Publications by authors named "Jeremy M Sen"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gilteritinib: An FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3/AXL tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia patients.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2020 Jul 26;26(5):1200-1212. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.

Acute myeloid leukemia has recently undergone a significant transition into identifying and successfully inhibiting driver mutations leading to disease. One of the most common mutations in acute myeloid leukemia involves the protein FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), which leads to ligand-independent activation of intracellular signaling cascades leading to the survival and proliferation of the acute leukemia blast cell. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of two dominant types of mutations of this protein: internal tandem duplication and tyrosine kinase domain mutations. Successful inhibition of this protein has proven to be challenging. While FLT3 has been shown to be successfully inhibited and shown to improve overall survival in the frontline therapy of acute myeloid leukemia in combination with cytarabine and anthracycline, relapsed and refractory (R/R) patients have not been shown to be a successful population until recently. A phase III trial (ADMIRAL trial) demonstrated significant overall survival benefit in patients receiving gilteritinib compared to patients receiving salvage chemotherapy. This review will provide an overview of the preclinical, clinical, and practical use of gilteritinib in the treatment of patients with relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia with mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078155220918006DOI Listing
July 2020

A prospective study on urine alkalization with an oral regimen consisting of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in patients receiving high-dose methotrexate.

Cancer Manag Res 2019 30;11:8065-8072. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Purpose: Intravenous (IV) sodium bicarbonate is typically used in alkalization regimens for the safe use of the chemotherapeutic agent high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). Urine parameters including urine output and pH are important in order to minimize the risk of kidney injury, which increases adverse effects and hospital length of stay following HDMTX. IV sodium bicarbonate has been on shortage, and there are limited literature describing the safety of alternative regimens.

Patients And Methods: A single institution, prospective analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving HDMTX for central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis or disease. Patients received an oral (PO) regimen of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide to achieve a urine pH >7. This cohort was compared to a subsequent IV sodium bicarbonate control cohort. Multiple co-primary safety outcomes assessed the incidences of acute kidney injury and delayed methotrexate clearance as well as change in liver function tests. Secondary outcomes included time to urine pH, time to urine output, and length of stay.

Results: A total of 126 encounters were studied for the primary safety outcome. There was no difference between AKI incidence in patients receiving the PO alkalization regimen compared to patients receiving IV sodium bicarbonate (14.5% vs 9.3%, respectively, =0.41). There was no difference in methotrexate clearance between the PO and IV groups (26.5% vs 37.2%, respectively, =0.21). The use of PO alkalization regimen is estimated to have saved 2002 vials of IV sodium bicarbonate and was approximately US$226 less expensive per encounter.

Conclusion: This analysis supports the use of PO regimens to achieve urine alkalization necessary for safe administration of HDMTX during periods of IV sodium bicarbonate shortage. Further studies may determine optimal dosing strategies that decrease length of stay and ensure noninferiority of efficacy outcomes with PO regimens for urine alkalization with HDMTX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S190084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6720153PMC
August 2019

Evaluation of cardiomyopathy in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with anthracyclines.

J Oncol Pharm Pract 2020 Apr 9;26(3):680-687. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia patients receive anthracycline-containing induction chemotherapy. Anthracyclines cause cardiotoxicity; however, there is a paucity of data reflecting the risk of cardiotoxicity in the acute myeloid leukemia population, and risk factors for development of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction are not well established in this population.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving anthracycline-containing induction chemotherapy between March 2011 and August 2017 was performed. Baseline and all additional cardiac monitoring within one year of induction were collected. Home medications and new medication initiation were determined via the electronic health record and new outpatient prescriptions.

Results: Of 97 evaluable patients, 25 (25.8%) developed reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and 18 (18.6%) experienced clinical heart failure within one year of induction. The median difference from baseline to lowest left ventricular ejection fraction was -5.0 percentage points, with a range of +10.0 to -52.5. The median time to onset of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was 27 days, at a median cumulative anthracycline dose of 270 mg/m. No patient-specific or medication-specific factors were significantly associated with the risk of developing reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Of 14 patients started on medical management for reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, 10 (71%) responded to therapy.

Conclusions: In this retrospective analysis, we observed that acute myeloid leukemia patients experienced reduced left ventricular ejection fraction more quickly and at lower doses than previously reported in the solid tumor population. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was at least partially reversible in most patients started on medical management. Although no factors were significantly associated with decreased cardiomyopathy risk, future assessment of cardioprotective medications may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1078155219873014DOI Listing
April 2020

Risk of Major Bleeding with Ibrutinib.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018 11 1;18(11):755-761. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA.

Background: The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, is an effective therapy against mature B-cell malignancies. Although generally well tolerated, serious bleeding emerged during developmental clinical trials as an unexpected, although uncommon, adverse event. As the use of ibrutinib increases outside of the clinical trial setting and in patients with more comorbidities, the rate of major bleeding could be greater.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis the data from all patients at our center and its regional clinics who had been prescribed ibrutinib from January 2012 to May 2016 were reviewed for demographic data, comorbid illnesses, bleeding events, and concurrent medications.

Results: We identified 70 patients. Bleeding of any grade occurred in 56% of patients, mostly grade 1 to 2 bruising and epistaxis. Major bleeding, defined as grade ≥ 3, occurred in 19% of patients, greater than previously reported. Anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dL; hazard ratio [HR], 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-18.2; P = .02) and an elevated international normalized ratio (> 1.5; HR, 9.5; 95% CI, 2.7-33.5; P < .01) at ibrutinib initiation were associated with an increased risk of major bleeding. Of those with major bleeding, most patients were also taking an antiplatelet agent (70%), an anticoagulant (17%), or a CYP 3A4 inhibitor (7%), with 13% taking both antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. The use of both antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy significantly increased the risk of a major bleed event (HR, 19.2; 95% CI, 2.3-166.7; P < .01).

Conclusion: The results of the present study have demonstrated a greater rate of major bleeding with ibrutinib use in a standard clinical setting than previously reported. Patients with anemia or an elevated international normalized ratio or requiring anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications during ibrutinib therapy have a significantly increased risk of major bleeding. Careful consideration of the risks and benefits for this population is needed. The combination of antiplatelet and anticoagulation medications with ibrutinib therapy is of particular concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2018.07.287DOI Listing
November 2018

Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome during regorafenib treatment: a case report and literature review of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome associated with multikinase inhibitors.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2014 Jun 27;13(2):127-30. Epub 2013 Dec 27.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine and the UVA Cancer Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2013.12.003DOI Listing
June 2014