Publications by authors named "Jeovanna Lowe"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Micro-dystrophin gene therapy prevents heart failure in an improved Duchenne muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy mouse model.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 8;6(7). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Physiology & Cell Biology and Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Gene replacement for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) with micro-dystrophins has entered clinical trials, but efficacy in preventing heart failure is unknown. Although most patients with DMD die from heart failure, cardiomyopathy is undetectable until the teens, so efficacy from trials in young boys will be unknown for a decade. Available DMD animal models were sufficient to demonstrate micro-dystrophin efficacy on earlier onset skeletal muscle pathology underlying loss of ambulation and respiratory insufficiency in patients. However, no mouse models progressed into heart failure, and dog models showed highly variable progression insufficient to evaluate efficacy of micro-dystrophin or other therapies on DMD heart failure. To overcome this barrier, we have generated the first DMD mouse model to our knowledge that reproducibly progresses into heart failure. This model shows cardiac inflammation and fibrosis occur prior to reduced function. Fibrosis does not continue to accumulate, but inflammation persists after function declines. We used this model to test micro-dystrophin gene therapy efficacy on heart failure prevention for the first time. Micro-dystrophin prevented declines in cardiac function and prohibited onset of inflammation and fibrosis. This model will allow identification of committed pathogenic steps to heart failure and testing of genetic and nongenetic therapies to optimize cardiac care for patients with DMD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.146511DOI Listing
April 2021

Early Inflammation in Muscular Dystrophy Differs between Limb and Respiratory Muscles and Increases with Dystrophic Severity.

Am J Pathol 2021 04 23;191(4):730-747. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic, degenerative, striated muscle disease exacerbated by chronic inflammation. Mdx mice in the genotypic DMD model poorly represent immune-mediated pathology observed in patients. Improved understanding of innate immunity in dystrophic muscles is required to develop specific anti-inflammatory treatments. Here, inflammation in mdx mice and the more fibrotic utrn;mdx Het model was comprehensively investigated. Unbiased analysis showed that mdx and Het mice contain increased levels of numerous chemokines and cytokines, with further increased in Het mice. Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression levels were dramatically increased in 4-week-old dystrophic quadriceps muscles, and to a lesser extent in diaphragm during the early injury phase, and had a small but consistent increase at 8 and 20 weeks. An optimized direct immune cell isolation method prevented loss of up to 90% of macrophages with density-dependent centrifugation previously used for mdx flow cytometry. Het quadriceps contain higher proportions of neutrophils and infiltrating monocytes than mdx, and higher percentages of F4/80, but lower percentages of F4/80 cells and patrolling monocytes compared with Het diaphragms. These differences may restrict regenerative potential of dystrophic diaphragms, increasing pathologic severity. Fibrotic and inflammatory gene expression levels are higher in myeloid cells isolated from Het compared with mdx quadriceps, supporting Het mice may represent an improved model for testing therapeutic manipulation of inflammation in DMD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2021.01.008DOI Listing
April 2021

Muscle Twitch Kinetics Are Dependent on Muscle Group, Disease State, and Age in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Mouse Models.

Front Physiol 2020 25;11:568909. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked disorder caused by the lack of functional dystrophin protein. In muscular dystrophy preclinical research, it is pertinent to analyze the force of the muscles affected by the disease to assess pathology and potential effectiveness of therapeutic interventions. Although muscles function at sub-maximal levels , maximal tetanic contractions are most commonly used to assess and report muscle function in muscular dystrophy studies. At submaximal activation, the kinetics of contraction and relaxation are heavily impacted by the kinetics of the single twitch. However, maximal tetanic force is often the main, if not sole, outcome measured in most studies, while contractile kinetics are rarely reported. To investigate the effect of muscle disease on twitch contraction kinetics, isolated diaphragm and (EDL) muscles of 10-, 20-week, "het" (dystrophin deficient and utrophin haplo-insufficient), and 52-week (dystrophin deficient) mice were analyzed and compared to wild-type controls. We observed that twitch contractile kinetics are dependent on muscle type, age, and disease state. Specific findings include that diaphragm from wildtype mice has a greater time to 50% relaxation (RT50) than time to peak tension (TTP) compared to the het and dystrophic models, where there is a similar TTP compared to RT50. Diaphragm twitch kinetics remain virtually unchanged with age, while the EDL from het and mice initially has a greater RT50 than TTP, but the TTP increases with age. The difference between EDL contractile kinetics of dystrophic and wildtype mice is more prominent at young age. Differences in kinetics yielded greater statistical significance compared to previously published force measurements, thus, using kinetics as an outcome parameter could potentially allow for use of smaller experimental groups in future study designs. Although this study focused on DMD models, our findings may be applicable to other skeletal muscle conditions and diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.568909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545010PMC
September 2020

