Publications by authors named "Jenny Schneider"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Photocatalysis for environmental remediation - From laboratories to industry and beyond.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 28;286(Pt 2):131704. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Centre of Separation Science and Technology, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia; School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131704DOI Listing
July 2021

Controllable synthesis and self-template phase transition of hydrous TiO colloidal spheres for photo/electrochemical applications.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 21;295:102493. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Hydrous TiO colloidal spheres (HTCS) derived from the direct precipitation of titanium alkoxides have attracted continuous interests since 1982. Entering the 21st century, rapid progress in the development of structure-directing agents (SDAs) have enabled reproducible and size-controllable synthesis of highly uniform HTCS with diameters in the nano- to micro-meter range. The availability of various HTCS provides versatile self-templating platforms for the targeted synthesis of nanoporous TiO and titanate spheres with tunable composition, crystallographic phases, and internal structures for a variety of advanced photo/electrochemical applications. This review provides a historical overview for the evolution of HTCS, along with an insightful discussion for the formation mechanism of self-assembly of HTCS during the sol-gel process. Key synthetic parameters including SDA, solvent, reaction temperature and water dosage are discussed for the size and morphology control of HTCS with predictable textural properties. Then, we describe the synthetic strategies of nanoporous TiO and titanate spheres using various HTCS as self-templates. Here, the focus lies on the interactions between TiO nanobuilding blocks with precursors or media at the solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces, the concurrent phase transitions, and the microstructural and morphological evolutions. Selective formation of crystal phase and internal structures (e.g., solid, hollow, core-shell, yolk-shell) are discussed by manipulating the crystallization kinetics. To further elucidate the composition-structure-property-performance relationship for the resulting nanoporous TiO and titanate spheres, their applications in photo(electro)catalysis, mesoscopic solar cells, and lithium-ion batteries are scrutinized. Finally, we share opinions on key challenges and perspectives for the future controllable preparation, formation mechanisms, and applications of HTCS and their crystalline derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2021.102493DOI Listing
September 2021

Perspectives on Dye Sensitization of Nanocrystalline Mesoporous Thin Films.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 09 3;142(38):16099-16116. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290, United States.

Recent advances in our mechanistic understanding of dye-sensitized electron transfer reactions occurring at metal oxide interfaces are described. These advances were enabled by the advent of mesoporous thin films, comprised of anatase TiO nanocrystallites, that are amenable to spectroscopic and electrochemical characterization in unprecedented molecular-level detail. The metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states of Ru polypyridyl compounds serve as the dye sensitizers. Excited-state injection often occurs on ultrafast time scales with yields that can be tuned from unity to near zero through modification of the sensitizer or the electrolyte composition. Transport of the injected electron and the oxidized sensitizer (hole hopping) are both operative in the composite mechanism for charge recombination between the injected electron and the oxidized sensitizer. Sensitizers that contain a pendant electron donor, as well as core/shell SnO/TiO nanostructures, often prolong the lifetime of the injected electron and provide fundamental insights into adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron transfer mechanisms. Regeneration of the oxidized sensitizer by iodide is enhanced through halogen bonding, orbital pathways, and ion pairing. A substantial ∼10 MV cm electric field is created by electron injection into TiO nanocrystallites that induces ion migration, reports on the sensitizer dipole orientation, and (in some cases) reorients or flips the sensitizer. Dye-sensitized conductive oxides also promote long-lived charge separation with bias dependent kinetics that provide insights into the reorganization energies associated with electron and proton-coupled electron transfer in the electric double layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c04886DOI Listing
September 2020

Kinetic Evidence That the Solvent Barrier for Electron Transfer Is Absent in the Electric Double Layer.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 09 19;142(35):14940-14946. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290, United States.

Classical capacitance studies have revealed that the first layer of water present at an aqueous metal-electrolyte interface has a dielectric constant less than 1/10th of that of bulk water. Modern theory indicates that the barrier for electron transfer will decrease substantially in this layer; yet, this important prediction has not been tested experimentally. Here, we report the interfacial electron transfer kinetics for molecules positioned at variable distances within the electric double layer of a transparent conductive oxide as a function of the Gibbs free energy change. The data indicate that the solvent reorganization is indeed near zero and increases to bulk values only when the molecules are positioned greater than 15 Å from the conductive electrode. Consistent with this conclusion, lateral intermolecular electron transfer, parallel to a semiconducting oxide electrode, was shown to be more rapid when the molecules were within the electric double layer. The results provide much needed feedback for theoretical studies and also indicate a huge kinetic advantage for aqueous electron transfer and redox catalysis that takes place proximate to a solid interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c05226DOI Listing
September 2020

Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Epithelial Morphogenesis to Position the Ventral Embryonic Midline.

