Publications by authors named "Jeremy J Bruhl"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Colour of floral styles in the Banksia spinulosa Sm complex (Proteaceae) relates to the anthocyanin and flavonol profile, not soil pH.

Phytochemistry 2021 Dec 31;192:112931. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia.

The cylindrical conflorescences of the Banksia spinulosa Sm complex have several different colour types, i.e., black, red, maroon, lemon, and yellow. It is unknown if colour variation is due to extrinsic factors, importantly soil pH. Recent morphological observations have indicated that style colour are not contiguous, so follow-up chemical and soil analysis was conducted to further characterize the colour difference with respect to putative taxa and abiotic factors. Conflorescences of all known colours were sampled from across the eastern Australian distribution of B. spinulosa, and the respective soils were sampled and analysed for pH and total nitrogen. Regression analyses of this data demonstrated that pH and nitrogen gave nil and limited predictability for style colour respectively, i.e., only the taxa with black styles demonstrated a correlation, which was to a soil with slightly higher nitrogen content (p < 0.05). Furthermore, differences of pH were more often between taxa with conflorescences of the same colour. For chemical characterisation, the coloured styles were removed from conflorescences, extracted, and analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS-DAD). Ten anthocyanin and twelve flavonol monoglycosides were identified by mass spectral fragmentation patterns (MS and MS) and retention times. The data demonstrates that style colour differences are caused by the concentration of anthocyanins and their specific chemistry. It remains to be determined if the differences of anthocyanin expression are caused by other abiotic factors, or if it is intrinsic to the respective taxon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112931DOI Listing
December 2021

(Lamiaceae) as a 'Cradle of Incense': Chemophenetics of Rare Essential Oils from Both New and Forgotten Australian 'Mint Bush' Species.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 13;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Crop Sciences and Agroforestry, Faculty of Tropical AgriSciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 16500 Prague, Czech Republic.

The highly aromatic Australian mint bushes from the genus Labill. produce a high yield of essential oil on hydrodistillation. Together with its rich history, horticultural potential, iconic flowers, and aromatic leaves, it achieves high ornamental and culinary value. Species in the genus express highly diverse and chemically unique essential oils that demonstrate intra- and inter-specific patterns that have inspired taxonomic reinterpretation for over a hundred years. Previous studies have conveyed that phenoplastic expression of volatiles creates chemotypes within taxa, adding complexity to chemophenetic exploration. The current study chemically characterised essential oils from 64 highly aromatic specimens, representative of 25 taxa, giving yields as high as >2% g/g. The chemical profiles of essential oils are diverse, but generally include 1,8-cineole and signatory compounds such as sesquiterpene oxides, caryophyllene oxide, kessane and cis-dihydroagarofuran; sesquiterpene alcohols, globulol, epiglobulol, maaliol, prostantherol, spathulenol and ledol; and monoterpene derivatives of common scaffolds, borneol, bornyl acetate, bornanone, linalool and linalyl acetate. As in previous studies, analysis of chemical data confirms that the chemistry strongly agrees with taxonomic classifications. Importantly, as in classical taxonomy, the current chemical study complemented morphological analysis but conveys chemovariation, obscuring the taxonomic agreement. Nevertheless, variation within taxa may be due to environmental factors, meaning that cultivation of species in gardens will create different chemical profiles as compared to those published here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696040PMC
November 2020

Molecular phylogenetics of the genus Costularia (Schoeneae, Cyperaceae) reveals multiple distinct evolutionary lineages.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2018 09 19;126:196-209. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Ghent University, Department of Biology, Research Group Spermatophytes, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, 9000 Gent, Belgium.

