Publications by authors named "Jeong Hoon Kim"

345 Publications

The Short-Chain Fatty Acid Receptor GPR43 Modulates YAP/TAZ via RhoA.

Mol Cells 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Disease Target Structure Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Korea.

GPR43 (also known as FFAR2 or FFA2) is a G-protein-coupled receptor primarily expressed in immune cells, enteroendocrine cells and adipocytes that recognizes short-chain fatty acids, such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, likely to be implicated in innate immunity and host energy homeostasis. Activated GPR43 suppresses the cAMP level and induces Ca flux via coupling to Gα and Gα families, respectively. Additionally, GPR43 is reported to facilitate phosphorylation of ERK through G-protein-dependent pathways and interacts with β-arrestin 2 to inhibit NF-κB signaling. However, other G-protein-dependent and independent signaling pathways involving GPR43 remain to be established. Here, we have demonstrated that GPR43 augments Rho GTPase signaling. Acetate and a synthetic agonist effectively activated RhoA and stabilized YAP/TAZ transcriptional coactivators through interactions of GPR43 with Gα and Gα. Acetate-induced nuclear accumulation of YAP was blocked by a GPR43-specific inverse agonist. The target genes induced by YAP/TAZ were further regulated by GPR43. Moreover, in THP-1-derived M1-like macrophage cells, the Rho-YAP/TAZ pathway was activated by acetate and a synthetic agonist. Our collective findings suggest that GPR43 acts as a mediator of the Rho-YAP/TAZ pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14348/molcells.2021.0021DOI Listing
June 2021

Refinement of response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) using non-enhancing lesion type and contrast enhancement evolution pattern in IDH wild-type glioblastomas.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 1;21(1):654. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 86 Asanbyeongwon-Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background: Updated response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) does not consider peritumoral non-enhancing lesion (NEL) and baseline (residual) contrast enhancement (CE) volume. The objective of this study is to explore helpful imaging characteristics to refine RANO for assessing early treatment response (pseudoprogression and time-to-progression [TTP]) in patients with IDH wild-type glioblastoma.

Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 86 patients with IDH wild-type glioblastoma who underwent consecutive MRI examinations before and after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). NEL was classified as edema- or tumor-dominant type on pre-CCRT MRI. CE evolution was categorized into 4 patterns based on post-operative residual CE (measurable vs. non-measurable) and CE volume change (same criteria with RANO) during CCRT. Multivariable logistic regression, including clinical parameters, NEL type, and CE evolution pattern, was used to analyze pseudoprogression rate. TTP and OS according to NEL type and CE evolution pattern was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Pseudoprogression rate was significantly lower (chi-square test, P = .047) and TTP was significantly shorter (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.03, P = .005) for tumor-dominant type than edema-dominant type of NEL. NEL type was the only predictive marker of pseudoprogression on multivariate analysis (odds ratio = 0.26, P = .046). Among CE evolution patterns, TTP and OS was shortest in patients with residual CE compared with those exhibiting new CE (HR = 4.33, P < 0.001 and HR = 3.71, P = .009, respectively). In edema-dominant NEL type, both TTP and OS was stratified by CE evolution pattern (log-rank, P = .001), whereas it was not in tumor-dominant NEL.

Conclusions: NEL type improves prediction of pseudoprogression and, together with CE evolution pattern, further stratifies TTP and OS in patients with IDH wild-type glioblastoma and may become a helpful biomarker for refining RANO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08414-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170938PMC
June 2021

Optimal Ratio of Wnt3a Expression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Axonal Regeneration in Spinal Cord Injured Rat Model.

J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Through our previous clinical trials, the demonstrated therapeutic effects of MSC in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) were found to be not sufficient. Therefore, the need to develop stem cell agent with enhanced efficacy is increased. We transplanted enhanced Wnt3asecreting human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) into injured spines at 6 weeks after SCI to improve axonal regeneration in a rat model of chronic SCI. We hypothesized that enhanced Wnt3a protein expression could augment neuro-regeneration after SCI.

Methods: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were injured using an Infinite Horizon (IH) impactor at the T9-10 vertebrae and separated into five groups : 1) phosphate-buffered saline injection (injury only group, n=7); 2) hMSC transplantation (MSC, n=7); 3) hMSC transfected with pLenti vector (without Wnt3a gene) transplantation (pLenti-MSC, n=7); 4) hMSC transfected with Wnt3a gene transplantation (Wnt3a-MSC, n=7); and 5) hMSC transfected with enhanced Wnt3a gene (1.7 fold Wnt3a mRNA expression) transplantation (1.7 Wnt3a-MSC, n=8). Six weeks after SCI, each 5×105 cells/15 µL at 2 points were injected using stereotactic and microsyringe pump. To evaluate functional recovery from SCI, rats underwent Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor test on the first, second, and third days post-injury and then weekly for 14 weeks. Axonal regeneration was assessed using growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and neurofilament (NF) immunostaining.

