Publications by authors named "Jens Rister"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A combinatorial cis-regulatory logic restricts color-sensing Rhodopsins to specific photoreceptor subsets in Drosophila.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jun 23;17(6):e1009613. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Biology, Integrated Sciences Complex, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Color vision in Drosophila melanogaster is based on the expression of five different color-sensing Rhodopsin proteins in distinct subtypes of photoreceptor neurons. Promoter regions of less than 300 base pairs are sufficient to reproduce the unique, photoreceptor subtype-specific rhodopsin expression patterns. The underlying cis-regulatory logic remains poorly understood, but it has been proposed that the rhodopsin promoters have a bipartite structure: the distal promoter region directs the highly restricted expression in a specific photoreceptor subtype, while the proximal core promoter region provides general activation in all photoreceptors. Here, we investigate whether the rhodopsin promoters exhibit a strict specialization of their distal (subtype specificity) and proximal (general activation) promoter regions, or if both promoter regions contribute to generating the photoreceptor subtype-specific expression pattern. To distinguish between these two models, we analyze the expression patterns of a set of hybrid promoters that combine the distal promoter region of one rhodopsin with the proximal core promoter region of another rhodopsin. We find that the function of the proximal core promoter regions extends beyond providing general activation: these regions play a previously underappreciated role in generating the non-overlapping expression patterns of the different rhodopsins. Therefore, cis-regulatory motifs in both the distal and the proximal core promoter regions recruit transcription factors that generate the unique rhodopsin patterns in a combinatorial manner. We compare this combinatorial regulatory logic to the regulatory logic of olfactory receptor genes and discuss potential implications for the evolution of rhodopsins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259978PMC
June 2021

Mechanisms of vitamin A metabolism and deficiency in the mammalian and fly visual system.

Dev Biol 2021 Aug 25;476:68-78. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biology, Integrated Sciences Complex, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, USA. Electronic address:

Vitamin A deficiency can cause human pathologies that range from blindness to embryonic malformations. This diversity is due to the lack of two major vitamin A metabolites with very different functions: the chromophore 11-cis-retinal (vitamin A aldehyde) is a critical component of the visual pigment that mediates phototransduction, while the signaling molecule all-trans-retinoic acid regulates the development of various tissues and is required for the function of the immune system. Since animals cannot synthesize vitamin A de novo, they must obtain it either as preformed vitamin A from animal products or as carotenoid precursors from plant sources. Due to its essential role in the visual system, acute vitamin A deprivation impairs photoreceptor function and causes night blindness (poor vision under dim light conditions), while chronic deprivation results in retinal dystrophies and photoreceptor cell death. Chronic vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness according to the World Health Organization. Due to the requirement of vitamin A for retinoic acid signaling in development and in the immune system, vitamin A deficiency also causes increased mortality in children and pregnant women in developing countries. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to study the effects of vitamin A deprivation on the eye because vitamin A is not essential for Drosophila development and chronic deficiency does not cause lethality. Moreover, genetic screens in Drosophila have identified evolutionarily conserved factors that mediate the production of vitamin A and its cellular uptake. Here, we review our current knowledge about the role of vitamin A in the visual system of mammals and Drosophila melanogaster. We compare the molecular mechanisms that mediate the uptake of dietary vitamin A precursors and the metabolism of vitamin A, as well as the consequences of vitamin A deficiency for the structure and function of the eye.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2021.03.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172435PMC
August 2021

Single-base pair differences in a shared motif determine differential Rhodopsin expression.

Science 2015 Dec;350(6265):1258-61

Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003-6688, USA.

The final identity and functional properties of a neuron are specified by terminal differentiation genes, which are controlled by specific motifs in compact regulatory regions. To determine how these sequences integrate inputs from transcription factors that specify cell types, we compared the regulatory mechanism of Drosophila Rhodopsin genes that are expressed in subsets of photoreceptors to that of phototransduction genes that are expressed broadly, in all photoreceptors. Both sets of genes share an 11-base pair (bp) activator motif. Broadly expressed genes contain a palindromic version that mediates expression in all photoreceptors. In contrast, each Rhodopsin exhibits characteristic single-bp substitutions that break the symmetry of the palindrome and generate activator or repressor motifs critical for restricting expression to photoreceptor subsets. Sensory neuron subtypes can therefore evolve through single-bp changes in short regulatory motifs, allowing the discrimination of a wide spectrum of stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aab3417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4919384PMC
December 2015

Binary cell fate decisions and fate transformation in the Drosophila larval eye.

