Publications by authors named "Jeremy D Kitson"

3 Publications

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In silico and in vitro evaluation of exonic and intronic off-target effects form a critical element of therapeutic ASO gapmer optimization.

Nucleic Acids Res 2015 Oct 3;43(18):8638-50. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Ware SG12 0DP, UK.

With many safety and technical limitations partly mitigated through chemical modifications, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are gaining recognition as therapeutic entities. The increase in potency realized by 'third generation chemistries' may, however, simultaneously increase affinity to unintended targets with partial sequence complementarity. However, putative hybridization-dependent off-target effects (OTEs), a risk historically regarded as low, are not being adequately investigated. Here we show an unexpectedly high OTEs confirmation rate during screening of fully phosphorothioated (PS)-LNA gapmer ASOs designed against the BACH1 transcript. We demonstrate in vitro mRNA and protein knockdown of off-targets with a wide range of mismatch (MM) and gap patterns. Furthermore, with RNase H1 activity residing within the nucleus, hybridization predicted against intronic regions of pre-mRNAs was tested and confirmed. This dramatically increased ASO-binding landscape together with relatively high potency of such interactions translates into a considerable safety concern. We show here that with base pairing-driven target recognition it is possible to predict the putative off-targets and address the liability during lead design and optimization phases. Moreover, in silico analysis performed against both primary as well as spliced transcripts will be invaluable in elucidating the mechanism behind the hepatoxicity observed with some LNA-modified gapmers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4605310PMC
October 2015

Development of an insect-cell-based assay for detection of kinase inhibition using NF-kappaB-inducing kinase as a paradigm.

Biochem J 2009 Apr;419(1):65-73

Biological Reagents & Assay Development, GlaxoSmithKline R&D, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex, CM19 5AW, UK.

Identification of small-molecule inhibitors by high-throughput screening necessitates the development of robust, reproducible and cost-effective assays. The assay approach adopted may utilize isolated proteins or whole cells containing the target of interest. To enable protein-based assays, the baculovirus expression system is commonly used for generation and isolation of recombinant proteins. We have applied the baculovirus system into a cell-based assay format using NIK [NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB)-inducing kinase] as a paradigm. We illustrate the use of the insect-cell-based assay in monitoring the activity of NIK against its physiological downstream substrate IkappaB (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) kinase-1. The assay was robust, yielding a signal/background ratio of 2:1 and an average Z' value of >0.65 when used to screen a focused compound set. Using secondary assays to validate a selection of the hits, we identified a compound that (i) was non-cytotoxic, (ii) interacted directly with NIK, and (iii) inhibited lymphotoxin-induced NF-kappaB p52 translocation to the nucleus. The insect cell assay represents a novel approach to monitoring kinase inhibition, with major advantages over other cell-based systems including ease of use, amenability to scale-up, protein expression levels and the flexibility to express a number of proteins by infecting with numerous baculoviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20081646DOI Listing
April 2009

The discovery of 2-amino-3,5-diarylbenzamide inhibitors of IKK-alpha and IKK-beta kinases.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007 Jul 29;17(14):3972-7. Epub 2007 Apr 29.

GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, UK.

A potent and selective series of 2-amino-3,5-diarylbenzamide inhibitors of IKK-alpha and IKK-beta is described. The most potent compounds are 8h, 8r and 8v, with IKK-beta inhibitory potencies of pIC(50) 7.0, 6.8 and 6.8, respectively. The series has excellent selectivity, both within the IKK family over IKK-epsilon, and across a wide variety of kinase assays. The potency of 8h in the IKK-beta enzyme assay translates to significant cellular activity (pIC(50) 5.7-6.1) in assays of functional and mechanistic relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2007.04.088DOI Listing
July 2007