Results: Fourteen weeks after injury (8 weeks after transplantation), BBB score of the 1.7 Wnt3a-MSC group (15.0±0.28) was significantly higher than that of the injury only (10.0±0.48), MSC (12.57±0.48), pLenti-MSC (12.42±0.48), and Wnt3a-MSC (13.71±0.61) groups (p<0.05). Immunostaining revealed increased expression of axonal regeneration markers GAP43, MAP2, and NF in the Wnt3a-MSC and 1.7 Wnt3a-MSC groups.

Conclusion: Our results showed that enhanced gene expression of Wnt3a in hMSC can potentiate axonal regeneration and improve functional recovery in a rat model of chronic SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3340/jkns.2021.0003DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk Factors for High-Grade Meningioma in Brain and Spine: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Histologic grade has important implications for the management in meningioma. It is important to understand the risk of high-grade meningioma (grades II and III). In this article, we systematically reviewed the histologic grade of meningioma depending on the location and sex and its relationship with recurrence.

Methods: The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched until February 4, 2020. We included studies that were not restricted to specific anatomic locations, histologic grade, or the sizes of the tumors. The proportion of high-grade meningiomas depending on the location and sex and the odds ratio (OR) of recurrence were pooled using a random-effects model.

Results: Outcome data were analyzed for 20,336 tumors from 34 studies. We found different proportions of high-grade meningiomas in the brain (12.8%) (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.5%-15.1%) versus the spine (2.4%) (95% CI, 1.0%-3.7%) (P < 0.01). Skull base meningiomas (8.7%) (95% CI, 5.8%-11.6%) had a lower proportion of high-grade meningiomas than non-skull base meningiomas (16.5%) (95% CI, 11.9%-21.1%) (P < 0.01). In addition, high-grade meningiomas were more likely to occur in male patients (18.0%) (95% CI, 10.1%-25.9%) than female patients (7.0%) (95% CI, 3.5%-10.6%) (P = 0.01). Higher rates of recurrence (OR = 13.83) were confirmed for high-grade meningiomas than grade I meningiomas (95% CI, 4.10-46.65) (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: This meta-analysis found that intracranial, nonskull base, and male sex are risk factors for high-grade meningioma, and high-grade meningioma had a much higher recurrence rate as compared with grade I meningioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.04.138DOI Listing
May 2021

A Mellin Transform Approach to the Pricing of Options with Default Risk.

Comput Econ 2021 Apr 26:1-22. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Mathematics, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241 Republic of Korea.

The stochastic elasticity of variance model introduced by Kim et al. (Appl Stoch Models Bus Ind 30(6):753-765, 2014) is a useful model for forecasting extraordinary volatility behavior which would take place in a financial crisis and high volatility of a market could be linked to default risk of option contracts. So, it is natural to study the pricing of options with default risk under the stochastic elasticity of variance. Based on a framework with two separate scales that could minimize the number of necessary parameters for calibration but reflect the essential characteristics of the underlying asset and the firm value of the option writer, we obtain a closed form approximation formula for the option price via double Mellin transform with singular perturbation. Our formula is explicitly expressed as the Black-Scholes formula plus correction terms. The correction terms are given by the simple derivatives of the Black-Scholes solution so that the model calibration can be done very fast and effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10614-021-10121-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072734PMC
April 2021

Relationship between Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Risk of Anemia: Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016-2017.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 28;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology Lab, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea.

