Publications by authors named "Jerôme Delplanque"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

TMEM240 mutations cause spinocerebellar ataxia 21 with mental retardation and severe cognitive impairment.

Brain 2014 Oct 28;137(Pt 10):2657-63. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

2 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, INSERM U837, and Université de Lille Nord de France, F-59045, Lille, France 4 Pôle de Biochimie et Biologie moléculaire, Centre de Biologie-Pathologie, Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Lille, F-59037, Lille, France

Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia corresponds to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that primarily affect the cerebellum. Here, we report the identification of the causative gene in spinocerebellar ataxia 21, an autosomal-dominant disorder previously mapped to chromosome 7p21.3-p15.1. This ataxia was firstly characterized in a large French family with slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, accompanied by severe cognitive impairment and mental retardation in two young children. Following the recruitment of 12 additional young family members, linkage analysis enabled us to definitively map the disease locus to chromosome 1p36.33-p36.32. The causative mutation, (c.509C>T/p.P170L) in the transmembrane protein gene TMEM240, was identified by whole exome sequencing and then was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and co-segregation analyses. Index cases from 368 French families with autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxia were also screened for mutations. In seven cases, we identified a range of missense mutations (c.509C>T/p.P170L, c.239C>T/p.T80M, c.346C>T/p.R116C, c.445G>A/p.E149K, c.511C>T/p.R171W), and a stop mutation (c.489C>G/p.Y163*) in the same gene. TMEM240 is a small, strongly conserved transmembrane protein of unknown function present in cerebellum and brain. Spinocerebellar ataxia 21 may be a particular early-onset disease associated with severe cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awu202DOI Listing
October 2014

Whole-exome sequencing and high throughput genotyping identified KCNJ11 as the thirteenth MODY gene.

PLoS One 2012 11;7(6):e37423. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

CNRS-UMR8199, Lille Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

Background: Maturity-onset of the young (MODY) is a clinically heterogeneous form of diabetes characterized by an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance, an onset before the age of 25 years, and a primary defect in the pancreatic beta-cell function. Approximately 30% of MODY families remain genetically unexplained (MODY-X). Here, we aimed to use whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a four-generation MODY-X family to identify a new susceptibility gene for MODY.

Methodology: WES (Agilent-SureSelect capture/Illumina-GAIIx sequencing) was performed in three affected and one non-affected relatives in the MODY-X family. We then performed a high-throughput multiplex genotyping (Illumina-GoldenGate assay) of the putative causal mutations in the whole family and in 406 controls. A linkage analysis was also carried out.

Principal Findings: By focusing on variants of interest (i.e. gains of stop codon, frameshift, non-synonymous and splice-site variants not reported in dbSNP130) present in the three affected relatives and not present in the control, we found 69 mutations. However, as WES was not uniform between samples, a total of 324 mutations had to be assessed in the whole family and in controls. Only one mutation (p.Glu227Lys in KCNJ11) co-segregated with diabetes in the family (with a LOD-score of 3.68). No KCNJ11 mutation was found in 25 other MODY-X unrelated subjects.

Conclusions/significance: Beyond neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM), KCNJ11 is also a MODY gene ('MODY13'), confirming the wide spectrum of diabetes related phenotypes due to mutations in NDM genes (i.e. KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS). Therefore, the molecular diagnosis of MODY should include KCNJ11 as affected carriers can be ideally treated with oral sulfonylureas.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037423PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3372463PMC
November 2012

Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.

PLoS Genet 2012 29;8(3):e1002607. Epub 2012 Mar 29.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, Jewish General Hospital, Lady Davis Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3×10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6×10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8×10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4×10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5×10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4×10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3315470PMC
September 2012

A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.

PLoS One 2012 4;7(1):e29202. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States of America.