Dev Cell 2020 06 20;53(5):589-602.e6. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel. Electronic address:

Despite much progress toward understanding how epithelial morphogenesis is shaped by intra-epithelial processes including contractility, polarity, and adhesion, much less is known regarding how such cellular processes are coordinated by extra-epithelial signaling. During embryogenesis, the coelomic epithelia on the two sides of the chick embryo undergo symmetrical lengthening and thinning, converging medially to generate and position the dorsal mesentery (DM) in the embryonic midline. We find that Hedgehog signaling, acting through downstream effectors Sec5 (ExoC2), an exocyst complex component, and RhoU (Wrch-1), a small GTPase, regulates coelomic epithelium morphogenesis to guide DM midline positioning. These effects are accompanied by changes in epithelial cell-cell alignment and N-cadherin and laminin distribution, suggesting Hedgehog regulation of cell organization within the coelomic epithelium. These results indicate a role for Hedgehog signaling in regulating epithelial morphology and provide an example of how transcellular signaling can modulate specific cellular processes to shape tissue morphogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.04.016DOI Listing
June 2020

Electron Transfer Reorganization Energies in the Electrode-Electrolyte Double Layer.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 01 30;142(2):674-679. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Chemistry , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill , North Caronlia 27599 , United States.

The total reorganization energy, λ, for interfacial electron transfer, ET, from a conductive electrode to redox-active molecules at fixed positions within the electric double layer, EDL, has been determined experimentally. Conductive indium-tin-oxide (ITO, InO:Sn) mesoporous films were functionalized with 4-[,-di(-tolyl)-amino]benzylphosphonic acid (TPA) and/or [Ru(bpy)(4,4'-(POH)-bpy)] (RuP), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine. The small inner-sphere reorganizations, λ, for RuP and TPA make them excellent probes of outer-sphere reorganization energy, λ, as λ ≪ λ such that λ = λ + λ ≈ λ. Consecutive layer-by-layer addition of Zr-bridged methylenediphosphonic acid enabled positioning at distances from 4 to 27 Å from the ITO. Excited-state injection into the ITO by RuP* generated ITO(e)|RuP. For ITO cofunctionalized with TPA and RuP, subnanosecond lateral ET yielded ITO(e)|TPA. The kinetics for ET from ITO to RuP or TPA were quantified spectroscopically as a function of applied potential () and hence driving force, -Δ°. Marcus-Gerischer analysis of this data provided λ. Significantly, λ was near zero at close electrode proximity, λ = 0.11 eV at a distance of ∼4 Å, as manifest by kinetics largely insensitive to . In agreement with dielectric continuum theory, λ increased to values expected in CHCN solution when the molecule was positioned at a distance of ∼27 Å (λ = 0.94 eV). The data reveal small intrinsic barriers for electron transfer proximate to conductive interfaces, which is an exploitable behavior in solar energy conversion and other applications that utilize transparent conductive oxides to accept or deliver electrons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b11815DOI Listing
January 2020

Determination of Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Reorganization Energies with Application to Water Oxidation Catalysts.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 06 13;141(25):9758-9763. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Chemistry , University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , Chapel Hill 27599 , United States.

The reorganization energy, λ, for interfacial electron transfer (ET) and for proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) between a water oxidation catalyst and a conductive InO:Sn (ITO) oxide were extracted from kinetic data by application of Marcus-Gerischer theory. Specifically, light excitation of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(tpy)(4,4'-(POH)-bpy)OH] (Ru-OH), where tpy is 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine and bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, anchored to a mesoporous thin film of ITO nanocrystallites resulted in rapid excited-state injection ( k > 10 s). The subsequent reaction of the injected electron (ITO(e)) and the oxidized catalyst was quantified spectroscopically on nanosecond and longer time scales. The metallic character of ITO allowed potentiostatic control of the reaction free energy change -Δ G over a 1 eV range. At pH values below the p K = 1.7 of the oxidized catalyst, ET was the primary reaction. Within the pH range 2 ≤ pH ≤ 5, an interfacial PCET reaction (ITO(e) + Ru-OH + H→ Ru-OH) occurred with smaller rate constants. Plots of the rate constants versus -Δ G provided a reorganization energy of λ = 0.9 eV and λ = 0.5 eV. A second water oxidation catalyst provided similar values and demonstrated generality. The utilization of conductive oxides is shown to be a powerful tool for quantifying PCET reorganization energies at oxide surfaces for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b01296DOI Listing
June 2019

Photocatalytic activity and charge carrier dynamics of TiO powders with a binary particle size distribution.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Mar 8;20(12):8119-8132. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Institute of Technical Chemistry, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstr. 5, 30167 Hannover, Germany. tci.uni-hannover.de and Laboratory "Photoactive Nanocomposite Materials", Saint-Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya Str. 1, Peterhof, Saint-Petersburg, 198504, Russia.

