a VMAT plan and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy plan based on an internal target volume (ITV) (VMATitv). An additional VMAT plan was created by giving the respective gated VMAT plan a 50% weighting and summing the inhale and exhale plans together to create a summed gated plan. Dose to organs at risk (OARs) as well as comparison of intermediate and low-dose conformity was evaluated. There was no difference in the volume of healthy tissue receiving the prescribed dose for the planned target volume (PTV) (CI100%) for all the VMAT plans; however, the mean volume of healthy tissue receiving 50% of the prescribed dose for the PTV (CI50%) values were 4.7 (± 0.2), 4.6 (± 0.2), and 4.7 (± 0.6) for the VMATitv, VMATinh, and VMATexh plans, respectively. The VMAT plans based on the exhale and inhale breathing phases showed a 4.8% and 2.4% reduction in dose to 30cm(3) of the small bowel, respectively, compared with that of the ITV-based VMAT plan. The summed gated VMAT plans showed a 6.2% reduction in dose to 30cm(3) of the small bowel compared with that of the VMAT plans based on the ITV. Additionally, when compared with the inhale and the exhale VMAT plans, a 4% and 1.5%, respectively, reduction was observed. Gating VMAT was able to reduce the amount of prescribed, intermediate, and integral dose to healthy tissue when compared with VMAT plans based on an ITV. When summing the inhale and exhale plans together, dose to healthy tissue and OARs was optimized. However, gating VMAT plans would take longer to treat and is a factor that needs to be considered.
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October 2015

Evaluation of dosimetric misrepresentations from 3D conventional planning of liver SBRT using 4D deformable dose integration.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2014 Nov 8;15(6):4978. Epub 2014 Nov 8.

Radiation Oncology Victoria and RMIT University.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate dosimetric errors in 3D conventional plan- ning of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) by using a 4D deformable image registration (DIR)-based dose-warping and integration technique. Respiratory- correlated 4D CT image sets with 10 phases were acquired for four consecutive patients with five liver tumors. Average intensity projection (AIP) images were used to generate 3D conventional plans of SBRT. Quasi-4D path-integrated dose accumulation was performed over all 10 phases using dose-warping techniques based on DIR. This result was compared to the conventional plan in order to evalu- ate the appropriateness of 3D (static) dose calculations. In addition, we consider whether organ dose metrics derived from contours defined on the average intensity projection (AIP), or on a reference phase, provide the better approximation of the 4D values. The impact of using fewer (< 10) phases was also explored. The AIP- based 3D planning approach overestimated doses to targets by 1.4% to 8.7% (mean 4.2%) and underestimated dose to normal liver by up to 8% (mean -5.5%; range -2.3% to -8.0%), compared to the 4D methodology. The homogeneity of the dose distribution was overestimated when using conventional 3D calculations by up to 24%. OAR doses estimated by 3D planning were, on average, within 10% of the 4D calculations; however, differences of up to 100% were observed. Four-dimensional dose calculation using 3 phases gave a reasonable approximation of that calculated from the full 10 phases for all patients, which is potentially useful from a workload perspective. 4D evaluation showed that conventional 3D planning on an AIP can significantly overestimate target dose (ITV and GTV+5mm), underestimate normal liver dose, and overestimate dose homogeneity. Implementing nonadaptive quasi- 4D dose calculation can highlight the potential limitation of 3D conventional SBRT planning and the resultant misrepresentations of dose in some regions affected by motion and deformation. Where the 4D approach is unavailable, contouring on the full expiration phase may yield more accurate dose calculations, most relevant in the case of the healthy liver, but the absolute dose differences are in general small for the other healthy organs. The technique has the potential to quantify under- and over-dosage and improve treatment plan evaluation, retrospective plan analysis, and clinical outcome correlation. 
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November 2014