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism by finerenone is sufficient to improve function in preclinical muscular dystrophy.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 Sep 18. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Aims: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked inherited disease due to dystrophin deficiency causing skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunction. Affected patients lose ambulation by age 12 and usually die in the second to third decades of life from cardiac and respiratory failure. Symptomatic treatment includes the use of anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, which are associated with side effects including weight gain, osteoporosis, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Novel treatment options include blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, because angiotensin as well as aldosterone contribute to persistent inflammation and fibrosis, and aldosterone blockade represents an efficacious anti-fibrotic approach in cardiac failure. Recent preclinical findings enabled successful clinical testing of a combination of steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in DMD boys. The efficacy of MRAs alone on dystrophic skeletal muscle and heart has not been investigated. Here, we tested efficacy of the novel non-steroidal MRA finerenone as a monotherapy in a preclinical DMD model.

Methods And Results: The dystrophin-deficient, utrophin haploinsufficient mouse model of DMD was treated with finerenone and compared with untreated dystrophic and wild-type controls. Grip strength, electrocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, muscle force measurements, histological quantification, and gene expression studies were performed. Finerenone treatment alone resulted in significant improvements in clinically relevant functional parameters in both skeletal muscle and heart. Normalized grip strength in rested dystrophic mice treated with finerenone (40.3 ± 1.0 mN/g) was significantly higher (P = 0.0182) compared with untreated dystrophic mice (35.2 ± 1.5 mN/g). Fatigued finerenone-treated dystrophic mice showed an even greater relative improvement (P = 0.0003) in normalized grip strength (37.5 ± 1.1 mN/g) compared with untreated mice (29.7 ± 1.1 mN/g). Finerenone treatment also led to significantly lower (P = 0.0075) susceptibility to limb muscle damage characteristic of DMD measured during a contraction-induced injury protocol. Normalized limb muscle force after five lengthening contractions resulted in retention of 71 ± 7% of baseline force in finerenone-treated compared with only 51 ± 4% in untreated dystrophic mice. Finerenone treatment also prevented significant reductions in myocardial strain rate (P = 0.0409), the earliest sign of DMD cardiomyopathy. Moreover, treatment with finerenone led to very specific cardiac gene expression changes in clock genes that might modify cardiac pathophysiology in this DMD model.

Conclusions: Finerenone administered as a monotherapy is disease modifying for both skeletal muscle and heart in a preclinical DMD model. These findings support further evaluation of finerenone in DMD clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754779PMC
September 2020

Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling Contributes to Normal Muscle Repair After Acute Injury.