The effects of the particle size distribution on the charge carrier dynamics and the photocatalytic activity of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO) powder samples were investigated in this work. Instead of the synthesis of the small semiconductor particles, the binary particle size distributions of the powders were obtained by mixing commercially available TiO powders with different particle sizes. The pure anatase samples (average diameters: 7, 20, and 125 nm, respectively) were created via ultrasound treatment and discreet drying. The photocatalytic activity of the powder samples was assessed by the degradation of nitric oxide (NO) and acetaldehyde in the gas phase. Furthermore, the charge carrier kinetics was determined using transient absorption spectroscopy following pulsed laser excitation. Importantly, a recently published model based on fractal dimensions was used to fit the transient signals of the photo generated charge carriers in the TiO powder samples. The effects of the particle size on the acetaldehyde degradation could be explained by the formation of agglomerates, which reduce the available surface area of smaller particles. The fast oxidation of acetaldehyde on the surface of TiO by direct hole transfer was further independent of the observed charge carrier lifetimes on the microsecond time scale. The photocatalytic NO degradation, on the other hand, increased for samples containing larger amounts of small particles. The corresponding photonic efficiencies correlated well with the charge carrier lifetimes determined by the time-resolved studies. Hence, it was concluded that a long charge carrier lifetime generally leads to higher fractional conversions of NO. The employed fractal fit function was proved to be beneficial for the kinetic analysis of charge carrier recombination in TiO, in direct comparison with a second order fit function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cp00398jDOI Listing
March 2018

Drug-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis following Treatment with Zoledronic Acid.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2017 May-Aug;11(2):440-445. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Hepatology Unit, Klinik Beau-Site, Hirslanden Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Adverse drug reactions are among the most frequent side effects of synthetic and complementary alternative drugs and represent the premier causes of license revocations and acute liver failure. Drug-induced liver injury can resemble literally any other genuine liver disease and usually responds well to drug dechallenge. However, in some cases autoimmune-like hepatitis can evolve, requiring short- and sometimes long-term immunosuppression. Here, we present the hitherto first case of autoimmune-like hepatitis following treatment with zoledronic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000479314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624238PMC
August 2017

Cold sprayed WO and TiO electrodes for photoelectrochemical water and methanol oxidation in renewable energy applications.

Dalton Trans 2017 Oct;46(38):12811-12823

Institut für Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Callinstrasse 5, D-30167 Hannover, Germany. and Laboratory "Photoactive Nanocomposite Materials" (Director), Saint-Petersburg State University, Ulyanovskaya str.1, Peterhof, Saint-Petersburg, 198504 Russia.

Films prepared by cold spray have potential applications as photoanodes in electrochemical water splitting and waste water purification. In the present study cold sprayed photoelectrodes produced with WO (active under visible light illumination) and TiO (active under UV illumination) on titanium metal substrates were investigated as photoanodes for the oxidation of water and methanol, respectively. Methanol was chosen as organic model pollutant in acidic electrolytes. Main advantages of the cold sprayed photoelectrodes are the improved metal-semiconductor junctions and the superior mechanical stability. Additionally, the cold spray method can be utilized as a large-scale electrode fabrication technique for photoelectrochemical applications. Incident photon to current efficiencies reveal that cold sprayed TiO/WO photoanodes exhibit the best photoelectrochemical properties with regard to the water and methanol oxidation reactions in comparison with the benchmark photocatalyst Aeroxide TiO P25 due to more efficient harvesting of the total solar light irradiation related to their smaller band gap energies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7dt02063eDOI Listing
October 2017

Laser-flash-photolysis-spectroscopy: a nondestructive method?

Faraday Discuss 2017 04;197:505-516

Leibniz University Hannover, Institute for Technical Chemistry, 30167 Hannover, Germany.