African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI) = 0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0029202PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3251563PMC
May 2012

Common variants in FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, PRL, AIF1, and PCSK1 show evidence of association with adult obesity in the Greek population.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2012 Feb 30;20(2):389-95. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Department of Genetics, Development and Molecular Biology, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Twenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reproducibly associated with obesity. We performed a follow-up study for obesity in the Greek adult population. A total of 510 obese and 469 lean adults were genotyped for 24 SNPs. We tested the association with obesity status using logistic regression and we evaluated the combined genetic risk of 24 SNPs by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. We nominally replicated the association with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) of six SNPs in or near the FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, PRL, AIF1, and PCSK1 loci (1.28 ≤ odds ratio (OR) ≤ 1.35; 0.004 ≤ P ≤ 0.043). The discrimination ability for obesity was slightly stronger (P = 9.59 × 10(-6)) when the genetic information of the 24 SNPs was added to nongenetic risk factors (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.722) in comparison with nongenetic factors analyzed alone (AUC = 0.685). Our data suggest that SNPs in or near the FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, PRL, AIF1, and PCSK1 loci contribute to obesity risk in the Greek population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2011.177DOI Listing
February 2012

Molecular diagnosis of neonatal diabetes mellitus using next-generation sequencing of the whole exome.

PLoS One 2010 Oct 26;5(10):e13630. Epub 2010 Oct 26.

CNRS-UMR-8199, Univ Lille Nord de France, UDSL, Lille, France.

Background: Accurate molecular diagnosis of monogenic non-autoimmune neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is critical for patient care, as patients carrying a mutation in KCNJ11 or ABCC8 can be treated by oral sulfonylurea drugs instead of insulin therapy. This diagnosis is currently based on Sanger sequencing of at least 42 PCR fragments from the KCNJ11, ABCC8, and INS genes. Here, we assessed the feasibility of using the next-generation whole exome sequencing (WES) for the NDM molecular diagnosis.

Methodology/principal Findings: We carried out WES for a patient presenting with permanent NDM, for whom mutations in KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS and abnormalities in chromosome 6q24 had been previously excluded. A solution hybridization selection was performed to generate WES in 76 bp paired-end reads, by using two channels of the sequencing instrument. WES quality was assessed using a high-resolution oligonucleotide whole-genome genotyping array. From our WES with high-quality reads, we identified a novel non-synonymous mutation in ABCC8 (c.1455G>C/p.Q485H), despite a previous negative sequencing of this gene. This mutation, confirmed by Sanger sequencing, was not present in 348 controls and in the patient's mother, father and young brother, all of whom are normoglycemic.

Conclusions/significance: WES identified a novel de novo ABCC8 mutation in a NDM patient. Compared to the current Sanger protocol, WES is a comprehensive, cost-efficient and rapid method to identify mutations in NDM patients. We suggest WES as a near future tool of choice for further molecular diagnosis of NDM cases, negative for chr6q24, KCNJ11 and INS abnormalities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0013630PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2964316PMC
October 2010

Two new Loci for body-weight regulation identified in a joint analysis of genome-wide association studies for early-onset extreme obesity in French and german study groups.

PLoS Genet 2010 Apr 22;6(4):e1000916. Epub 2010 Apr 22.

Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Meta-analyses of population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have recently led to the detection of new genetic loci for obesity. Here we aimed to discover additional obesity loci in extremely obese children and adolescents. We also investigated if these results generalize by estimating the effects of these obesity loci in adults and in population-based samples including both children and adults. We jointly analysed two GWAS of 2,258 individuals and followed-up the best, according to lowest p-values, 44 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from 21 genomic regions in 3,141 individuals. After this DISCOVERY step, we explored if the findings derived from the extremely obese children and adolescents (10 SNPs from 5 genomic regions) generalized to (i) the population level and (ii) to adults by genotyping another 31,182 individuals (GENERALIZATION step). Apart from previously identified FTO, MC4R, and TMEM18, we detected two new loci for obesity: one in SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8 gene; p = 1.85x10(-8) in the DISCOVERY step) and one between TNKS (tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase gene) and MSRA (methionine sulfoxide reductase A gene; p = 4.84x10(-7)), the latter finding being limited to children and adolescents as demonstrated in the GENERALIZATION step. The odds ratios for early-onset obesity were estimated at approximately 1.10 per risk allele for both loci. Interestingly, the TNKS/MSRA locus has recently been found to be associated with adult waist circumference. In summary, we have completed a meta-analysis of two GWAS which both focus on extremely obese children and adolescents and replicated our findings in a large followed-up data set. We observed that genetic variants in or near FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, and TNKS/MSRA were robustly associated with early-onset obesity. We conclude that the currently known major common variants related to obesity overlap to a substantial degree between children and adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2858696PMC
April 2010

New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk.