We investigated the monophyly of Costularia (25 species), a genus of tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) that illustrates a remarkable distribution pattern from southeastern Africa, over Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, to Malesia and New Caledonia. A further species, Tetraria borneensis, has been suggested to belong to Costularia. Relationships and divergence times were inferred using an existing four marker phylogeny of Cyperaceae tribe Schoeneae expanded with newly generated sequence data mainly for Costularia s.l. species. Phylogenetic reconstruction was executed using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood approaches. Divergence times were estimated using a relaxed molecular clock model, calibrated with fossil data. Based on our results, Tetraria borneensis is not related to the species of Costularia. Costularia s.l. is composed of four distinct evolutionary lineages. Two lineages, one including the type species, are part of the Oreobolus clade, i.e. a much reduced genus Costularia restricted to southeastern Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarenes and Seychelles, and a small endemic genus from New Caledonia for which a new genus Chamaedendron is erected based on Costularia subgenus Chamaedendron. The other two lineages are part of the Tricostularia clade, i.e. a separate single-species lineage from the Seychelles for which a new genus (Xyroschoenus) is described, and Costularia subgenus Lophoschoenus. For the latter, more research is needed to test whether they are congeneric with the species placed in the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.04.016DOI Listing
September 2018

A sedge plant as the source of Kangaroo Island propolis rich in prenylated p-coumarate ester and stilbenes.

Phytochemistry 2017 Feb 24;134:87-97. Epub 2016 Nov 24.

Botany, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.

Propolis samples from Kangaroo Island, South Australia, were investigated for chemical constituents using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectral profiling. A type of propolis was found containing a high proportion of prenylated hydroxystilbenes. Subsequently, the botanical origin of this type of propolis was identified using a beehive propolis depletion method and analysis of flora. Ligurian honey bees, Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, were found to produce propolis from resin exuded by the Australian native sedge plant Lepidosperma sp. Montebello (Cyperaceae). The plants, commonly known as sword sedge, were found to have resin that matched with the propolis samples identified as the most abundant propolis type on the island containing C- and O-prenylated tetrahydroxystilbenes (pTHOS) in addition to a small amount of prenylated p-coumarate. The isolation of five pTHOS not previously characterized are reported: (E)-4-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene, (E)-2,4-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene, (E)-2-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-3',4',5-trihydroxystilbene, (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,3',5,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene and (E)-2,6-bis(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-3,4',5-trihydroxy-3'-methoxystilbene. A National Cancer Institute 60 human cell line anticancer screen of three of these compounds showed growth inhibitory activity. The large Australasian genus Lepidosperma is identified as a valuable resource for the isolation of substances with medicinal potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2016.11.005DOI Listing
February 2017

Sedges in the mist: A new species of Lepidosperma (Cyperaceae, Schoeneae) from the mountains of Tasmania.

PhytoKeys 2013 4(28):19-59. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

Botany, School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351.

The status of a putative new species of Lepidosperma from the mountains of south-western Tasmania, Australia, was investigated. Phenetic analysis (Flexible UPGMA Agglomerative Hierarchical Fusion and semi-strong hybrid multidimensional scaling) was conducted on a database derived from morphological and anatomical characters scored from herbarium material, culm anatomy slides and scanning electron micrographs of fruit. The results of the analysis support the recognition of a new species, here described as Lepidosperma monticola G.T.Plunkett & J.J.Bruhl. The distribution, habitat and conservation status are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.28.5592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3881413PMC
January 2014

Radiation and repeated transoceanic dispersal of Schoeneae (Cyperaceae) through the southern hemisphere.

Am J Bot 2013 Dec 3;100(12):2494-508. Epub 2013 Dec 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa.

Premise Of The Study: The broad austral distribution of Schoeneae is almost certainly a product of long-distance dispersal. Owing to the inadequacies of existing phylogenetic data and a lack of rigorous biogeographic analysis, relationships within the tribe remain poorly resolved and its pattern of radiation and dispersal uncertain. We employed an expanded sampling of taxa and markers and a rigorous analytic approach to address these limitations. We evaluated the roles of geography and ecology in stimulating the initial radiation of the group and its subsequent dispersal across the southern hemisphere.