PLoS Genet 2013 26;9(12):e1004027. Epub 2013 Dec 26.

Institute of Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

The functionality of sensory neurons is defined by the expression of specific sensory receptor genes. During the development of the Drosophila larval eye, photoreceptor neurons (PRs) make a binary choice to express either the blue-sensitive Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) or the green-sensitive Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6). Later during metamorphosis, ecdysone signaling induces a cell fate and sensory receptor switch: Rh5-PRs are re-programmed to express Rh6 and become the eyelet, a small group of extraretinal PRs involved in circadian entrainment. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of how the binary cell fate decisions are made and switched remain poorly understood. We show that interplay of two transcription factors Senseless (Sens) and Hazy control cell fate decisions, terminal differentiation of the larval eye and its transformation into eyelet. During initial differentiation, a pulse of Sens expression in primary precursors regulates their differentiation into Rh5-PRs and repression of an alternative Rh6-cell fate. Later, during the transformation of the larval eye into the adult eyelet, Sens serves as an anti-apoptotic factor in Rh5-PRs, which helps in promoting survival of Rh5-PRs during metamorphosis and is subsequently required for Rh6 expression. Comparably, during PR differentiation Hazy functions in initiation and maintenance of rhodopsin expression. Hazy represses Sens specifically in the Rh6-PRs, allowing them to die during metamorphosis. Our findings show that the same transcription factors regulate diverse aspects of larval and adult PR development at different stages and in a context-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3873242PMC
August 2014

Opposite feedbacks in the Hippo pathway for growth control and neural fate.

Science 2013 Oct 29;342(6155):1238016. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Signaling pathways are reused for multiple purposes in plant and animal development. The Hippo pathway in mammals and Drosophila coordinates proliferation and apoptosis via the coactivator and oncoprotein YAP/Yorkie (Yki), which is homeostatically regulated through negative feedback. In the Drosophila eye, cross-repression between the Hippo pathway kinase LATS/Warts (Wts) and growth regulator Melted generates mutually exclusive photoreceptor subtypes. Here, we show that this all-or-nothing neuronal differentiation results from Hippo pathway positive feedback: Yki both represses its negative regulator, warts, and promotes its positive regulator, melted. This postmitotic Hippo network behavior relies on a tissue-restricted transcription factor network-including a conserved Otx/Orthodenticle-Nrl/Traffic Jam feedforward module-that allows Warts-Yki-Melted to operate as a bistable switch. Altering feedback architecture provides an efficient mechanism to co-opt conserved signaling networks for diverse purposes in development and evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1238016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3796000PMC
October 2013

Regional modulation of a stochastically expressed factor determines photoreceptor subtypes in the Drosophila retina.

Dev Cell 2013 Apr;25(1):93-105

Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

Stochastic mechanisms are sometimes utilized to diversify cell fates, especially in nervous systems. In the Drosophila retina, stochastic expression of the PAS-bHLH transcription factor Spineless (Ss) controls photoreceptor subtype choice. In one randomly distributed subset of R7 photoreceptors, Ss activates Rhodopsin4 (Rh4) and represses Rhodopsin3 (Rh3); counterparts lacking Ss express Rh3 and repress Rh4. In the dorsal third region of the retina, the Iroquois Complex transcription factors induce Rh3 in Rh4-expressing R7s. Here, we show that Ss levels are controlled in a binary on/off manner throughout the retina yet are attenuated in the dorsal third region to allow Rh3 coexpression with Rh4. Whereas the sensitivity of rh3 repression to differences in Ss levels generates stochastic and regionalized patterns, the robustness of rh4 activation ensures its stochastic expression throughout the retina. Our findings show how stochastic and regional inputs are integrated to control photoreceptor subtype specification in the Drosophila retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2013.02.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3660048PMC
April 2013

Establishing and maintaining gene expression patterns: insights from sensory receptor patterning.

Development 2013 Feb;140(3):493-503

Department of Biology, New York University, 1009 Silver Center, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003-6688, USA.