Nat Genet 2010 Feb 17;42(2):105-16. Epub 2010 Jan 17.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Massachusetts, USA.

Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018764PMC
February 2010

Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge.

Nat Genet 2010 Feb 17;42(2):142-8. Epub 2010 Jan 17.

Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 x 10(-17); ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 x 10(-16)) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 x 10(-16)), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 x 10(-8)), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 x 10(-11)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2922003PMC
February 2010

Genome-wide association study identifies five loci associated with lung function.

Nat Genet 2010 Jan 13;42(1):36-44. Epub 2009 Dec 13.

Departments of Health Sciences and Genetics, Adrian Building, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Pulmonary function measures are heritable traits that predict morbidity and mortality and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We tested genome-wide association with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) in the SpiroMeta consortium (n = 20,288 individuals of European ancestry). We conducted a meta-analysis of top signals with data from direct genotyping (n < or = 32,184 additional individuals) and in silico summary association data from the CHARGE Consortium (n = 21,209) and the Health 2000 survey (n < or = 883). We confirmed the reported locus at 4q31 and identified associations with FEV(1) or FEV(1)/FVC and common variants at five additional loci: 2q35 in TNS1 (P = 1.11 x 10(-12)), 4q24 in GSTCD (2.18 x 10(-23)), 5q33 in HTR4 (P = 4.29 x 10(-9)), 6p21 in AGER (P = 3.07 x 10(-15)) and 15q23 in THSD4 (P = 7.24 x 10(-15)). mRNA analyses showed expression of TNS1, GSTCD, AGER, HTR4 and THSD4 in human lung tissue. These associations offer mechanistic insight into pulmonary function regulation and indicate potential targets for interventions to alleviate respiratory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2862965PMC
January 2010

A rare variant in the visfatin gene (NAMPT/PBEF1) is associated with protection from obesity.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009 Aug 19;17(8):1549-53. Epub 2009 Mar 19.

Section of Genomic Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Visfatin was recently reported as a novel adipokine encoded by the NAMPT (PBEF1) gene. This study was aimed at investigation of the possibility that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the visfatin gene are associated with either obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2D). A set of eight "tag-SNPs" were selected and ABI SNPlex assays designed for genotyping purposes. A total of 1,709 severely obese subjects were typed (896 class III obese adults and 813 children) together with 2,367 T2D individuals and 2,850 controls. For quantitative trait analysis, an additional 2,362 subjects were typed for rs10487818 from a general population sample. One rare SNP, rs10487818, located in intron 4 of NAMPT was associated with severe obesity, with a minor allele frequency of 1.6% in controls, 0.4% in the class III obese adults and, remarkably, 0% in the severely obese children. A highly significant association was observed for the presence or absence of the rare allele, i.e., (A,A) vs. (A,T + T,T) genotypes, in children (P = 6 x 10(-9)) and in adults (P = 8 x 10(-5)). No other significant (P < 0.05) association was observed with obesity or T2D for this or any other SNP. No association with BMI or waist-to-hip ratio was observed in a general population sample (n = 5,212). This is one of the first rare SNPs shown to be protective against a common polygenic disease and provides further evidence that rare alleles of strong effect can contribute to complex diseases such as severe obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2009.75DOI Listing
August 2009

Genome-wide association study for early-onset and morbid adult obesity identifies three new risk loci in European populations.

Nat Genet 2009 Feb 18;41(2):157-9. Epub 2009 Jan 18.

CNRS 8090-Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, 59000 Lille, France.

We analyzed genome-wide association data from 1,380 Europeans with early-onset and morbid adult obesity and 1,416 age-matched normal-weight controls. Thirty-eight markers showing strong association were further evaluated in 14,186 European subjects. In addition to FTO and MC4R, we detected significant association of obesity with three new risk loci in NPC1 (endosomal/lysosomal Niemann-Pick C1 gene, P = 2.9 x 10(-7)), near MAF (encoding the transcription factor c-MAF, P = 3.8 x 10(-13)) and near PTER (phosphotriesterase-related gene, P = 2.1 x 10(-7)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.301DOI Listing
February 2009

A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk.