The importance of sleep has been gaining more and more attention nowadays. It has been widely studied that some major health issues, such as cardiovascular diseases or mortality, are closely related to the extreme ends of sleep durations. Anemia is one of the health problems in modern society. In this study, we aimed to find a relationship between anemia occurrence and sleep duration. Data of 11,131 Korean adults aged 19 years or older were recruited from the 2016-2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and analyzed in this cross-sectional study. 'Anemia' was defined in this study by hemoglobin level of <13 g/dL in men and <12 g/dL in women. Selected data were sorted into five groups by sleep duration: <5 h, 5 h ~ <6 h, 6 h ~ <8 h, 8 h ~ <9 h, and ≥9 h per day. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the relationship between sleep duration and risk of anemia after adjusting for covariates including age, gender, family income level, education level, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol usage. Other factors were assessed in the analysis, such as depression, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, stroke, coronary artery disease, malignancy, stress level, and body mass index (BMI). We found that sleep duration of <5 h was related to high risk of anemia (odds ratio = 1.87; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-3.49, sleep duration of 6 h ~ <8 h as the reference group). Also, sleep duration of ≥9 h was related to lower risk of anemia in most premenopausal women after adjusting for covariates (odds ratio = 0.61; 95% confidence interval = 0.38-0.96, sleep duration of 6 h ~ < 8 h as the reference group). Male individuals with sleep durations of <5 h (odds ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval =1.05-3.84) and of ≥9 h (odds ratio = 2.48; 95% confidence interval =1.63-3.81) had a significantly higher risk of anemia without covariate adjustment. Postmenopausal women with sleep durations of ≥9 h had a significantly higher risk of anemia (odds ratio =2.02; 95% confidence interval =1.33-3.08) without adjusting for covariates. However, the associations became statistically insignificant after adjusting for age and covariates in both men and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, we found significant associations between extreme ends of sleep duration and risk of anemia in premenopausal Korean women. However, we did not observe strong associations between self-reported sleep duration and anemia risk in men or postmenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124661PMC
April 2021

Low conductivity on electrical properties tomography demonstrates unique tumor habitats indicating progression in glioblastoma.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Tomographic Imaging, Philips Research Laboratories, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: Tissue conductivity measurements made with electrical properties tomography (EPT) can be used to define temporal changes in tissue habitats on longitudinal multiparametric MRI. We aimed to demonstrate the added insights for identifying tumor habitats obtained by including EPT with diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI, and to evaluate the use of these tumor habitats for determining tumor treatment response in post-treatment glioblastoma.

Methods: Tumor habitats were developed from EPT, diffusion-weighted, and perfusion-weighted MRI in 60 patients with glioblastoma who underwent concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Voxels from EPT, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps were clustered into habitats, and each habitat was serially examined to assess its temporal change. The usefulness of temporal changes in tumor habitats for diagnosing tumor progression and treatment-related change was investigated using logistic regression. The performance of significant predictors was measured using the area under the curve (AUC) from receiver-operating-characteristics analysis with 1000-fold bootstrapping.

Results: Five tumor habitats were identified, and of these, the hypervascular cellular habitat (odds ratio [OR] 5.45; 95% CI, 1.75-31.42; p = .02), hypovascular low conductivity habitat (OR 2.00; 95% CI, 1.45-3.05; p < .001), and hypovascular intermediate habitat (OR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.18-2.30; p = .006) were predictive of tumor progression. Low EPT and low CBV reflected a unique hypovascular low conductivity habitat that showed the highest diagnostic performance (AUC 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96). The combined habitats showed high performance (AUC 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98) in the differentiation of tumor progression from treatment-related change.

Conclusion: EPT reveals low conductivity habitats that can improve the diagnosis of tumor progression in post-treatment glioblastoma.

Key Points: • Electrical properties tomography (EPT) demonstrated lower conductivity in tumor progression than in treatment-related change. • EPT allowed identification of a unique hypovascular low conductivity habitat when combined with cerebral blood volume mapping. • Tumor habitats with a hypovascular low conductivity habitat, hypervascular cellular habitat, and hypovascular intermediate habitat yielded high diagnostic performance for diagnosing tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07976-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Multimodal neural recordings with Neuro-FITM uncover diverse patterns of cortical-hippocampal interactions.

Nat Neurosci 2021 Jun 19;24(6):886-896. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Many cognitive processes require communication between the neocortex and the hippocampus. However, coordination between large-scale cortical dynamics and hippocampal activity is not well understood, partially due to the difficulty in simultaneously recording from those regions. In the present study, we developed a flexible, insertable and transparent microelectrode array (Neuro-FITM) that enables investigation of cortical-hippocampal coordinations during hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs). Flexibility and transparency of Neuro-FITM allow simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and neural spiking from the hippocampus during wide-field calcium imaging. These experiments revealed that diverse cortical activity patterns accompanied SWRs and, in most cases, cortical activation preceded hippocampal SWRs. We demonstrated that, during SWRs, different hippocampal neural population activity was associated with distinct cortical activity patterns. These results suggest that hippocampus and large-scale cortical activity interact in a selective and diverse manner during SWRs underlying various cognitive functions. Our technology can be broadly applied to comprehensive investigations of interactions between the cortex and other subcortical structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-021-00841-5DOI Listing
June 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Perciformes, Nototheniidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 18;6(3):1032-1033. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of was studied using NGS technology with PacBio platform. The mitochondrial genome size was 19,374bp and it had 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. There were 4 types of stop codons which were TAA, TAG, AGG and T(AA) but start codon type was only one (ATG). The contents of GC were 44.09% and AT contents were 55.91%. To conduct phylogenetic analysis, 12 species in 3 families were used. The result suggested that was close to in Nototheniidae. This study would provide a fundamental data for molecular evolution of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1899070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995823PMC
March 2021

Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Macaroni penguin from the Barton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 18;6(3):972-973. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, South Korea.

The Macaroni penguin is a small crested penguin. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of is revealed for the first time. The mitogenome sequence is circular and 17,059 bp in length. It contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes similar to other Spheniscidae species. The total nucleotide composition is 30.53% (A), 32.86% (C), 13.96% (G), and 22.66% (T), and 46.81% for overall GC contents. The phylogenetic analysis shows a close relationship between and . Our findings would be useful for further studies on phylogenetics and evolutionary history of the genus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1888329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995847PMC
March 2021

Inter-Specific and Intra-Specific Competition of Two Sympatrically Breeding Seabirds, Chinstrap and Gentoo Penguins, at Two Neighboring Colonies.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Division of Polar Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 21990, Korea.

Theory predicts that sympatric predators compete for food under conditions of limited resources. Competition would occur even within the same species, between neighboring populations, because of overlapping foraging habits. Thus, neighboring populations of the same species are hypothesized to face strong competition. To test the hypothesis that intra-specific competition is more intense than inter-specific competition owing to a lack of niche partitioning, we estimated the foraging area and diving depths of two colonial seabird species at two neighboring colonies. Using GPS and time-depth recorders, we tracked foraging space use of sympatric breeding Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins at Ardley Island (AI) and Narębski Point (NP) at King George Island, Antarctica. GPS tracks showed that there was a larger overlap in the foraging areas between the two species than within each species. In dive parameters, Gentoo penguins performed deeper and longer dives than Chinstrap penguins at the same colonies. At the colony level, Gentoo penguins from NP undertook deeper and longer dives than those at AI, whereas Chinstrap penguins did not show such intra-specific differences in dives. Stable isotope analysis of δC and δN isotopes in blood demonstrated both inter- and intra-specific differences. Both species of penguin at AI exhibited higher δC and δN values than those at NP, and in both locations, Gentoo penguins had higher δC and lower δN values than Chinstrap penguins. Isotopic niches showed that there were lower inter-specific overlaps than intra-specific overlaps. This suggests that, despite the low intra-specific spatial overlap, diets of conspecifics from different colonies remained more similar, resulting in the higher isotopic niche overlaps. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that intra-specific competition is higher than inter-specific competition, leading to spatial segregation of the neighboring populations of the same species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918894PMC
February 2021

Whole genome survey and microsatellite motif identification of Artemia franciscana.

Biosci Rep 2021 Mar;41(3)

Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Artemia is an industrially important genus used in aquaculture as a nutritious diet for fish and as an aquatic model organism for toxicity tests. However, despite the significance of Artemia, genomic research remains incomplete and knowledge on its genomic characteristics is insufficient. In particular, Artemia franciscana of North America has been widely used in fisheries of other continents, resulting in invasion of native species. Therefore, studies on population genetics and molecular marker development as well as morphological analyses are required to investigate its population structure and to discriminate closely related species. Here, we used the Illumina Hi-Seq platform to estimate the genomic characteristics of A. franciscana through genome survey sequencing (GSS). Further, simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were identified for microsatellite marker development. The predicted genome size was ∼867 Mb using K-mer (a sequence of k characters in a string) analysis (K = 17), and heterozygosity and duplication rates were 0.655 and 0.809%, respectively. A total of 421467 SSRs were identified from the genome survey assembly, most of which were dinucleotide motifs with a frequency of 77.22%. The present study will be a useful basis in genomic and genetic research for A. franciscana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20203868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955100PMC
March 2021

Spatiotemporal habitats from multiparametric physiologic MRI distinguish tumor progression from treatment-related change in post-treatment glioblastoma.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: We aimed to develop multiparametric physiologic MRI-based spatial habitats and to evaluate whether temporal changes in these habitats help to distinguish tumor progression from treatment-related change in post-treatment glioblastoma.

