Publications by authors named "Jeong Won Paik"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of the Internal Fit Accuracy of 3D-Printed Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Block: An Ex Vivo Pilot Study.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 03722, Korea.

The aim of this study was to assess the internal fit accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D)-printed biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block compared with a 3D-milled poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) block by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. In a total of 20 porcine rib bones, two different types of defects having two adjacent walls and a floor were produced: a defect with a flat floor (flat defect; = 10) and a defect with a concave floor (curved defect; = 10). Each defect was grafted with either the 3D-printed BCP block or the 3D-milled PMMA block fabricated following the computer aided design. The defects were then cut cross-sectionally and evaluated under the SEM. The extents of internal contact and gap were measured and statistically analyzed ( < 0.05). All blocks in both BCP and PMMA groups were successfully fit to the flat and curved defects. The internal contact ratio was significantly higher in the BCP group (flat defect: 0.47 ± 0.10; curved defect: 0.29 ± 0.05) compared with the PMMA group (flat defect: 0.21 ± 0.13; curved defect: 0.17 ± 0.04; < 0.05). The internal gap area was similar between the two groups regardless of the defect types ( > 0.05). The internal fit accuracy of the 3D-printed BCP block was reliable in both the flat and curved defects when compared with the accuracy of the 3D-milled PMMA block.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14061557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004813PMC
March 2021

Diverse patterns of bone regeneration in rabbit calvarial defects depending on the type of collagen membrane.

J Periodontal Implant Sci 2021 Feb;51(1):40-52

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute of Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Various crosslinking methods have been introduced to increase the longevity of collagen membranes. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the degradation and bone regeneration patterns of 3 collagen membranes.

Methods: Four 8-mm-diameter circular bone defects were created in the calvaria of 10 rabbits. In each rabbit, each defect was randomly allocated to 1) the sham control group, 2) the non-crosslinked collagen sponge (NS) group, 3) the chemically crosslinked collagen membrane (CCM) group, or 4) the biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP)-supplemented ultraviolet (UV)-crosslinked collagen membrane (UVM) group. Each defect was covered with the allocated membrane without any graft material. Rabbits were sacrificed at either 2 or 8 weeks post-surgery, and radiographic and histologic analyses were done.

Results: New bone formed underneath the membrane in defects in the CCM and UVM groups, with a distinctive new bone formation pattern, while new bone formed from the base of the defect in the NS and control groups. The CCM maintained its shape until 8 weeks, while the UVM and NS were fully degraded at 8 weeks; simultaneously, sustained inflammatory infiltration was found in the margin of the CCM, while it was absent in the UVM. In conclusion, the CCM showed longer longevity than the UVM, but was accompanied by higher levels of inflammation.

Conclusions: Both the CCM and UVM showed distinctive patterns of enhancement in new bone formation in the early phase. UV crosslinking can be a biocompatible alternative to chemical crosslinking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2004180209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920838PMC
February 2021

Oral Fluid Biomarkers for Diagnosing Gingivitis in Human: A Cross-Sectional Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 3;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute of Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul 120-749, Korea.

Diagnoses based on oral fluid biomarkers have been introduced to overcome limitations of periodontal probe-based diagnoses. Diagnostic ability of certain biomarkers for periodontitis have been identified and widely studied, however, such studies targeting gingivitis is scarce. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the efficacies and accuracies of eight biomarkers in diagnosing gingivitis with the aid of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) were examined in 100 participants. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected using paper points, and whole-saliva samples were collected using cotton roll. Samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits for the different biomarkers. The levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, lactoferrin, cystatin C, myeloperoxidase (MPO), platelet-activating factor, cathepsin B, and pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen were analyzed. MPO and MMP-8 levels in saliva were strongly correlated with gingivitis, with Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.399 and 0.217, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was largest for MMP-8, at 0.814, followed by values of 0.793 and 0.777 for MPO and MMP-9, respectively. The clinical parameters of GI and PI showed strong correlations and large AUC values, whereas PD and CAL did not. MMP-8 and MPO were found to be effective for diagnosing gingivitis. Further investigations based on the results of this study may identify clinically useful biomarkers for the accurate and early detection of gingivitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356847PMC
June 2020

Distinctive bone regeneration of calvarial defects using biphasic calcium phosphate supplemented ultraviolet-crosslinked collagen membrane.