Nat Genet 2009 Jan 7;41(1):89-94. Epub 2008 Dec 7.

CNRS-UMR-8090, Institute of Biology and Lille 2 University, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

In genome-wide association (GWA) data from 2,151 nondiabetic French subjects, we identified rs1387153, near MTNR1B (which encodes the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2)), as a modulator of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). In European populations, the rs1387153 T allele is associated with increased FPG (beta = 0.06 mmol/l, P = 7.6 x 10(-29), N = 16,094), type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08-1.22, P = 6.3 x 10(-5), cases N = 6,332) and risk of developing hyperglycemia or diabetes over a 9-year period (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.06-1.36, P = 0.005, incident cases N = 515). RT-PCR analyses confirm the presence of MT2 transcripts in neural tissues and show MT2 expression in human pancreatic islets and beta cells. Our data suggest a possible link between circadian rhythm regulation and glucose homeostasis through the melatonin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.277DOI Listing
January 2009

Post genome-wide association studies of novel genes associated with type 2 diabetes show gene-gene interaction and high predictive value.

PLoS One 2008 May 7;3(5):e2031. Epub 2008 May 7.

CNRS 8090-Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

Background: Recently, several Genome Wide Association (GWA) studies in populations of European descent have identified and validated novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), highly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aims were to validate these markers in other European and non-European populations, then to assess their combined effect in a large French study comparing T2D and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) individuals.

Methodology/principal Findings: In the same French population analyzed in our previous GWA study (3,295 T2D and 3,595 NGT), strong associations with T2D were found for CDKAL1 (OR(rs7756992) = 1.30[1.19-1.42], P = 2.3x10(-9)), CDKN2A/2B (OR(rs10811661) = 0.74[0.66-0.82], P = 3.5x10(-8)) and more modestly for IGFBP2 (OR(rs1470579) = 1.17[1.07-1.27], P = 0.0003) SNPs. These results were replicated in both Israeli Ashkenazi (577 T2D and 552 NGT) and Austrian (504 T2D and 753 NGT) populations (except for CDKAL1) but not in the Moroccan population (521 T2D and 423 NGT). In the overall group of French subjects (4,232 T2D and 4,595 NGT), IGFBP2 and CXCR4 synergistically interacted with (LOC38776, SLC30A8, HHEX) and (NGN3, CDKN2A/2B), respectively, encoding for proteins presumably regulating pancreatic endocrine cell development and function. The T2D risk increased strongly when risk alleles, including the previously discovered T2D-associated TCF7L2 rs7903146 SNP, were combined (8.68-fold for the 14% of French individuals carrying 18 to 30 risk alleles with an allelic OR of 1.24). With an area under the ROC curve of 0.86, only 15 novel loci were necessary to discriminate French individuals susceptible to develop T2D.

Conclusions/significance: In addition to TCF7L2, SLC30A8 and HHEX, initially identified by the French GWA scan, CDKAL1, IGFBP2 and CDKN2A/2B strongly associate with T2D in French individuals, and mostly in populations of Central European descent but not in Moroccan subjects. Genes expressed in the pancreas interact together and their combined effect dramatically increases the risk for T2D, opening avenues for the development of genetic prediction tests.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0002031PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2346547PMC
May 2008

Endocannabinoid receptor 1 gene variations increase risk for obesity and modulate body mass index in European populations.

Hum Mol Genet 2008 Jul 28;17(13):1916-21. Epub 2008 Mar 28.