In visual and olfactory sensory systems with high discriminatory power, each sensory neuron typically expresses one, or very few, sensory receptor genes, excluding all others. Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms that generate and maintain sensory receptor expression patterns. Here, we review how this is achieved in the fly retina and compare it with the mechanisms controlling sensory receptor expression patterns in the mouse retina and in the mouse and fly olfactory systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.079095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3561783PMC
February 2013

Dissection and immunohistochemistry of larval, pupal and adult Drosophila retinas.

J Vis Exp 2012 Nov 14(69):4347. Epub 2012 Nov 14.

Department of Biology, New York University.

The compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster consists of about 750 ommatidia (unit eyes). Each ommatidium is composed of about 20 cells, including lens-secreting cone cells, pigment cells, a bristle cell and eight photoreceptors (PRs) R1-R8. The PRs have specialized microvillar structures, the rhabdomeres, which contain light-sensitive pigments, the Rhodopsins (Rhs). The rhabdomeres of six PRs (R1-R6) form a trapezoid and contain Rh1. The rhabdomeres of R7 and R8 are positioned in tandem in the center of the trapezoid and share the same path of light. R7 and R8 PRs stochastically express different combinations of Rhs in two main subtypes: In the 'p' subtype, Rh3 in pR7s is coupled with Rh5 in pR8s, whereas in the 'y' subtype, Rh4 in yR7s is associated with Rh6 in yR8s. Early specification of PRs and development of ommatidia begins in the larval eye-antennal imaginal disc, a monolayer of epithelial cells. A wave of differentiation sweeps across the disc and initiates the assembly of undifferentiated cells into ommatidia. The 'founder cell' R8 is specified first and recruits R1-6 and then R7. Subsequently, during pupal development, PR differentiation leads to extensive morphological changes, including rhabdomere formation, synaptogenesis and eventually rh expression. In this protocol, we describe methods for retinal dissections and immunohistochemistry at three defined periods of retina development, which can be applied to address a variety of questions concerning retinal formation and developmental pathways. Here, we use these methods to visualize the stepwise PR differentiation at the single-cell level in whole mount larval, midpupal and adult retinas (Figure 1).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/4347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3523422PMC
November 2012

The retinal mosaics of opsin expression in invertebrates and vertebrates.

Dev Neurobiol 2011 Dec;71(12):1212-26

Department of Biology, Center for Developmental Genetics, New York University, USA.

Color vision is found in many invertebrate and vertebrate species. It is the ability to discriminate objects based on the wavelength of emitted light independent of intensity. As it requires the comparison of at least two photoreceptor types with different spectral sensitivities, this process is often mediated by a mosaic made of several photoreceptor types. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the formation of retinal mosaics and the regulation of photopigment (opsin) expression in the fly, mouse, and human retina. Despite distinct evolutionary origins, as well as major differences in morphology and phototransduction machineries, there are significant similarities in the stepwise cell-fate decisions that lead from progenitor cells to terminally differentiated photoreceptors that express a particular opsin. Common themes include (i) the use of binary transcriptional switches that distinguish classes of photoreceptors, (ii) the use of gradients of signaling molecules for regional specializations, (iii) stochastic choices that pattern the retina, and (iv) the use of permissive factors with multiple roles in different photoreceptor types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dneu.20905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3190030PMC
December 2011

Deciphering the genome's regulatory code: the many languages of DNA.

Bioessays 2010 May;32(5):381-4

Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, 1009 Silver Center, New York, NY 10003, USA.

The generation of patterns and the diversity of cell types in a multicellular organism require differential gene regulation. At the heart of this process are enhancers or cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), genomic regions that are bound by transcription factors (TFs) that control spatio-temporal gene expression in developmental networks. To date, only a few CRMs have been studied in detail and the underlying cis-regulatory code is not well understood. Here, we review recent progress on the genome-wide identification of CRMs with chromatin immunoprecipitation of TF-DNA complexes followed by microarrays (ChIP-on-chip). We focus on two computational approaches that have succeeded in predicting the expression pattern driven by a CRM either based on TF binding site preferences and their expression levels, or quantitative analysis of CRM occupancy by key TFs. We also discuss the current limits of these methods and highlight some of the key problems that have to be solved to gain a more complete understanding of the structure and function of CRMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bies.200900197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024831PMC
May 2010

The neural substrate of spectral preference in Drosophila.