Herein, we report the effect of the laser illumination during the diffuse-reflectance laser-flash-photolysis measurements on the morphological and optical properties of TiO powders. A grey-blue coloration of the TiO nanoparticles has been observed after intense laser illumination. This is explained by the formation of nonreactive trapped electrons accompanied by the release of oxygen atoms from the TiO matrix as detected by means of UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy. Moreover, in the case of the pure anatase sample a phase transition of some TiO nanoparticles located in the inner region from anatase to rutile occurred. It is suggested that these structural changes in TiO are caused by an energy and charge transfer to the TiO lattice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6fd00193aDOI Listing
April 2017

DNA methylation profiling reveals differences in the 3 human monocyte subsets and identifies uremia to induce DNA methylation changes during differentiation.

Epigenetics 2016 04 28;11(4):259-72. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

a Department of Internal Medicine IV , Saarland University Medical Center , Homburg , Germany.

Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population consisting of 3 subsets: classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+ and nonclassical CD14+CD16++ monocytes. Via poorly characterized mechanisms, intermediate monocyte counts rise in chronic inflammatory diseases, among which chronic kidney disease is of particular epidemiologic importance. DNA methylation is a central epigenetic feature that controls hematopoiesis. By applying next-generation Methyl-Sequencing we now tested how far the 3 monocyte subsets differ in their DNA methylome and whether uremia induces DNA methylation changes in differentiating monocytes. We found that each monocyte subset displays a unique phenotype with regards to DNA methylation. Genes with differentially methylated promoter regions in intermediate monocytes were linked to distinct immunological processes, which is in line with results from recent gene expression analyses. In vitro, uremia induced dysregulation of DNA methylation in differentiating monocytes, which affected several transcription regulators important for monocyte differentiation (e.g., FLT3, HDAC1, MNT) and led to enhanced generation of intermediate monocytes. As potential mediator, the uremic toxin and methylation inhibitor S-adenosylhomocysteine induced shifts in monocyte subsets in vitro, and associated with monocyte subset counts in vivo. Our data support the concept of monocyte trichotomy and the distinct role of intermediate monocytes in human immunity. The shift in monocyte subsets that occurs in chronic kidney disease, a proinflammatory condition of substantial epidemiological impact, may be induced by accumulation of uremic toxins that mediate epigenetic dysregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2016.1158363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889294PMC
April 2016

Improved charge carrier separation in barium tantalate composites investigated by laser flash photolysis.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2016 Apr;18(16):10719-26

Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Institute of Physical Chemistry, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Charge carrier dynamics in phase pure Ba5Ta4O15 and in a Ba5Ta4O15-Ba3Ta5O15 composite have been studied by means of diffuse reflectance laser flash photolysis spectroscopy in the presence and absence of an electron donor, in order to reveal the reason for the improved photocatalytic performance of the latter. For the first time the transient absorption of trapped electrons with a maximum at around 650 nm and of trapped holes with a transient absorption maximum at around 310 nm is reported for tantalates. The decay kinetics of the photogenerated charge carriers could be fitted by second order reaction kinetics, and the direct recombination of the trapped electrons with the trapped holes was proven. In the absence of an electron donor, no difference in the decay behavior between the phase pure material and the composite material is found. In the presence of methanol, for the pure phase Ba5Ta4O15 the recombination of the charge carriers could not be prevented and the trapped electrons also recombine with the ˙CH2OH radical formed via the methanol oxidation by the trapped holes. However, in the composite, the electron can be stored in the system, the ˙CH2OH radical injects an electron into the conduction band of the second component of the composite, i.e., Ba3Ta5O15. Thus, the electrons are available for an extended period to induce reduction reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5cp07115aDOI Listing
April 2016

Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals as a Strategy to Improve Photocatalysis: Underexplored Questions.

J Phys Chem Lett 2015 Oct 16;6(19):3903-10. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata , Dean Funes 3350, CP 7600 Mar del Plata, Argentina.

The structuring of materials in the form of photonic crystals for photocatalytic applications is a quite new strategy aiming to enhance the performance of the photocatalysts at wavelength ranges where their absorption is poor. It is of particular interest to successfully manufacture an efficient photocatalytic system that could make use of solar light. Thus, the key of the strategy is the "slow photon effect", occurring at the edges of a forbidden band for photons. In this Perspective we have chosen some questions that we consider of relevance and that are well worth being addressed both theoretically and experimentally. It is the aim of this discussion to eventually lead to a more productive use of inverse opals as photonic photocatalytic materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01353DOI Listing
October 2015

Wnt signaling orients the proximal-distal axis of chick kidney nephrons.