CNRS 8090-Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

The therapeutic effects of cannabinoid receptor blockade on obesity-associated phenotypes underline the importance of the endocannabinoid pathway on the energy balance. Using a staged-approach, we examined the contribution of the endocannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) on obesity and body mass index (BMI) in the European population. With the input of CNR1 exons and 3' and 5' regions sequencing and HapMap database, we selected and genotyped 26 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1932 obese cases and 1173 non-obese controls of French European origin. Variants that showed significant associations (P < 0.05) with obesity after correction for multiple testing were further tested in two additional European cohorts including 2645 individuals. For the identification of the potential causal variant(s), we further genotyped SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the obesity-associated variants. Of the 25 successfully genotyped CNR1 SNPs, 12 showed nominal evidence of association with childhood obesity, class I and II and/or class III adult obesity (1.16 < OR < 1.40, 0.00003 < P < 0.04). Intronic SNPs rs806381 and rs2023239, which resisted correction for multiple testing were further associated with higher BMI in both Swiss obese subjects and Danish individuals. The genotyping of all know variants in partial LD (r(2) > 0.5) with these two SNPs in the initial case-control study, identified two better associated SNPs (rs6454674 and rs10485170). Our study of 5750 subjects shows that CNR1 variations increase the risk for obesity and modulate BMI in our European population. As CB1 is a drug target for obesity, a pharmacogenetic analysis of the endocannabinoid blockade obesity treatment may be of interest to identify best responders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddn089DOI Listing
July 2008

Genome-wide association scans identified CTNNBL1 as a novel gene for obesity.

Hum Mol Genet 2008 Jun 5;17(12):1803-13. Epub 2008 Mar 5.

School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.

Obesity is a major public health problem with strong genetic determination; however, the genetic factors underlying obesity are largely unknown. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association scan for obesity by examining approximately 500 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of 1000 unrelated US Caucasians. We identified a novel gene, CTNNBL1, which has multiple SNPs associated with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass. The most significant SNP, rs6013029, achieved experiment-wise P-values of 2.69 x 10(-7) for BMI and of 4.99 x 10(-8) for fat mass, respectively. The SNP rs6013029 minor allele T confers an average increase in BMI and fat mass of 2.67 kg/m(2) and 5.96 kg, respectively, compared with the alternative allele G. We further genotyped the five most significant CTNNBL1 SNPs in a French case-control sample comprising 896 class III obese adults (BMI > or = 40 kg/m(2)) and 2916 lean adults (BMI < 25 kg/m(2)). All five SNPs showed consistent associations with obesity (8.83 x 10(-3) < P < 6.96 x 10(-4)). Those subjects who were homozygous for the rs6013029 T allele had 1.42-fold increased odds of obesity compared with those without the T allele. The protein structure of CTNNBL1 is homologous to beta-catenin, a family of proteins containing armadillo repeats, suggesting similar biological functions. beta-Catenin is involved in the Wnt/beta-catenin-signaling pathway which appears to contribute to maintaining the undifferentiated state of pre-adipocytes by inhibiting adipogenic gene expression. Our study hence suggests a novel mechanism for the development of obesity, where CTNNBL1 may play an important role. Our study also provided supportive evidence for previously identified associations between obesity and INSIG2 and PFKP, but not FTO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddn072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2900891PMC
June 2008

R125W coding variant in TBC1D1 confers risk for familial obesity and contributes to linkage on chromosome 4p14 in the French population.

Hum Mol Genet 2008 Jun 5;17(12):1798-802. Epub 2008 Mar 5.

CNRS 8090-Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

Stone et al. previously reported an association between the TBC1D1 gene variant R125W (rs35859249) and severe obesity in women from US pedigrees. We attempted to replicate this result in 9714 French Caucasian individuals, combining family-based and general population studies. We confirmed an association with familial obesity (defined as body mass index (BMI) > or = 97th percentile) in women from 1109 obesity-selected pedigrees (Z-score = 2.70, P = 0.008). Analysis of 16 microsatellite markers on chromosome 4 restricted to the 42 pedigrees carrying the TBC1D1 R125W variant allele also revealed a suggestive evidence of linkage with obesity (maximum likelihood binomial LOD of 2.73, P = 0.0002) on chromosome 4p14, where resides TBC1D1. In contrast, R125W variant was neither associated with BMI nor with obesity in a large population-based cohort. These results confirm a putative role of TBC1D1 R125W variant in familial obesity predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddn070DOI Listing
June 2008

Evaluating the association of FAAH common gene variation with childhood, adult severe obesity and type 2 diabetes in the French population.