J Periodontal Implant Sci 2020 Feb 19;50(1):14-27. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute of Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To overcome several drawbacks of chemically-crosslinked collagen membranes, modification processes such as ultraviolet (UV) crosslinking and the addition of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) to collagen membranes have been introduced. This study evaluated the efficacy and biocompatibility of BCP-supplemented UV-crosslinked collagen membrane for guided bone regeneration (GBR) in a rabbit calvarial model.

Methods: Four circular bone defects (diameter, 8 mm) were created in the calvarium of 10 rabbits. Each defect was randomly allocated to one of the following groups: 1) the sham control group (spontaneous healing); 2) the M group (defect coverage with a BCP-supplemented UV-crosslinked collagen membrane and no graft material); 3) the BG (defects filled with BCP particles without membrane coverage); and 4) the BG+M group (defects filled with BCP particles and covered with a BCP-supplemented UV-crosslinked collagen membrane in a conventional GBR procedure). At 2 and 8 weeks, rabbits were sacrificed, and experimental defects were investigated histologically and by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT).

Results: In both micro-CT and histometric analyses, the BG and BG+M groups at both 2 and 8 weeks showed significantly higher new bone formation than the control group. On micro-CT, the new bone volume of the BG+M group (48.39±5.47 mm) was larger than that of the BG group (38.71±2.24 mm, =0.032) at 8 weeks. Histologically, greater new bone area was observed in the BG+M group than in the BG or M groups. BCP-supplemented UV-crosslinked collagen membrane did not cause an abnormal cellular reaction and was stable until 8 weeks.

Conclusions: Enhanced new bone formation in GBR can be achieved by simultaneously using bone graft material and a BCP-supplemented UV-crosslinked collagen membrane, which showed high biocompatibility and resistance to degradation, making it a biocompatible alternative to chemically-crosslinked collagen membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2020.50.1.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040443PMC
February 2020

Volume stability of the augmented sinus using a collagenated bovine bone mineral grafted in case of a perforated Schneiderian membrane: An experimental study in rabbits.

J Clin Periodontol 2020 05 11;47(5):649-656. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Objectives: To determine the volume stability of a sinus augmented with a collagenated bovine bone mineral (CBBM) in case of an intact or perforated Schneiderian membrane (SM).

Materials And Methods: A bilateral sinus augmentation procedure was performed in eight rabbits. The SM was intentionally perforated in one side (SMP group), while it remained intact in contra-lateral side (control group) and the same amount of CBBM was then grafted. At 12 weeks, the animals were euthanized for radiographic and histomorphometric analyses.

Results: The augmented volume did not differ significantly between the two groups: 262.2 ± 32.1 mm in SMP group and 261.9 ± 48.5 mm in the control group (p = .959). There was no significant difference in the total augmented area: 24.7 ± 5.2 mm in SMP group and 23.2 ± 2.9 mm in the control group (p = .773). The areas of newly formed bone also did not differ significantly between the two groups, but was significantly lower at the centre of the augmented region than in the region of the surgical window in both groups (p < .05).

Conclusion: A perforation of the SM in a rabbit model does neither impact the augmented volume nor new bone formation following grafting of the sinus with a CBBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13273DOI Listing
May 2020

Bioactive characteristics of an implant surface coated with a pH buffering agent: an study.

J Periodontal Implant Sci 2019 Dec 4;49(6):366-381. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of conventional sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface coated with a pH buffering solution based on surface wettability, blood protein adhesion, osteoblast affinity, and platelet adhesion and activation.