Front Physiol 2019 25;10:1324. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Acute skeletal muscle injury is followed by a temporal response of immune cells, fibroblasts, and muscle progenitor cells within the muscle microenvironment to restore function. These same cell types are repeatedly activated in muscular dystrophy from chronic muscle injury, but eventually, the regenerative portion of the cycle is disrupted and fibrosis replaces degenerated muscle fibers. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist drugs have been demonstrated to increase skeletal muscle function, decrease fibrosis, and directly improve membrane integrity in muscular dystrophy mice, and therefore are being tested clinically. Conditional knockout of MR from muscle fibers in muscular dystrophy mice also improves skeletal muscle function and decreases fibrosis. The mechanism of efficacy likely results from blocking MR signaling by its endogenous agonist aldosterone, being produced at high local levels in regions of muscle damage by infiltrating myeloid cells. Since chronic and acute injuries share the same cellular processes to regenerate muscle, and MR antagonists are clinically used for a wide variety of conditions, it is crucial to define the role of MR signaling in normal muscle repair after injury. In this study, we performed acute injuries using barium chloride injections into muscles both in myofiber MR conditional knockout mice on a wild-type background (MRcko) and in MR antagonist-treated wild-type mice. Steps of the muscle regeneration response were analyzed at 1, 4, 7, or 14 days after injury. Presence of the aldosterone synthase enzyme was also assessed during the injury repair process. We show for the first time aldosterone synthase localization in infiltrating immune cells of normal skeletal muscle after acute injury. MRcko mice had an increased muscle area infiltrated by aldosterone synthase positive myeloid cells compared to control injured animals. Both MRcko and MR antagonist treatment stabilized damaged myofibers and increased collagen infiltration or compaction at 4 days post-injury. MR antagonist treatment also led to reduced myofiber size at 7 and 14 days post-injury. These data support that MR signaling contributes to the normal muscle repair process following acute injury. MR antagonist treatment delays muscle fiber growth, so temporary discontinuation of these drugs after a severe muscle injury could be considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.01324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6830343PMC
October 2019

Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists improve membrane integrity independent of muscle force in muscular dystrophy.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 06;28(12):2030-2045

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology.

Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) drugs have been used clinically for decades to treat cardiovascular diseases. MR antagonists not only show preclinical efficacy for heart in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) models but also improve skeletal muscle force and muscle membrane integrity. The mechanisms of action of MR antagonists in skeletal muscles are entirely unknown. Since MR are present in many cell types in the muscle microenvironment, it is critical to define cell-intrinsic functions in each cell type to ultimately optimize antagonist efficacy for use in the widest variety of diseases. We generated a new conditional knockout of MR in myofibers and quantified cell-intrinsic mechanistic effects on functional and histological parameters in a DMD mouse model. Skeletal muscle MR deficiency led to improved respiratory muscle force generation and less deleterious fibrosis but did not reproduce MR antagonist efficacy on membrane susceptibility to induced damage. Surprisingly, acute application of MR antagonist to muscles led to improvements in membrane integrity after injury independent of myofiber MR. These data demonstrate that MR antagonists are efficacious to dystrophic skeletal muscles through both myofiber intrinsic effects on muscle force and downstream fibrosis and extrinsic functions on membrane stability. MR antagonists may therefore be applicable for treating more general muscle weakness and possibly other conditions that result from cell injuries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548225PMC
June 2019

Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists in Muscular Dystrophy Mice During Aging and Exercise.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2018;5(3):295-306

Department of Physiology & Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have shown preclinical efficacy for both skeletal and cardiac muscle outcomes in young sedentary dystrophin-deficient mdx mice also haploinsufficient for utrophin, a Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) model. The mdx genotypic DMD model has mild pathology, making non-curative therapeutic effects difficult to distinguish at baseline. Since the cardiac benefit of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been translated to DMD patients, it is important to optimize potential advantages for skeletal muscle by further defining efficacy parameters.

Objective: We aimed to test whether therapeutic effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are detectable using three different reported methods of exacerbating the mdx phenotype.

Methods: We tested treatment with lisinopril and the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone in: 10 week-old exercised, 1 year-old sedentary, and 5 month-old isoproterenol treated mdx mice and performed comprehensive functional and histological measurements.

Results: None of the protocols to exacerbate mdx phenotypes resulted in dramatically enhanced pathology and no significant benefit was observed with treatment.