Methods: This retrospective, single-institution study included patients with glioblastoma treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy who had newly developed or enlarging, measurable contrast-enhancing mass. Contrast-enhancing mass was divided into three spatial habitats by K-means clustering of voxel-wise ADC and CBV values. Temporal changes of these habitats between two consecutive examinations prior to the diagnosis of tumor progression or treatment-related change were assessed. Predictors were selected using logistic regression and the performance was measured with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Spatiotemporal habitats were further analyzed for correlation with the site of tumor progression.

Results: There were 75 patients (mean, 58 years; range, 26-81 years; 43 men) with 48 cases of tumor progression and 39 cases of treatment-related change including 12 patient overlaps at different time points. Three spatial habitats of hypervascular cellular, hypovascular cellular, and nonviable tissue were identified. Increase in the hypervascular cellular (OR 4.55, p = .002) and hypovascular cellular habitat (OR 1.22, p < .001) was predictive of tumor progression. Combination of spatiotemporal habitats yielded a high diagnostic performance with an AUC of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.87-0.92). An increase in hypovascular cellular habitat predicted the site of tumor progression in 84% [21/25] of cases with tumor progression.

Conclusions: Temporal changes in spatial habitats derived from multiparametric physiologic MRI provided diagnostic value in distinguishing tumor progression from treatment-related change and predicted site of tumor progression in post-treatment glioblastoma.

Key Points: • In post-treatment glioblastoma, three spatial habitats of hypervascular cellular, hypovascular cellular, and nonviable tissue were identified, and an increase in the hypervascular cellular (OR 4.55, p = .002) and hypovascular cellular habitat (OR 1.22, p < .001) was predictive of tumor progression. • Combination of spatiotemporal habitats yielded a high diagnostic performance with an AUC of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.87-0.92). • An increase in hypovascular cellular habitat predicted the site of tumor progression in 84% (21/25) of cases with tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07718-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Different Biochemical Compositions of Particulate Organic Matter Driven by Major Phytoplankton Communities in the Northwestern Ross Sea.

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:623600. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Oceanography, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea.

Marine particulate organic matter (POM) largely derived from phytoplankton is a primary food source for upper trophic consumers. Their biochemical compositions are important for heterotrophs. Especially, essential amino acids (EAAs) in phytoplankton are well known to have impacts on the survival and egg productions of herbivorous zooplankton. To estimate the nutritional quality of POM, the biochemical compositions [biomolecular and amino acid (AA) compositions] of POM were investigated in the northwestern Ross Sea during the late austral summer in 2018. Carbohydrates (CHO) accounted for the highest portion among different biomolecules [CHO, proteins (PRT), and lipids (LIP)] of POM. However, the higher contribution of PRT and lower contribution of CHO were observed in the southern section of our study area compared to those in the northern section. The spatial distribution of total hydrolyzable AAs in POM was considerably influenced by phytoplankton biomass, which indicates that the main source of particulate AA was generated by phytoplankton. Our results showed that the relative contribution of EAA to the total AAs was strongly associated with EAA index (EAAI) for determining protein quality. This result indicates that higher EAA contribution in POM suggests a better protein quality in consistency with high EAAI values. In this study, variations in the biochemical compositions in POM were principally determined by two different bloom-forming taxa (diatoms and ). The southern region dominated majorly by diatoms was positively correlated with PRT, EAA, and EAAI indicating a good protein quality, while abundant northern region with higher CHO contribution was negatively correlated with good protein quality factors. Climate-driven environmental changes could alter not only the phytoplankton community but also the physiological conditions of phytoplankton. Our findings could provide a better understanding for future climate-induced changes in the biochemical compositions of phytoplankton and consequently their potential impacts on higher trophic levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.623600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858670PMC
January 2021

Sjögren Syndrome antigen B regulates LIN28-let-7 axis in Caenorhabditis elegans and human.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2021 Mar 21;1864(3):194684. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Disease Target Structure Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomolecular Science, KRIBB School of Biological Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

LIN28 protein and let-7 family micro RNAs (miRNAs) that are an evolutionarily conserved from nematodes to humans are the important regulators of developmental timing by dynamically interacting with each other. However, regulators of LIN28 remain largely elusive. Here, we show the evidences that Sjögren Syndrome antigen B (SSB) protein associates and cooperates with LIN28A and LIN28B, mammalian orthologues of Caenorhabditis elegans lin-28, proteins in the nucleus. Knockdown of SSB in HEK293 cell line resulted in the decrease of the amount of LIN28B mRNAs and proteins, and the increase of the level of mature let-7 miRNAs. Furthermore, RNA interference of ssb-1 gene, a worm SSB orthologue, was sufficient to cause a heterochronic defect in seam cells of C. elegans, recapitulating the phenotype of lin-28 downregulation. Collectively, we suggest that SSB is an important regulator for the LIN28-let-7 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2021.194684DOI Listing
March 2021

Soft subdermal implant capable of wireless battery charging and programmable controls for applications in optogenetics.