Obes Facts 2008 12;1(6):305-9. Epub 2008 Dec 12.

CNRS-8090, Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

Objective: The endocannabinoid pathway is involved in eating behavior and body weight regulation in both animals and humans. The association of a missense polymorphism (Pro129Thr) in FAAH gene with overweight/obesity has been recently questioned.

Subjects And Methods: To evaluate the contribution of the FAAH gene variation in polygenic obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the French population, we investigated the entire FAAH locus. We selected and genotyped ten tagged single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 635 obese children, 896 morbidly obese adults, 2,238 T2DM subjects and 1,340 control subjects, all of French European origin. Case control association tests were performed using logistic regression models.

Results: Nominal evidences of association were observed for rs6429600, rs324419, rs324418, rs2295633, rs7520850 and risk for class III adult obesity (0,001 < p < 0.04). The rs324420 (Pro129Thr) was nominally associated with class III adult obesity (ORadditive = 0.79 (95% CI 0.67-0.93), p = 0.005; ORdominant = 0.76 (95% CI 0.63-0.92), p = 0.005), Pro129 being the obesity risk allele. These associations did not remain significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. There was no significant association between FAAH SNPs and risk for childhood obesity or T2DM.

Conclusion: Our results in 5,109 subjects suggest that FAAH Pro129Thr polymorphism may modestly contribute to class III adult obesity in the French population. Further validation is needed to precise the role of this gene variant in obesity susceptibility background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000178157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452168PMC
January 2010

Type 2 diabetes whole-genome association study in four populations: the DiaGen consortium.

Am J Hum Genet 2007 Aug 26;81(2):338-45. Epub 2007 Jun 26.

Oy Jurilab, and Research Institute of Public Health, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, and Hope Hospital, Salford, UK.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a common, polygenic chronic disease with high heritability. The purpose of this whole-genome association study was to discover novel T2D-associated genes. We genotyped 500 familial cases and 497 controls with >300,000 HapMap-derived tagging single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) markers. When a stringent statistical correction for multiple testing was used, the only significant SNP was at TCF7L2, which has already been discovered and confirmed as a T2D-susceptibility gene. For a replication study, we selected 10 SNPs in six chromosomal regions with the strongest association (singly or as part of a haplotype) for retesting in an independent case-control set including 2,573 T2D cases and 2,776 controls. The most significant replicated result was found at the AHI1-LOC441171 gene region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/520599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1950819PMC
August 2007

Variation in FTO contributes to childhood obesity and severe adult obesity.

Nat Genet 2007 Jun 13;39(6):724-6. Epub 2007 May 13.

CNRS 8090-Institute of Biology, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

We identified a set of SNPs in the first intron of the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene on chromosome 16q12.2 that is consistently strongly associated with early-onset and severe obesity in both adults and children of European ancestry with an experiment-wise P value of 1.67 x 10(-26) in 2,900 affected individuals and 5,100 controls. The at-risk haplotype yields a proportion of attributable risk of 22% for common obesity. We conclude that FTO contributes to human obesity and hence may be a target for subsequent functional analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng2048DOI Listing
June 2007

Tissue distribution and evolution of fructosamine 3-kinase and fructosamine 3-kinase-related protein.

J Biol Chem 2004 Nov 25;279(45):46606-13. Epub 2004 Aug 25.

Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Christian de Duve Institute of Cellular Pathology and Université Catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 75, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.