Neuron 2008 Oct;60(2):328-42

Unit on Neuronal Connectivity, Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Development, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Drosophila vision is mediated by inputs from three types of photoreceptor neurons; R1-R6 mediate achromatic motion detection, while R7 and R8 constitute two chromatic channels. Neural circuits for processing chromatic information are not known. Here, we identified the first-order interneurons downstream of the chromatic channels. Serial EM revealed that small-field projection neurons Tm5 and Tm9 receive direct synaptic input from R7 and R8, respectively, and indirect input from R1-R6, qualifying them to function as color-opponent neurons. Wide-field Dm8 amacrine neurons receive input from 13-16 UV-sensing R7s and provide output to projection neurons. Using a combinatorial expression system to manipulate activity in different neuron subtypes, we determined that Dm8 neurons are necessary and sufficient for flies to exhibit phototaxis toward ultraviolet instead of green light. We propose that Dm8 sacrifices spatial resolution for sensitivity by relaying signals from multiple R7s to projection neurons, which then provide output to higher visual centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2008.08.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2665173PMC
October 2008

Distinct roles for two histamine receptors (hclA and hclB) at the Drosophila photoreceptor synapse.

J Neurosci 2008 Jul;28(29):7250-9

Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom.

Histamine (HA) is the photoreceptor neurotransmitter in arthropods, directly gating chloride channels on large monopolar cells (LMCs), postsynaptic to photoreceptors in the lamina. Two histamine-gated channel genes that could contribute to this channel in Drosophila are hclA (also known as ort) and hclB (also known as hisCl1), both encoding novel members of the Cys-loop receptor superfamily. Drosophila S2 cells transfected with these genes expressed both homomeric and heteromeric histamine-gated chloride channels. The electrophysiological properties of these channels were compared with those from isolated Drosophila LMCs. HCLA homomers had nearly identical HA sensitivity to the native receptors (EC(50) = 25 microM). Single-channel analysis revealed further close similarity in terms of single-channel kinetics and subconductance states ( approximately 25, 40, and 60 pS, the latter strongly voltage dependent). In contrast, HCLB homomers and heteromeric receptors were more sensitive to HA (EC(50) = 14 and 1.2 microM, respectively), with much smaller single-channel conductances ( approximately 4 pS). Null mutations of hclA (ort(US6096)) abolished the synaptic transients in the electroretinograms (ERGs). Surprisingly, the ERG "on" transients in hclB mutants transients were approximately twofold enhanced, whereas intracellular recordings from their LMCs revealed altered responses with slower kinetics. However, HCLB expression within the lamina, assessed by both a GFP (green fluorescent protein) reporter gene strategy and mRNA tagging, was exclusively localized to the glia cells, whereas HCLA expression was confirmed in the LMCs. Our results suggest that the native receptor at the LMC synapse is an HCLA homomer, whereas HCLB signaling via the lamina glia plays a previously unrecognized role in shaping the LMC postsynaptic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1654-08.2008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6670387PMC
July 2008

Dissection of the peripheral motion channel in the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster.

Neuron 2007 Oct;56(1):155-70

Lehrstuhl für Genetik und Neurobiologie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074, Würzburg, Germany.

In the eye, visual information is segregated into modalities such as color and motion, these being transferred to the central brain through separate channels. Here, we genetically dissect the achromatic motion channel in the fly Drosophila melanogaster at the level of the first relay station in the brain, the lamina, where it is split into four parallel pathways (L1-L3, amc/T1). The functional relevance of this divergence is little understood. We now show that the two most prominent pathways, L1 and L2, together are necessary and largely sufficient for motion-dependent behavior. At high pattern contrast, the two pathways are redundant. At intermediate contrast, they mediate motion stimuli of opposite polarity, L2 front-to-back, L1 back-to-front motion. At low contrast, L1 and L2 depend upon each other for motion processing. Of the two minor pathways, amc/T1 specifically enhances the L1 pathway at intermediate contrast. L3 appears not to contribute to motion but to orientation behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2007.09.014DOI Listing
October 2007

Distinct functions of neuronal synaptobrevin in developing and mature fly photoreceptors.

J Neurobiol 2006 Oct;66(12):1271-84

Lehrstuhl für Genetik und Neurobiologie der Universität Würzburg, Biozentrum Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany.