Nat Commun 2021 01 22;12(1):535. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Optogenetics is a powerful technique that allows target-specific spatiotemporal manipulation of neuronal activity for dissection of neural circuits and therapeutic interventions. Recent advances in wireless optogenetics technologies have enabled investigation of brain circuits in more natural conditions by releasing animals from tethered optical fibers. However, current wireless implants, which are largely based on battery-powered or battery-free designs, still limit the full potential of in vivo optogenetics in freely moving animals by requiring intermittent battery replacement or a special, bulky wireless power transfer system for continuous device operation, respectively. To address these limitations, here we present a wirelessly rechargeable, fully implantable, soft optoelectronic system that can be remotely and selectively controlled using a smartphone. Combining advantageous features of both battery-powered and battery-free designs, this device system enables seamless full implantation into animals, reliable ubiquitous operation, and intervention-free wireless charging, all of which are desired for chronic in vivo optogenetics. Successful demonstration of the unique capabilities of this device in freely behaving rats forecasts its broad and practical utilities in various neuroscience research and clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20803-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822865PMC
January 2021

Complete mitochondrial genome and phylogenetic analysis of the Weddell seal, .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Sep 15;5(3):3339-3340. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, South Korea.

The Weddell seal, , which belongs to the family Phocidae, is an abundant pinniped that inhabits the Antarctica. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial genome and phylogeny of . The total length of the mitogenome is 16,762 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. The base composition of the mitogenome is 34.26% (A), 25.51% (T), 27.09% (C), and 13.11% (G), and 40.22% for overall GC contents. The description of this mitogenome can provide information about variations at the intra-species level and aid phylogenetic studies in family Phocidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1820390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783060PMC
September 2020

Complete mitochondrial genome of the snow petrel, .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Sep 15;5(3):3337-3338. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, South Korea.

The snow petrel, is a small sea bird endemic to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Herein, we assembled a complete mitochondrial genome of the snow petrel as a first revealed genetic resource in Pagodroma family. The mitogenome is 17,279 bp in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 genes, and two genes. Base composition is 31.3% A, 25.3% T, 30.1% C, and 13.2% G with CG content of 43.4%. These results will provide a useful basis for further genetic and phylogenetic studies of this species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1820389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783026PMC
September 2020

The complete mitochondrial genome of Patagonian moray cod, Vaillant, 1888 (Gadiformes, Muraenolepididae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 9;5(3):2707-2708. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

The full-length mitochondrial genome of (Vaillant, 1888) was studied using PacBio platform and it is first report in a Muraenolepididae family. The circular form of mitochondria genome is 16,833 bp including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA. Start codon of 13 protein-coding genes was only ATG but three types of stop codons (TAA, T(AA), and TAG) were detected. To evaluate evolutionary position of , the phylogenetic tree with other 13 Antarctic fishes belonged to five families were showed that is unique cluster as a Muraenolepididae family and this study would provide fundamental data to understand the evolutionary relationship of fishes founded in Antarctic area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1787275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782825PMC
July 2020

The complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic marbled rockcod, (Perciformes, Nototheniidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jun 11;5(3):2421-2422. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of was obtained using PacBio Sequel long-read sequencing platform. The mitogenome of was circular form and 18,274 bp long, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 24 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and non-coding control region. Particularly, we found duplicated tRNA and tRNA in addition to the typical 22 tRNAs. The phylogenetic tree revealed that was most closely related to among species in the Nototheniidae clade within the suborder Notothenioidei.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1775507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782215PMC
June 2020

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Gadiformes, Macrouridae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jun 5;5(3):2326-2327. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of was determined in this study by the Long-read Technology, such as PacBio Sequel System. The Long-read Technology, which can sequence continuously the whole vertebrate mitochondrial genome, allows more accurate genomes to be completed. The circular form of its mitochondrial genome was 16,714bp, which contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, and 2 rRNA. The gene orders of was identical to that of the other species of Macrouridae family. Phylogenetic analysis indicated was mostly close to in the Macrouridae family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1773339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782029PMC
June 2020

Long-term depletion of Cereblon induces mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells.