Conclusions: Since endogenous mineralocorticoid aldosterone production from immune cells in dystrophic muscle may explain antagonist efficacy, it is likely that these drugs work optimally during the narrow window of peak inflammation in mdx mice. Exercised and aged mdx mice do not display prolific damage and inflammation, likely explaining the absence of continued efficacy of these drugs. Since inflammation is more prevalent in DMD patients, the therapeutic window for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients may be longer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-180323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6732783PMC
November 2018

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors improve membrane stability and change gene-expression profiles in dystrophic skeletal muscles.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2017 Feb 23;312(2):C155-C168. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; and

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are FDA-approved drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and are used to treat heart failure. Combined treatment with the ACEi lisinopril and the nonspecific MR antagonist spironolactone surprisingly improves skeletal muscle, in addition to heart function and pathology in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mouse model. We recently demonstrated that MR is present in all limb and respiratory muscles and functions as a steroid hormone receptor in differentiated normal human skeletal muscle fibers. The goals of the current study were to begin to define cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the skeletal muscle efficacy of RAAS inhibitor treatment. We also compared molecular changes resulting from RAAS inhibition with those resulting from the current DMD standard-of-care glucocorticoid treatment. Direct assessment of muscle membrane integrity demonstrated improvement in dystrophic mice treated with lisinopril and spironolactone compared with untreated mice. Short-term treatments of dystrophic mice with specific and nonspecific MR antagonists combined with lisinopril led to overlapping gene-expression profiles with beneficial regulation of metabolic processes and decreased inflammatory gene expression. Glucocorticoids increased apoptotic, proteolytic, and chemokine gene expression that was not changed by RAAS inhibitors in dystrophic mice. Microarray data identified potential genes that may underlie RAAS inhibitor treatment efficacy and the side effects of glucocorticoids. Direct effects of RAAS inhibitors on membrane integrity also contribute to improved pathology of dystrophic muscles. Together, these data will inform clinical development of MR antagonists for treating skeletal muscles in DMD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00269.2016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5336592PMC
February 2017

Similar efficacy from specific and non-specific mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist treatment of muscular dystrophy mice.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2016 ;3(3):395-404

Department of Physiology & Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Combined treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist improved cardiac and skeletal muscle function and pathology in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. MR is present in limb and respiratory skeletal muscles and functions as a steroid hormone receptor.

Objective: The goals of the current study were to compare the efficacy of the specific MR antagonist eplerenone with the non-specific MR antagonist spironolactone, both in combination with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril.

Methods: Three groups of n=18 dystrophin-deficient, utrophin-haploinsufficient male mice were given chow containing: lisinopril plus spironolactone, lisinopril plus eplerenone, or no drug, from four to 20 weeks-of-age. Eighteen C57BL/10 male mice were used as wild-type controls. measurements included cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, conscious electrocardiography, and grip strength. From each mouse in the study, diaphragm, , and cardiac papillary muscle force was measured , followed by histological quantification of muscle damage in heart, diaphragm, quadriceps, and abdominal muscles. MR protein levels were also verified in treated muscles.

Results: Treatment with specific and non-specific MR antagonists did not result in any adverse effects to dystrophic skeletal muscles or heart. Both treatments resulted in similar functional and pathological improvements across a wide array of parameters. MR protein levels were not reduced by treatment.

Conclusions: These data suggest that spironolactone and eplerenone show similar effects in dystrophic mice and support the clinical development of MR antagonists for treating skeletal muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-160173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5096836PMC
March 2018

Myeloid cells are capable of synthesizing aldosterone to exacerbate damage in muscular dystrophy.

Hum Mol Genet 2016 12;25(23):5167-5177

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

FDA-approved mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are used to treat heart failure. We have recently demonstrated efficacy of MR antagonists for skeletal muscles in addition to heart in Duchenne muscular dystrophy mouse models and that mineralocorticoid receptors are present and functional in skeletal muscles. The goal of this study was to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of MR antagonist efficacy on dystrophic skeletal muscles. We demonstrate for the first time that infiltrating myeloid cells clustered in damaged areas of dystrophic skeletal muscles have the capacity to produce the natural ligand of MR, aldosterone, which in excess is known to exacerbate tissue damage. Aldosterone synthase protein levels are increased in leukocytes isolated from dystrophic muscles compared with controls and local aldosterone levels in dystrophic skeletal muscles are increased, despite normal circulating levels. All genes encoding enzymes in the pathway for aldosterone synthesis are expressed in muscle-derived leukocytes. 11β-HSD2, the enzyme that inactivates glucocorticoids to increase MR selectivity for aldosterone, is also increased in dystrophic muscle tissues. These results, together with the demonstrated preclinical efficacy of antagonists, suggest MR activation is in excess of physiological need and likely contributes to the pathology of muscular dystrophy. This study provides new mechanistic insight into the known contribution of myeloid cells to muscular dystrophy pathology. This first report of myeloid cells having the capacity to produce aldosterone may have implications for a wide variety of acute injuries and chronic diseases with inflammation where MR antagonists may be therapeutic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddw331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6078642PMC
December 2016

Muscle damage, metabolism, and oxidative stress in mdx mice: Impact of aerobic running.