Fructosamine 3-kinase (FN3K) and FN3K-related protein (FN3K-RP) catalyze the phosphorylation of the Amadori products ribulosamines, psicosamines, and, in the case of FN3K, fructosamines. BLAST searches in chordate genomes revealed two genes encoding proteins homologous to FN3K or FN3K-RP in various mammals and in chicken but only one gene, encoding a protein more similar to FN3K-RP than to FN3K, in fishes and the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis. This suggests that a gene duplication event occurred after the fish radiation and that the FN3K gene evolved more rapidly than the FN3K-RP gene. In agreement with this distribution, only one enzyme, phosphorylating ribulosamines and psicosamines but not fructosamines, was found in the tissues from a fish (Clarias gariepinus), whereas two enzymes with specificities similar to either FN3K or FN3K-RP were found in mouse, rat, and chicken tissues. FN3K is particularly active in brain, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle. Its activity is also relatively elevated in erythrocytes from man, rat, and mouse but barely detectable in erythrocytes from chicken and pig, which correlates well with the low intracellular concentration of glucose in erythrocytes from these species. This is in keeping with the specific role of FN3K to repair protein damage caused by glucose. FN3K-RP was more evenly distributed in tissues, except for skeletal muscle where its activity was particularly low. This may be related to low activity of the pentose phosphate pathway in this tissue, as suggested by assays of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. This finding, together with the high affinity of FN3K-RP for ribulosamines, suggests that this enzyme may serve to repair damage caused by the powerful glycating agent, ribose 5-phosphate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M407678200DOI Listing
November 2004

A genome-wide scan for childhood obesity-associated traits in French families shows significant linkage on chromosome 6q22.31-q23.2.

Diabetes 2004 Mar;53(3):803-11

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 8090, Institute of Biology of Lille, Pasteur Institute, Lille, France.

We conducted a genome-wide search for childhood obesity-associated traits, including BMI >/==" BORDER="0">95th percentile (PCT95), 97th percentile (PCT97), and 99th percentile (PCT99) as well as age of adiposity rebound (AAR), which corresponds to the beginning of the second rise in childhood adiposity. A set of 431 microsatellite markers was genotyped in 506 subjects from 115 multiplex French Caucasian families, with at least one child with a BMI >/==" BORDER="0">95th percentile. Among these 115 pedigrees, 97 had at least two sibs with a BMI >/==" BORDER="0">95th percentile. Fine-mapping was performed in the seven most positive loci. Nonparametric multipoint analyses revealed six regions of significant or suggestive linkage on chromosomes 2q33.2-q36.3, 6q22.31-q23.2, and 17p13 for PCT95, PCT97, or PCT99 and 15q12-q15.1, 16q22.1-q24.1, and 19p13.3-p13.11 for AAR. The strongest evidence of linkage was detected on chromosome 6q22.31 for PCT97 (maximum likelihood score: 4.06) at the marker D6S287. This logarithm of odds score meets genome-wide significance tested through simulation (empirical genome-wide P = 0.01 [0.0027-0.0254]). Six independent ge-nome scans in adults have reported quantitative trait loci on 6q linked to energy or glucose homeostasis-associated phenotypes. Possible candidate genes in this region include SIM1, MCHR2, and PC-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.53.3.803DOI Listing
March 2004

A missense mutation disrupting a dibasic prohormone processing site in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) increases susceptibility to early-onset obesity through a novel molecular mechanism.

Hum Mol Genet 2002 Aug;11(17):1997-2004

University Department of Medicine, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, UK.

The functional loss of both alleles of the human pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene leads to a very rare syndrome of hypoadrenalism, red hair and early-onset obesity. In order to examine whether more subtle genetic variants in POMC might contribute to early-onset obesity, the coding region of the gene was sequenced in 262 Caucasian subjects with a history of severe obesity from childhood. Two children were found to be heterozygous for a missense mutation, R236G, which disrupts the dibasic cleavage site between beta melanocyte-stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) and beta-endorphin. Beta-TC3 cells transfected with the mutant POMC cDNA produced a mutant beta-MSH/beta-endorphin fusion protein. This fusion protein bound to the human melanocortin-4 receptor (hMC4R) with an affinity similar to its natural ligands, but had a markedly reduced ability to activate the receptor. This variant co-segregated with early-onset obesity over three generations in one family and was absent in 412 normal weight UK Caucasian controls. Combining the results in UK Caucasians with a new case-control study in French subjects and three previously published reports, mutations disrupting this processing site were present in 0.88% of subjects with early-onset obesity and 0.22% of normal-weight controls. These results suggest that the R236G mutation may confer an inherited susceptibility to obesity through the production of an aberrant fusion protein that has the capacity to interfere with central melanocortin signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/11.17.1997DOI Listing
August 2002
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