Methods: Titanium discs and implants with conventional SLA surface (SA), SLA surface in an aqueous calcium chloride solution (CA), and SLA surface with a pH buffering agent (SOI) were prepared. The wetting velocity was measured by the number of threads wetted by blood over an interval of time. Serum albumin adsorption was tested using the bicinchoninic acid assay and by measuring fluorescence intensity. Osteoblast activity assays (osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and migration) were also performed, and platelet adhesion and activation assays were conducted.

Results: In both the wetting velocity test and the serum albumin adsorption assay, the SOI surface displayed a significantly higher wetting velocity than the SA surface (=0.000 and =0.000, respectively). In the osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization tests, the mean values for SOI were all higher than those for SA and CA. On the osteoblast migration, platelet adhesion, and activation tests, SOI also showed significantly higher values than SA (=0.040, =0.000, and =0.000, respectively).

Conclusions: SOI exhibited higher hydrophilicity and affinity for proteins, cells, and platelets than SA. Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that coating an implant with a pH buffering agent can induce the attachment of platelets, proteins, and cells to the implant surface. Further studies should be conducted to directly compare SOI with other conventional surfaces with regard to its safety and effectiveness in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2019.49.6.366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920039PMC
December 2019

Bone regeneration using three-dimensional hexahedron channel structured BCP block in rabbit calvarial defects.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2019 10 24;107(7):2254-2262. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of periodontology, Research institute of periodontal regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of bone regeneration and volume maintenance of the three-dimensional (3D) structured biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) block with porous hexahedron channels in a rabbit calvarial model. In this work, four circular defects (diameter: 8 mm) in calvarium of rabbits were randomly assigned to (1) negative control (control), (2) 3D hexahedron channel structured BCP block, (3) deproteinized bovine bone mineral particle, and (4) deproteinized porcine bone mineral particle. Animals were euthanized at 2 (n = 5) and 8 weeks (n = 5). Outcome measures included micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometrical analysis. Results indicated that in micro-CT, BCP group showed the highest new bone volume with significant difference compared to control (p = 0.008) at 8 weeks. Histomorphometrically, total augmented area of BCP group was the highest with significant difference compared to control (p = 0.008) at 8 weeks. BCP group also maintained total volume of the original defect without collapsing. BCP block with 3D hexahedron channel structure seems to have favorable osteogenic and volume maintaining ability and highly porous structure might attribute to new bone formation. Further studies regarding the optimal internal structure and porosity of the BCP block bone substitute are needed. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 2254-2262, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34317DOI Listing
October 2019

Biomimetic characteristics of mussel adhesive protein-loaded collagen membrane in guided bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects.

J Periodontal Implant Sci 2018 Oct 24;48(5):305-316. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and barrier function of mussel adhesive protein (MAP)-loaded collagen membranes in guided bone regeneration (GBR).

Methods: Eight male New Zealand white rabbits were used. Four circular defects (diameter: 8 mm) were created in the calvarium of each animal. The defects were randomly assigned to 1) a negative control group, 2) a cyanoacrylate (CA)-loaded collagen membrane group (the CA group), 3) a MAP-loaded collagen membrane group (the MAP group), and 4) a group that received a polycaprolactone block with MAP-loaded collagen membrane (the MAP-PCL group). Specimens were harvested at 2 weeks (n=4) and 8 weeks (n=4) postoperatively for observational histology and histometric analysis.

Results: In the histologic analysis, MAP was completely absorbed without any byproducts. In contrast, some of the CA adhesive remained, showing an inflammatory reaction, at 8 weeks. In the MAP-PCL group, the MAP-loaded collagen membranes served as a barrier membrane despite their fast degradation in GBR. No significant difference was found in the amount of new bone between the MAP-PCL and MAP groups (1.82±0.86 mm and 2.60±0.65 mm, respectively).

Conclusions: The MAP-loaded collagen membrane functioned efficiently in this rabbit calvarial GBR model, with excellent biocompatibility. Further research is needed to assess clinical applications in defect types that are more challenging for GBR than those used in the current model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2018.48.5.305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207793PMC
October 2018

3D-printed polycaprolactone scaffold mixed with β-tricalcium phosphate as a bone regenerative material in rabbit calvarial defects.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2019 05 9;107(4):1254-1263. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute of Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, South Korea.