Neuronal synaptobrevin (n-Syb, alias VAMP2), a synaptic vesicle membrane protein with a central role in neurotransmission, is specifically cleaved by the light chain of tetanus neurotoxin (TNT) that is known to reliably block neuroexocytosis. Here, we study fly photoreceptors transmitting continuous, graded signals to first order interneurons in the lamina, and report consequences of targeted expression of TNT in these cells using the UAS/GAL4 driver/effector system. Expressing the toxin throughout photoreceptor development causes developmental, electrophysiological, and behavioral defects. These can be differentiated by confining toxin expression to shorter developmental periods. Applying a method for controlled temporal and spatial TNT expression, we found that in the early pupa it impaired the development of the retina; in the midpupa, during synapse formation TNT caused a severe hypoplasia of the lamina that persisted into adulthood and left the photoreceptor-interneuron synapses of the lamina without function. Finally, during adulthood TNT neither blocks synaptic transmission in photoreceptors nor depletes the cells of n-Syb. Our study suggests a novel, cell type-specific function of n-Syb in synaptogenesis and it distinguishes between two synapse types: TNT resistant and TNT sensitive ones. These results need to be taken into account if TNT is used for neural circuit analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/neu.20284DOI Listing
October 2006

Differential potencies of effector genes in adult Drosophila.

J Comp Neurol 2006 Sep;498(2):194-203

Lehrstuhl Genetik und Neurobiologie, Universität Würzburg Am Hubland (Biozentrum), D-97074 Würzburg, Germany.

The GAL4/UAS gene expression system in Drosophila has been crucial in revealing the behavioral significance of neural circuits. Transgene products that block neurotransmitter release and induce cell death have been proved to inhibit neural function powerfully. Here we compare the action of the five effector genes shibire(ts1), Tetanus toxin light chain (TNT), reaper, Diphtheria toxin A-chain (DTA), and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.1) and show differences in their efficiency depending on the target cells and the timing of induction. Specifically, effectors blocking neuronal transmission or excitability led to adult-induced paralysis more efficiently than those causing cell ablation. We contrasted these differential potencies in adult to their actions during development. Furthermore, we induced TNT expression in the adult mushroom bodies. In contrast to the successful impairment in short-term olfactory memory by shibire(ts1), adult TNT expression in the same set of cells did not lead to any obvious impairment. Altogether, the efficiency of effector genes depends on properties of the targeted neurons. Thus, we conclude that the selection of the appropriate effector gene is critical for evaluating the function of neural circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.21022DOI Listing
September 2006

Flies lacking all synapsins are unexpectedly healthy but are impaired in complex behaviour.

Eur J Neurosci 2004 Aug;20(3):611-22

Theodor Boveri-Institut für Biowissenschaften, Lehrstuhl für Genetik und Neurobiologie, Am Hubland D-97074 Wuerzburg, Germany.

Vertebrate synapsins are abundant synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins that have been proposed to fine-regulate neurotransmitter release by phosphorylation-dependent control of synaptic vesicle motility. However, the consequences of a total lack of all synapsin isoforms due to a knock-out of all three mouse synapsin genes have not yet been investigated. In Drosophila a single synapsin gene encodes several isoforms and is expressed in most synaptic terminals. Thus the targeted deletion of the synapsin gene of Drosophila eliminates the possibility of functional knock-out complementation by other isoforms. Unexpectedly, synapsin null mutant flies show no obvious defects in brain morphology, and no striking qualitative changes in behaviour are observed. Ultrastructural analysis of an identified 'model' synapse of the larval nerve muscle preparation revealed no difference between wild-type and mutant, and spontaneous or evoked excitatory junction potentials at this synapse were normal up to a stimulus frequency of 5 Hz. However, when several behavioural responses were analysed quantitatively, specific differences between mutant and wild-type flies are noted. Adult locomotor activity, optomotor responses at high pattern velocities, wing beat frequency, and visual pattern preference are modified. Synapsin mutant flies show faster habituation of an olfactory jump response, enhanced ethanol tolerance, and significant defects in learning and memory as measured using three different paradigms. Larval behavioural defects are described in a separate paper. We conclude that Drosophila synapsins play a significant role in nervous system function, which is subtle at the cellular level but manifests itself in complex behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2004.03527.xDOI Listing
August 2004
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