Methods: A dated tree was reconstructed using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with a polytomy prior and molecular dating, applied to data from two nuclear and three cpDNA regions. Ancestral areas and habitats were inferred using dispersal-extinction-cladogenesis models.

Key Results: Schoeneae originated in Australia in the Paleocene. The existence of a "hard" polytomy at the base of the clade reflects the rapid divergence of six principal lineages ca. 50 Ma, within Australia. From this ancestral area, Schoeneae have traversed the austral oceans with remarkable frequency, a total of 29 distinct dispersal events being reported here. Dispersal rates between landmasses are not explicable in terms of the geographical distances separating them. Transoceanic dispersal generally involved habitat stasis.

Conclusions: Although the role of dispersal in explaining global distribution patterns is now widely accepted, the apparent ease with which such dispersal may occur has perhaps been under-appreciated. In Schoeneae, transoceanic dispersal has been remarkably frequent, with ecological opportunity, rather than geography, being most important in dictating dispersal patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1300105DOI Listing
December 2013

First instalment in resolution of the Banksia spinulosa complex (Proteaceae): B. neoanglica, a new species supported by phenetic analysis, ecology and geography.

PhytoKeys 2012 3(14):57-80. Epub 2012 Aug 3.

Botany, School of Environmental and Rural Science and N.C.W. Beadle Herbarium, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351 Australia.

Taxa in the Banksia spinulosa Sm. complex (Proteaceae) have populations with sympatric, parapatric and allopatric distributions and unclear or disputed boundaries. Our hypothesis is that under biological, phenetic and diagnosable species concepts that each of the currently named taxa within the Banksia spinulosa complex is a separate species. Based on specimens collected as part of this study, and data recorded from specimens in six Australian herbaria, complemented by phenetic analysis (semi-strong multidimensional scaling and UPGMA clustering) and a detailed morphological study, we investigated both morphological variation and geographic distribution in the Banksia spinulosa complex. All specimens used for this study are held at the N.C.W. Beadle Herbarium or the National Herbarium of New South Wales. In total 23 morphological characters (11 quantitative, five binary, and seven multistate characters) were analysed phenetically for 89 specimens. Ordination and cluster analysis resulted in individuals grouping strongly allowing recognition of distinct groups consistent with their recognition as separate species. Additional morphological analysis was completed on all specimens using leaf, floral, fruit and stem morphology, providing clear cut diagnosable groups and strong support for the recognition of Banksia spinulosa var. cunninghamii and Banksia spinulosa var. neoanglica as species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.14.3415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492926PMC
November 2012

Delimitation of Sauropus (Phyllanthaceae) based on plastid matK and nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA Sequence data.

Ann Bot 2008 Dec 14;102(6):1007-18. Epub 2008 Oct 14.

National Herbarium of the Netherlands, Leiden University, PO Box 9514, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: A recent molecular phylogenetic study showed that Sauropus is deeply embedded within Phyllanthus together with its allies, Breynia and Glochidion. As relationships within Sauropus are still problematic and the relationship with Breynia has long been doubted, more molecular data are needed to test/corroborate such a broad definition of Phyllanthus. This study aims to clarify the status and delimitation of Sauropus and establish its position within Phyllanthaceae.

Methods: Plastid matK and nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequence data for Sauropus and its allies were used to construct phylogenetic trees using maximum parsimony and Bayesian methods.

Key Results: Within Phyllanthus, Sauropus can be split into the mainly south-east Asian Sauropus sensu stricto (s.s.) plus Breynia and the mainly Australian Sauropus (formerly Synostemon). Sauropus s.s. plus Breynia comprise two distinct clades; one is the combination of Sauropus sections Glochidioidei, Sauropus and Schizanthi and the other is the combination of Sauropus sections Cryptogynium and Hemisauropus and the monophyletic genus Breynia.