Defect-specific bone regeneration using 3-dimensional (3D) printing of block bone has been developed. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is biocompatible polymer that can be used as 3D scaffold. The aim of this study is to assess the biocompatibility and osteogenic efficacy of 3D printed PCL scaffold and to evaluate the effectiveness of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) addition in PCL scaffold. In this work, four circular defects (diameter: 8 mm) in rabbit calvarium were randomly assigned to (1) negative control (control), (2) PCL block (PCL), (3) PCL mixed with 10 wt% β-TCP (PCL/β-TCP), and (4) PCL/β-TCP plus collagen membrane (PCL/β-TCP + M). Animals were euthanized at 2 (n = 5) and 8 weeks (n = 5). Results indicated that in micro-CT, PCL/β-TCP + M showed the highest total augmented volume and new bone volume at 8 weeks, but there was no significant difference among four groups. Histomorphometrically, PCL, PCL/β-TCP, and PCL/β-TCP + M showed the significantly higher total augmented area compared to the control. PCL/β-TCP + M showed the highest new bone area but not statistically higher than the control. New bone formation deep inside the scaffold was observed only in β-TCP added scaffold. PCL showed high biocompatibility with great volume maintenance. Addition of β-TCP to PCL seemed to increase hydrophilicity and osteoconductivity. Developments in 3D-printed PCL material are expected. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 1254-1263, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34218DOI Listing
May 2019

Effects of chitosan on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro and on bone formation in rat calvarial defects.

J Periodontol 2005 Sep;76(9):1526-33

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seodaemungu, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chitosan on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLF) in vitro and on bone formation in rat calvarial defects in vivo.

Methods: Fibroblast populations were obtained from individuals with a healthy periodontium and cultured in alpha minimum essential medium (MEM) for the control group. For the experimental groups, cells were cultured in alpha-MEM containing chitosan at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 2 mg/ml. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the assay of alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity were performed. Eight mm calvarial critical-sized defects were created in 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups of 10 animals each. The defects were treated with either chitosan/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) or ACS alone in the experimental groups or were left untreated (surgical controls). The animals were sacrificed at 2 or 8 weeks post-surgery and the treatment outcomes were evaluated using histological and histomorphometric parameters.

Results: The chitosan-induced proliferative responses of the hPDLF reached a plateau at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml (P <0.05). When the hPDLF were stimulated with 0.1 mg/ml chitosan, both the mRNA expression of type I collagen and the ALP activity were significantly up-regulated (P <0.05). The surgical implantation of chitosan/ACS enhanced the new bone formation at 8 weeks post-surgery and the amount of new bone formation of the chitosan/ACS group was significantly greater than that of both the ACS alone group and the surgical control group (P <0.01). The new bone area and defect closure in the chitosan/ACS group were significantly greater than those in the ACS control and sham surgery control groups at 8 weeks (P <0.01). However, the chitosan/ ACS group exhibited significantly less bone density than both the ACS control and the sham surgery control group at 8 weeks (P <0.01).

Conclusions: Chitosan (0.1 mg/ml) enhanced the type I collagen synthesis and facilitated the differentiation into osteogenic cells. Chitosan reconstituted with ACS has a significant potential to accelerate the regeneration of bone in rat calvarial critical size defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2005.76.9.1526DOI Listing
September 2005

Inhibition of cyclosporin A-induced gingival overgrowth by azithromycin through phagocytosis: an in vivo and in vitro study.

J Periodontol 2004 Mar;75(3):380-7

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Oral Science Research Center, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) and azithromycin (AZI) on collagen metabolism in the gingiva of rats.

