Publications by authors named "Jeremy P Goering"

4 Publications

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Isolation and Time-Lapse Imaging of Primary Mouse Embryonic Palatal Mesenchyme Cells to Analyze Collective Movement Attributes.

J Vis Exp 2021 02 13(168). Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center;

Development of the palate is a dynamic process, which involves vertical growth of bilateral palatal shelves next to the tongue followed by elevation and fusion above the tongue. Defects in this process lead to cleft palate, a common birth defect. Recent studies have shown that palatal shelf elevation involves a remodeling process that transforms the orientation of the shelf from a vertical to a horizontal one. The role of the palatal shelf mesenchymal cells in this dynamic remodeling has been difficult to study. Time-lapse-imaging-based quantitative analysis has been recently used to show that primary mouse embryonic palatal mesenchymal (MEPM) cells can self-organize into a collective movement. Quantitative analyses could identify differences in mutant MEPM cells from a mouse model with palate elevation defects. This paper describes methods to isolate and culture MEPM cells from E13.5 embryos-specifically for time-lapse imaging-and to determine various cellular attributes of collective movement, including measures for stream formation, shape alignment, and persistence of direction. It posits that MEPM cells can serve as a proxy model for studying the role of palatal shelf mesenchyme during the dynamic process of elevation. These quantitative methods will allow investigators in the craniofacial field to assess and compare collective movement attributes in control and mutant cells, which will augment the understanding of mesenchymal remodeling during palatal shelf elevation. Furthermore, MEPM cells provide a rare mesenchymal cell model for investigation of collective cell movement in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62151DOI Listing
February 2021

Anti-epileptic drug topiramate upregulates TGFβ1 and SOX9 expression in primary embryonic palatal mesenchyme cells: Implications for teratogenicity.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(2):e0246989. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America.

Topiramate is an anti-epileptic drug that is commonly prescribed not just to prevent seizures but also migraine headaches, with over 8 million prescriptions dispensed annually. Topiramate use during pregnancy has been linked to significantly increased risk of babies born with orofacial clefts (OFCs). However, the exact molecular mechanism of topiramate teratogenicity is unknown. In this study, we first used an unbiased antibody array analysis to test the effect of topiramate on human embryonic palatal mesenchyme (HEPM) cells. This analysis identified 40 differentially expressed proteins, showing strong connectivity to known genes associated with orofacial clefts. However, among known OFC genes, only TGFβ1 was significantly upregulated in the antibody array analysis. Next, we validated that topiramate could increase expression of TGFβ1 and of downstream target phospho-SMAD2 in primary mouse embryonic palatal mesenchyme (MEPM) cells. Furthermore, we showed that topiramate treatment of primary MEPM cells increased expression of SOX9. SOX9 overexpression in chondrocytes is known to cause cleft palate in mouse. We propose that topiramate mediates upregulation of TGFβ1 signaling through activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the palate. TGFβ1 and SOX9 play critical roles in orofacial morphogenesis, and their abnormal overexpression provides a plausible etiologic molecular mechanism for the teratogenic effects of topiramate.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246989PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880431PMC
February 2021

SPECC1L-deficient primary mouse embryonic palatal mesenchyme cells show speed and directionality defects.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 14;11(1):1452. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA.

Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) are common anomalies occurring in 1/800 live-births. Pathogenic SPECC1L variants have been identified in patients with CL/P, which signifies a primary role for SPECC1L in craniofacial development. Specc1l mutant mouse embryos exhibit delayed palatal shelf elevation accompanied by epithelial defects. We now posit that the process of palate elevation is itself abnormal in Specc1l mutants, due to defective remodeling of palatal mesenchyme. To characterize the underlying cellular defect, we studied the movement of primary mouse embryonic palatal mesenchyme (MEPM) cells using live-imaging of wound-repair assays. SPECC1L-deficient MEPM cells exhibited delayed wound-repair, however, reduced cell speed only partially accounted for this delay. Interestingly, mutant MEPM cells were also defective in coordinated cell movement. Therefore, we used open-field 2D cultures of wildtype MEPM cells to show that they indeed formed cell streams at high density, which is an important attribute of collective movement. Furthermore, activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway rescued both cell speed and guidance defects in Specc1l mutant MEPM cells. Thus, we show that live-imaging of primary MEPM cells can be used to assess mesenchymal remodeling defects during palatal shelf elevation, and identify a novel role for SPECC1L in collective movement through modulation of PI3K-AKT signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81123-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809270PMC
January 2021

SPECC1L regulates palate development downstream of IRF6.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 03;29(5):845-858

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

SPECC1L mutations have been identified in patients with rare atypical orofacial clefts and with syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P). These mutations cluster in the second coiled-coil and calponin homology domains of SPECC1L and severely affect the ability of SPECC1L to associate with microtubules. We previously showed that gene-trap knockout of Specc1l in mouse results in early embryonic lethality. We now present a truncation mutant mouse allele, Specc1lΔC510, that results in perinatal lethality. Specc1lΔC510/ΔC510 homozygotes showed abnormal palate rugae but did not show cleft palate. However, when crossed with a gene-trap allele, Specc1lcGT/ΔC510 compound heterozygotes showed a palate elevation delay with incompletely penetrant cleft palate. Specc1lcGT/ΔC510 embryos exhibit transient oral epithelial adhesions at E13.5, which may delay shelf elevation. Consistent with oral adhesions, we show periderm layer abnormalities, including ectopic apical expression of adherens junction markers, similar to Irf6 hypomorphic mutants and Arhgap29 heterozygotes. Indeed, SPECC1L expression is drastically reduced in Irf6 mutant palatal shelves. Finally, we wanted to determine if SPECC1L deficiency also contributed to non-syndromic (ns) CL/P. We sequenced 62 Caucasian, 89 Filipino, 90 Ethiopian, 90 Nigerian and 95 Japanese patients with nsCL/P and identified three rare coding variants (p.Ala86Thr, p.Met91Iso and p.Arg546Gln) in six individuals. These variants reside outside of SPECC1L coiled-coil domains and result in milder functional defects than variants associated with syndromic clefting. Together, our data indicate that palate elevation is sensitive to deficiency of SPECC1L dosage and function and that SPECC1L cytoskeletal protein functions downstream of IRF6 in palatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104672PMC
March 2020