Development 2015 Aug 26;142(15):2686-95. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 31096, Israel

The nephron is the fundamental structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each mature nephron is patterned along a proximal-distal axis, with blood filtered at the proximal end and urine emerging from the distal end. In order to filter the blood and produce urine, specialized structures are formed at specific proximal-distal locations along the nephron, including the glomerulus at the proximal end, the tubule in the middle and the collecting duct at the distal end. The developmental processes that specify these different nephron segments are not fully understood. Wnt ligands, which are expressed in the nephric duct and later in the nascent nephron itself, are well-characterized inducers of nephrons, and are both required and sufficient for initiation of nephron formation from nephrogenic mesenchyme. Here, we present evidence that Wnt signaling also patterns the proximal-distal nephron axis. Using the chick mesonephros as a model system, a Wnt ligand was ectopically expressed in the coelomic lining, thereby introducing a source of Wnt signaling that is at right angles to the endogenous Wnt signal of the nephric duct. Under these conditions, the nephron axis was re-oriented, such that the glomerulus was always located at a position farthest from the Wnt sources. This re-orientation occurred within hours of exposure to ectopic Wnt signaling, and was accompanied initially by a repression of the early glomerular podocyte markers Wt1 and Pod1, followed by their re-emergence at a position distant from the Wnt signals. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in mesonephric explant cultures resulted in strong and specific repression of early and late glomerular markers. Finally, cytoplasmic β-catenin, indicative of active canonical Wnt signaling, was found to be enriched in the distal as compared with the proximal region of the forming nephron. Together, these data indicate that Wnt signaling patterns the proximal-distal axis of the nephron, with glomeruli differentiating in regions of lowest Wnt signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.123968DOI Listing
August 2015

Blood BDNF level is gender specific in severe depression.

PLoS One 2015 26;10(5):e0127643. Epub 2015 May 26.

Department of Molecular Biology, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.

Though the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a marker for major depressive disorder (MDD) and antidepressant efficacy has been widely studied, the role of BDNF in distinct groups of patients remains unclear. We evaluated the diagnostic value of BDNF as a marker of disease severity measured by HAM-D scores and antidepressants efficacy among MDD patients. Fifty-one patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and were prescribed antidepressants and 38 controls participated in this study. BDNF in serum was measured at baseline, 1st, 2nd and 8th treatment weeks. Depression severity was evaluated using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). BDNF polymorphism rs6265 (val66met) was genotyped. We found a positive correlation between blood BDNF levels and severity of depression only among untreated women with severe MDD (HAM-D>24). Serum BDNF levels were lower in untreated MDD patients compared to control group. Antidepressants increased serum BDNF levels and reduced between-group differences after two weeks of treatment. No correlations were observed between BDNF polymorphism, depression severity, duration of illness, age and BDNF serum levels. Further supporting the role of BDNF in the pathology and treatment of MDD, we suggest that it should not be used as a universal biomarker for diagnosis of MDD in the general population. However, it has diagnostic value for the assessment of disease progression and treatment efficacy in individual patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127643PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4444333PMC
April 2016

Collective cell migration of the nephric duct requires FGF signaling.

Dev Dyn 2015 Feb 30;244(2):157-67. Epub 2014 Dec 30.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Background: During the course of development, the vertebrate nephric duct (ND) extends and migrates from the place of its initial formation, adjacent to the anterior somites, until it inserts into the bladder or cloaca in the posterior region of the embryo. The molecular mechanisms that guide ND migration are poorly understood.

Results: A novel Gata3-enhancer-Gfp-based chick embryo live imaging system was developed that permits documentation of ND migration at the individual cell level for the first time. FGF Receptors and FGF response genes are expressed in the ND, and FGF ligands are expressed in surrounding tissues. FGF receptor inhibition blocked nephric duct migration. Individual inhibitors of the Erk, p38, or Jnk pathways did not affect duct migration, but inhibition of all three pathways together did inhibit migration of the duct. A localized source of FGF8 placed adjacent to the nephric duct did not affect the duct migration path.

Conclusions: FGF signaling acts as a "motor" that is required for duct migration, but other signals are needed to determine the directionality of the duct migration pathway. Developmental Dynamics 244:157-167, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.24241DOI Listing
February 2015

Understanding TiO2 photocatalysis: mechanisms and materials.

Chem Rev 2014 Oct 19;114(19):9919-86. Epub 2014 Sep 19.

Institut für Technische Chemie, Leibniz Universität Hannover , Callinstrasse 3, D-30167 Hannover, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr5001892DOI Listing
October 2014
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