BMB Rep 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Disease Target Structure Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea; Department of Functional Genomics, KRIBB School of Bioscience, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea.

Cereblon (CRBN) is a multi-functional protein that acts as a substrate receptor of the E3 ligase complex and a molecular chaperone. While CRBN is proposed to function in mitochondria, its specific roles are yet to be established. Here, we showed that knockdown of CRBN triggers oxidative stress and calcium overload in mitochondria, leading to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Notably, long-term CRBN depletion using PROteolysis TArgeting Chimera (PROTAC) induced irreversible mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in cell death. Our collective findings indicate that CRBN is required for mitochondrial homeostasis in cells.
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January 2021

Phosphorylation of REPS1 at Ser709 by RSK attenuates the recycling of transferrin receptor.

BMB Rep 2021 May;54(5):272-277

Disease Target Structure Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141; Department of Biomolecular Science, KRIBB School of Biological Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Korea.

RalBP1 associated EPS domain containing 1 (REPS1) is conserved from Drosophila to humans and implicated in the endocytic system. However, an exact role of REPS1 remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-p90 ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) signaling pathway directly phosphorylated REPS1 at Ser709 upon stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and amino acid. While REPS2 is known to be involved in the endocytosis of EGF receptor (EGFR), REPS1 knockout (KO) cells did not show any defect in the endocytosis of EGFR. However, in the REPS1 KO cells and the KO cells reconstituted with a non-phosphorylatable REPS1 (REPS1 S709A), the recycling of transferrin receptor (TfR) was attenuated compared to the cells reconstituted with wild type REPS1. Collectively, we suggested that the phosphorylation of REPS1 at S709 by RSK may have a role of the trafficking of TfR. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(5): 272-277].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167248PMC
May 2021

Bruceantin targets HSP90 to overcome resistance to hormone therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Theranostics 2021 1;11(2):958-973. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, 06351, Korea.

Aberrant androgen receptor (AR) signaling full-length AR (AR-FL) and constitutively active AR variant 7 (AR-V7) plays a key role in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and resistance to hormone therapies. Simultaneous targeting of AR-FL and AR-V7 may be a promising strategy to overcome resistance to hormone therapy. This study aimed to identify novel drug candidates co-targeting AR-FL and AR-V7 activities and elucidate their molecular mechanism of anti-CRPC activities. Using a CRPC cell-based reporter assay system, we screened a small library of antimalarial agents to explore the possibility of repositioning them for CRPC treatment and identified bruceantin (BCT) as a potent anti-CRPC drug candidate. A series of cell-based, molecular, biochemical, and in vivo approaches were performed to evaluate the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of BCT in CRPC. These approaches include reporter gene assays, cell proliferation, RNA-seq, qRT-PCR, mouse xenografts, co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down, immobilized BCT pull-down, molecular modeling, and bioinformatic analyses. We identified BCT as a highly potent inhibitor co-targeting AR-FL and AR-V7 activity. BCT inhibits the transcriptional activity of AR-FL/AR-V7 and downregulates their target genes in CRPC cells. In addition, BCT efficiently suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of CRPC cells. Mechanistically, BCT disrupts the interaction of HSP90 with AR-FL/AR-V7 by directly binding to HSP90 and inhibits HSP90 chaperone function, leading to degradation of AR-FL/AR-V7 through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Clinically, HSP90 expression is upregulated and correlated with AR/AR-V7 levels in CRPC. Our findings suggest that BCT could serve as a promising therapeutic candidate against CRPC and highlight the potential benefit of targeting AR-FL/AR-V7-HSP90 axis to overcome resistance caused by aberrant AR-FL/AR-V7 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.51478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738850PMC
January 2021

Characterization of complete mitochondrial genome of (Perciformes: Artedidraconidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Dec 12;5(1):156-157. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Interdisciplinary Program of Biomedical, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

The complete mitochondrial genome of was determined by the MiSeq platform, which was the first report in the family Artedidraconidae. The circular form of its mitochondrial genome was 17,086 bp, which contained the canonical eukaryotic 37 genes. The gene orders of was identical to the other icefish species, in which there was additional non-coding region and translocation of ND6 gene. Except for ATP6 gene and COI (GTG), 11 genes begin with the typical start codon, while incomplete stop codons (T- -) were identified in COII, ND4, and CytB. Phylogenetic tree with the currently known mitogenomes in suborder Notothenioidei showed that was located distinctly from those in Bathydraconidae and Nototheniidae forming a unique cluster as Artedidraconidae. The first complete mitochondrial genome of would be the fundamental data to understand the evolutional relationship of icefish species in the Antarctic Oceans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1698361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720972PMC
December 2019

Immunohistochemical detection of GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptor in the rat nucleus accumbens following cocaine exposure.