Muscle Nerve 2016 06;54(1):110-7

Department of Human Sciences, Kinesiology Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Introduction: We tested how a treadmill exercise program influences oxygen consumption, oxidative stress, and exercise capacity in the mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Methods: At age 4 weeks mdx mice were subjected to 4 weeks of twice-weekly treadmill exercise. Sedentary mdx and wild-type mice served as controls. Oxygen consumption, time to exhaustion, oxidative stress, and myofiber damage were assessed.

Results: At age 4 weeks, there was a significant difference in exercise capacity between mdx and wild-type mice. After exercise, mdx mice had lower basal oxygen consumption and exercise capacity, but similar maximal oxygen consumption. Skeletal muscle from these mice displayed increased oxidative stress. Collagen deposition was higher in exercised versus sedentary mice.

Conclusions: Exercised mdx mice exhibit increased oxidative stress, as well as deficits in exercise capacity, baseline oxygen consumption, and increased myofiber fibrosis. Muscle Nerve 54: 110-117, 2016.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.25015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4905810PMC
June 2016

Mineralocorticoid receptors are present in skeletal muscle and represent a potential therapeutic target.

FASEB J 2015 Nov 15;29(11):4544-54. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

*Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA; and Department of Internal Medicine and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA

Early treatment with heart failure drugs lisinopril and spironolactone improves skeletal muscle pathology in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mouse models. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist spironolactone indirectly and directly target MR. The presence and function of MR in skeletal muscle have not been explored. MR mRNA and protein are present in all tested skeletal muscles from both wild-type mice and DMD mouse models. MR expression is cell autonomous in both undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiated myotubes from mouse and human skeletal muscle cultures. To test for MR function in skeletal muscle, global gene expression analysis was conducted on human myotubes treated with MR agonist (aldosterone; EC50 1.3 nM) or antagonist (spironolactone; IC50 1.6 nM), and 53 gene expression differences were identified. Five differences were conserved in quadriceps muscles from dystrophic mice treated with spironolactone plus lisinopril (IC50 0.1 nM) compared with untreated controls. Genes down-regulated more than 2-fold by MR antagonism included FOS, ANKRD1, and GADD45B, with known roles in skeletal muscle, in addition to NPR3 and SERPINA3, bona fide targets of MR in other tissues. MR is a novel drug target in skeletal muscle and use of clinically safe antagonists may be beneficial for muscle diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.15-276782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4608910PMC
November 2015

Metabolic dysfunction and altered mitochondrial dynamics in the utrophin-dystrophin deficient mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

PLoS One 2015 10;10(4):e0123875. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, United States of America.

The utrophin-dystrophin deficient (DKO) mouse model has been widely used to understand the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). However, it is unclear as to what extent muscle pathology affects metabolism. Therefore, the present study was focused on understanding energy expenditure in the whole animal and in isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and to determine changes in metabolic enzymes. Our results show that the 8 week-old DKO mice consume higher oxygen relative to activity levels. Interestingly the EDL muscle from DKO mouse consumes higher oxygen per unit integral force, generates less force and performs better in the presence of pyruvate thus mimicking a slow twitch muscle. We also found that the expression of hexokinase 1 and pyruvate kinase M2 was upregulated several fold suggesting increased glycolytic flux. Additionally, there is a dramatic increase in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) and mitofusin 2 protein levels suggesting increased mitochondrial fission and fusion, a feature associated with increased energy demand and altered mitochondrial dynamics. Collectively our studies point out that the dystrophic disease has caused significant changes in muscle metabolism. To meet the increased energetic demand, upregulation of metabolic enzymes and regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission is observed in the dystrophic muscle. A better understanding of the metabolic demands and the accompanied alterations in the dystrophic muscle can help us design improved intervention therapies along with existing drug treatments for the DMD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0123875PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4393257PMC
December 2015

Eplerenone for early cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet Neurol 2015 Feb 30;14(2):153-61. Epub 2014 Dec 30.

Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and myocardial damage precedes decline in left ventricular systolic function. We tested the efficacy of eplerenone on top of background therapy in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with early myocardial disease.

Methods: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, boys from three centres in the USA aged 7 years or older with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myocardial damage by late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI and preserved ejection fraction received either eplerenone 25 mg or placebo orally, every other day for the first month and once daily thereafter, in addition to background clinician-directed therapy with either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Computer-generated randomisation was done centrally using block sizes of four and six, and only the study statistician and the investigational pharmacy had the preset randomisation assignments. The primary outcome was change in left ventricular circumferential strain (Ecc) at 12 months, a measure of contractile dysfunction. Safety was established through serial serum potassium levels and measurement of cystatin C, a non-creatinine measure of kidney function. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01521546.

Findings: Between Jan 26, 2012, and July 3, 2013, 188 boys were screened and 42 were enrolled. 20 were randomly assigned to receive eplerenone and 22 to receive placebo, of whom 20 in the eplerenone group and 20 in the placebo group completed baseline, 6-month, and 12-month visits. After 12 months, decline in left ventricular circumferential strain was less in those who received eplerenone than in those who received placebo (median ΔEcc 1·0 [IQR 0·3-2·2] vs 2·2 [1·3-3·1]; p=0·020). Cystatin C concentrations remained normal in both groups, and all non-haemolysed blood samples showed normal potassium concentrations. One 23-year-old patient in the placebo group died of fat embolism, and another patient in the placebo group withdrew from the trial to address long-standing digestive issues. All other adverse events were mild: short-lived headaches coincident with seasonal allergies occurred in one patient given eplerenone, flushing occurred in one patient given placebo, and anxiety occurred in another patient given placebo.

Interpretation: In boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and preserved ejection fraction, addition of eplerenone to background ACEI or ARB therapy attenuates the progressive decline in left ventricular systolic function. Early use of available drugs warrants consideration in this population at high risk of cardiac death, but further studies are needed to determine the effect of combination cardioprotective therapy on event-free survival in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Funding: BallouSkies, Parent Project for Muscular Dystrophy, US National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, and US National Institutes of Health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70318-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361281PMC
February 2015

The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Lisinopril Improves Muscle Histopathology but not Contractile Function in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2015;2(3):257-268. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Department of Physiology & Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA ; Department of Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are the current standard of care treatment for cardiac dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. We previously showed treatment with an ACEi plus mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist improves limb and respiratory skeletal muscles, in addition to cardiac muscles, in a dystrophic mouse model at 20 weeks-of-age.

Objective: To determine whether previously observed preclinical benefits of an ACEi plus MR antagonist on dystrophic skeletal muscles can be reproduced by increasing ACEi dosage alone. We also compared functional and histological outcome measures at 10 and 20 weeks-of-age.

Methods: Dystrophin deficient utrophin haplo-insufficient (; ) "het" mice were treated with 10, 20, or 50 mg/kg × day of the ACEi lisinopril from 4 to 10 weeks-of-age via water bottles and compared with C57BL/10 wild-type control mice and untreated hets. Data from 10 week-old het mice were also compared to data collected from an untreated het group at 20 weeks-old. cardiac and grip strength measurements, diaphragm and muscle force measurements, and histopathological analyses were performed. One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett comparison was used to determine significance.

Results: ACEi treatment reduced skeletal muscle damage but had no significant effect on muscle force. Body weight, heart rate, grip strength and blood pressure were unaffected by treatment. Limb muscle histopathology was more informative at 10 than 20 weeks-of-age.

Conclusions: These results suggest increased ACEi dosage alone cannot improve all dystrophic parameters. Further optimization of MR antagonists in 20 week-old mice is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JND-150099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4838202PMC
September 2015