Conclusions: Molecular data indicate that Synostemon should be reinstated at the same level as Sauropus s.s. and that Sauropus s.s. should be united with Breynia under the latter, older name. The molecular data corroborate only two of the five infrageneric groups of Sauropus recognized on the basis of morphological data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcn193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2712409PMC
December 2008

Flower or spikelet? Understanding the morphology and development of reproductive structures in Exocarya (Cyperaceae, Mapanioideae, Chrysitricheae).

Am J Bot 2006 Sep;93(9):1241-50

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 USA;

Fundamental questions of floral morphology remain unresolved in the grasslike monocots in order Poales, including what constitutes a flower and what constitutes a spikelet. The mapaniid sedges have particularly complex spikeletlike structures, variously interpreted as clusters of flowers or spikelets. Recent phylogenetic studies of Cyperaceae have identified the mapaniid clade as sister to the rest of the family, but the homology of mapaniid reproductive units (RUs) and spikeletlike units (SLUs) to other sedge flowers and spikelets is unclear. We examined reproductive development in the mapaniid Exocarya sclerioides. Inflorescence branches terminated in a SLU with bracts and 1-4 RUs. RUs had four small leaflike structures (LLSs): two lateral LLSs, each associated with a stamen, an abaxial LLS associated with a stamen, and an adaxial LLS. The gynoecium terminated the RU. All RUs were axillary to bracts, and unexpanded bracts and RUs were produced beyond expanded RUs, so SLUs were racemose. RUs developed from a single primordium that initiated two lateral LLSs, then two lateral stamens, then the gynoecium. Initiation of the abaxial LLS and stamen and the adaxial LLS followed. We hypothesize that the RU is a sympodial branch that terminates in a hermaphroditic flower with two stamens and a gynoecium; the two lateral LLSs are halves of a deeply divided prophyll.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.93.9.1241DOI Listing
September 2006

Phylogenetic relationships of Carpha and its relatives (Schoeneae, Cyperaceae) inferred from chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequences.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2004 May;31(2):647-57

Botany, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia.

Within the tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae), the relationships between Carpha and its relatives have not been certain, and the limits and definition of Carpha have been controversial. Further, the relationships of species within Carpha have been unclear. In this study, cladistic analyses based on chloroplast trnL intron and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer sequence data were undertaken to estimate phylogenetic relationships in and around Carpha. This study found that Trianoptiles is sister to Carpha; Ptilothrix is sister to Cyathochaeta rather than to Carpha as suggested by some former authors; and Gymnoschoenus is distant from Carpha and its close relatives. The merging of Schoenoides back into Oreobolus is supported. The findings also revealed the non-monophyletic status of Costularia and of Schoenus, and indicated the phylogenetic relationships of species within Carpha.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2003.09.004DOI Listing
May 2004

Sympodial structure of spikelets in the tribe Schoeneae (Cyperaceae).

Am J Bot 2004 Jan;91(1):24-36

Botany, The University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia;and.

Spikelet morphology of 250 specimens of 47 species of Schoeneae was examined using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We confirmed that spikelet structure in Schoeneae is cymose with a sympodial "rachilla." Monopodial spikelets, as described by most current literature, were not found in Schoeneae. Prophylls are not always present in sympodial spikelets and cannot be used to determine whether a spikelet is sympodial or monopodial. Spikelets of Schoeneae develop acropetally, and the uppermost glume may or may not produce a flower. The last feature may be variable within species and within individual plants, so presence or absence of this flower is not an indication of sympodial or monopodial spikelet structure in Schoeneae. Relative position of flower, glume, and axis is a reliable criterion to judge whether spikelets are sympodial or monopodial. In some species of Schoenus and in Ptilothrix, formation of the arch-shaped base of the fertile glume relates to the shape of the inclined nodes on which the glume grows. This study highlights the need to reinvestigate spikelet structure in other tribes of Cyperaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.91.1.24DOI Listing
January 2004
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