Methods: Fifty 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (weight 120 to 150 g) were randomly distributed into five groups. All groups received various drugs via gastric feeding for 7 weeks. The first group (Mo group) received mineral oil for 7 weeks as a control; the CsA group received CsA in mineral oil for 7 weeks (dosage 30 mg/kg); the CsA/Mo group received CsA in mineral oil for 6 weeks and mineral oil only for the seventh week; the CsA/AZI group received CsA in mineral oil for 6 weeks and AZI (dosage 10 mg/kg) in mineral oil simultaneously with CsA in the seventh week; and the Mo/AZI group received mineral oil for 6 weeks and AZI in mineral oil for the seventh week. All animals were sacrificed for clinical and histological analyses. Gingival fibroblasts were cultured at the fourth passage, and the amount of collagen was measured. Type I collagen and collagenase mRNA were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Collagen phagocytosis assay also was performed.

Results: Clinically, CsA induced gingival overgrowth in rats, whereas AZI reduced gingival overgrowth. Histological results of the CsA group showed a marked increase of tissue volume compared to the other groups. High collagen amounts were found when gingival overgrowth was induced. However, type I collagen mRNA and collagenase mRNA expressions did not statistically differ among groups. Phagocytosis assay showed that CsA decreased phagocytic activity of gingival fibroblasts, whereas AZI increased the activity. These results suggest that the induction and reduction of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth were closely associated with phagocytic activity.

Conclusion: Cyclosporin A decreases collagen degradation by lowering phagocytic activity of rat gingival fibroblasts. Azithromycin partially compensates for this lowered phagocytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2004.75.3.380DOI Listing
March 2004

Effects of sub-antimicrobial dose doxycycline therapy on crevicular fluid MMP-8, and gingival tissue MMP-9, TIMP-1 and IL-6 levels in chronic periodontitis.

J Periodontal Res 2004 Feb;39(1):20-6

Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To investigate whether sub-antimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD) therapy for 120 d in chronic adult periodontitis patients had significant effects on gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) levels, and on gingival tissue MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels.

Background: Tetracycline can significantly inhibit MMP activity in GCF and in gingival tissue, even in much lower dosage then a traditional antimicrobial dosage used in conventional therapy. Sub-antimicrobial dose doxycycline (SDD) therapy has been shown to reduce periodontal disease activity to control MMP and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Methods: A total of 32 patients with incipient to moderate (probing pocket depth approximately 4-7 mm) chronic adult periodontitis were included in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups. After scaling and root planning (SRP), the SRP + SDD group received SDD, 20 mg bid, whereas the SRP + placebo group received placebo, 20 mg bid. In the follow-up, efficacy measures included the change in probing pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival crevicular fluid MMP-8 levels, gingival tissue MMP-9, TIMP-1 and IL-6 levels from baseline to 120 d.

Results: After 120 d, PD and CAL improved significantly in the SRP + SDD group. Initial MMP-8 levels for the SRP + SDD group and the SRP + placebo group were 407.13 +/- 114.45 ng/ml and 378.71 +/- 189.39 ng/ml, respectively, with no statistical difference between the two groups. MMP-8 levels for the SRP + SDD group and the SRP + placebo group were: 235.35 +/- 134.58 ng/ml and 364.04 +/- 219.27 ng/ml at 30 d; 157.50 +/- 95.95 ng/ml and 236.60 +/- 186.16 ng/ml at 60 d; 102.70 +/- 67.64 ng/ml and 208.56 +/- 124.54 ng/ml at 90 d; and 63.77 +/- 53.33 ng/ml and 229.13 +/- 168.09 ng/ml at 120 d, respectively. The amount of decrease in MMP-8 levels for the SRP + SDD group was statistically significant compared to that for the SRP + placebo group, especially apparent at 120 d (p < 0.05). TIMP-1 levels in both groups increased from the baseline to 120 d with statistical significance (p-value < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Changes in MMP-9 and IL-6 levels were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Adjunctive SDD therapy can improve the clinical parameters and this clinical improvement is reflected by controlled level of MMP-8 in chronic adult periodontitis after the therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0765.2004.00696.xDOI Listing
February 2004