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Jan;25(1):79-85

Department of Physiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors are differentially regulated in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of the brain after cocaine exposure. However, these results are supported only by biochemical and electrophysiological methods, but have not been validated with immunohistochemistry. To overcome the restriction of antigen loss on the postsynaptic target molecules that occurs during perfusion-fixation, we adopted an immersion-fixation method that enabled us to immunohistochemically quantify the expression levels of the AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit in the NAcc. Interestingly, compared to saline exposure, cocaine significantly increased the immunofluorescence intensity of GluA1 in two sub-regions, the core and the shell, of the NAcc on withdrawal day 21 following cocaine exposure, which led to locomotor sensitization. Increases in GluA1 intensity were observed in both the extra-post synaptic density (PSD) and PSD areas in the two sub-regions of the NAcc. These results clearly indicate that AMPA receptor plasticity, as exemplified by GluA1, in the NAcc can be visually detected by immunohistochemistry and confocal imaging. These results expand our understanding of the molecular changes occurring in neuronal synapses by adding a new form of analysis to conventional biochemical and electrophysiological methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2021.25.1.79DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756536PMC
January 2021

Chromosomal assembly of the Antarctic toothfish ( ) genome using third-generation DNA sequencing and Hi-C technology.

Zool Res 2021 Jan;42(1):124-129

College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

The Antarctic toothfish, , belongs to the Nototheniidae family and is distributed in sub-zero temperatures below S60° latitude in the Southern Ocean. Therefore, it is an attractive model species to study the stenothermal cold-adapted character state. In this study, we successfully generated highly contiguous genome sequences of , which contained 1 062 scaffolds with a N50 length of 36.98 Mb and longest scaffold length of 46.82 Mb. Repetitive elements accounted for 40.87% of the genome. We also inferred 32 914 protein-coding genes using gene prediction and transcriptome sequencing and detected splicing variants using Isoform-Sequencing (Iso-Seq), which will be invaluable resource for further exploration of the adaptation mechanisms of Antarctic toothfish. This new high-quality reference genome of provides a fundamental resource for a deeper understanding of cold adaptation and conservation of species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840457PMC
January 2021

Medicinal Activities and Nanomedicine Delivery Strategies for Oil and Its Molecular Components.

Molecules 2020 Nov 19;25(22). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

School of Chemical Engineering and Biomedical Institute for Convergence at SKKU (BICS), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea.

oil (BJO) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various types of cancer and inflammatory diseases. There is significant interest in understanding the medicinal activities of BJO and its molecular components, especially quassinoids, and in exploring how they can be incorporated into nanomedicine delivery strategies for improved application prospects. Herein, we cover the latest progress in developing different classes of drug delivery vehicles, including nanoemulsions, liposomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, and spongosomes, to encapsulate BJO and purified quassinoids. An introduction to the composition and medicinal activities of BJO and its molecular components, including quassinoids and fatty acids, is first provided. Application examples involving each type of drug delivery vehicle are then critically presented. Future opportunities for nanomedicine delivery strategies in the field are also discussed and considered within the context of translational medicine needs and drug development processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699344PMC
November 2020

Survival outcome and prognostic factors in anaplastic oligodendroglioma: a single-institution study of 95 cases.

Sci Rep 2020 11 19;10(1):20162. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors including surgical, radiographic, and histopathologic analyses in anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) patients. We reviewed the electronic records of 95 patients who underwent surgery and were diagnosed with AO for 20 years. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariable analyses included clinical, histopathological, and radiographic prognostic factors. Subgroup analysis was performed in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/2)-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted patients. The median PFS and OS were 24.7 months and 50.8 months, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year PFS were 75.8%, 42.9%, 32.4%, and 16.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year OS were 98.9%, 76.9%, 42.9%, and 29.7%, respectively. The median PFS and OS of the IDH1/2-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted patients were 54.2 and 57.8 months, respectively. In univariate analyses, young age, frontal lobe, weak enhancement, gross total resection (GTR), low Ki-67 index, 1p/19q codeletion, and IDH1/2 mutations were associated with a favorable outcome. In multivariable analyses, IDH1/2 mutation was related to better PFS and OS. In subgroup analysis, GTR was associated with favorable outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77228-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677372PMC
November 2020