Publications by authors named "Jenny Chang-Claude"

665 Publications

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, polygenic risk score and colorectal cancer risk.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.

Aim: To explore whether this association varies according to background polygenic risk for CRC.

Methods: Data were collected from a large population-based case-control study on CRC in Germany. A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 140 CRC-related risk loci was used to quantify the genetic risk. The associations of regular use of NSAIDs (≥2times per week for at least 1 year) with CRC risk were estimated in the whole population and in subgroups according to PRS levels using multivariable logistic regression. The impact of NSAIDs on CRC risk was compared to PRS using the 'genetic risk equivalent' (GRE), a recently developed metric for effective risk communication.

Results: In total 5129 CRC cases and 4093 controls were included in this analysis. The regular use of NSAIDs (including aspirin) was associated with reduced CRC risk [odds ratio (OR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59, 0.74], as was regular use of aspirin only (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.65, 0.83), without indication of interaction with the PRS (P = 0.10 and 0.22 respectively). The effect of NSAID use was equivalent to the effect of having a 32 percentiles lower PRS (GRE -32, 95% CI -41, -22).

Conclusions: The regular use of NSAIDs is associated with greatly reduced CRC risk regardless of individual genetic profile. With an equivalent reduction of relative risk across all polygenic risk groups, absolute risk reduction would be expected to be strongest among those with the highest polygenic risk score.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16438DOI Listing
June 2021

Nongenetic Determinants of Risk for Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Jun 20;5(3):pkab029. Epub 2021 May 20.

Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Incidence of early-onset (younger than 50 years of age) colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in many countries. Thus, elucidating the role of traditional CRC risk factors in early-onset CRC is a high priority. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with late-onset CRC were also linked to early-onset CRC and whether association patterns differed by anatomic subsite.

Methods: Using data pooled from 13 population-based studies, we studied 3767 CRC cases and 4049 controls aged younger than 50 years and 23 437 CRC cases and 35 311 controls aged 50 years and older. Using multivariable and multinomial logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the association between risk factors and early-onset CRC and by anatomic subsite.

Results: Early-onset CRC was associated with not regularly using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.21 to 1.68), greater red meat intake (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), lower educational attainment (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.16), alcohol abstinence (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.39), and heavier alcohol use (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.50). No factors exhibited a greater excess in early-onset compared with late-onset CRC. Evaluating risks by anatomic subsite, we found that lower total fiber intake was linked more strongly to rectal (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.14 to 1.48) than colon cancer (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.27;  = .04).

Conclusion: In this large study, we identified several nongenetic risk factors associated with early-onset CRC, providing a basis for targeted identification of those most at risk, which is imperative in mitigating the rising burden of this disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134523PMC
June 2021

Correction to: Association of laparoscopic colectomy versus open colectomy on the long‑term health‑related quality of life of colon cancer survivors.

Surg Endosc 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Unit of Cancer Survivorship, Division of Clinical, Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), P.O. Box 101949, 69009, Heidelberg, Germany.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08557-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Early discontinuation and dose reduction of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer patients.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 22;13:17588359211006348. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, Heidelberg, 69120, Germany.

Background: The benefit of chemotherapy in colon cancer patients is well documented but depends largely on whether patients complete the planned treatment regimen. We evaluated predictors of early discontinuation (EDChemo) and dose reduction of chemotherapy, especially the role of adverse treatment effects, in stage III patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy.

Methods: Stage III colon cancer patients who were diagnosed in 2003-2014 and recruited into a population-based study in Germany and received FOLFOX [5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (LV), and oxaliplatin], capecitabine monotherapy (CapMono), or 5-FU/LV were included. We assessed determinants of EDChemo and dose reduction using multivariable logistic regression. Also, we estimated proportions of EDChemo and dose reduction that are attributable to adverse effects using attributable fractions.

Results: EDChemo and dose reduction rates were 52% and 17% for FOLFOX, 28% and 9% for CapMono, and 45% and 6% for 5-FU/LV, respectively. Predictors of EDChemo were low-grade tumor and treatment in a medium-volume hospital (for FOLFOX), obesity (for CapMono), and increasing age, T4 stage, and treatment in a medium-volume hospital (for 5-FU/LV). Adverse effects were particularly strongly associated with EDChemo and contributed to about 63%, 51%, and 32% of EDChemo of FOLFOX, CapMono, and 5-FU/LV, respectively. Of the various adverse effects, gastrointestinal events showed the strongest associations with EDChemo and accounted for about 7%, 26%, and 20% of EDChemo of FOLFOX, CapMono, and 5-FU/LV, respectively. Adverse effects were, moreover, a strong determinant of dose reduction and accounted for about 82% of all cases.

Conclusions: EDChemo is common in stage III colon cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and more than half of the cases of EDChemo and dose reduction are due to adverse treatment effects. Further research should address the potential for reducing EDChemo and dose reduction rates by close monitoring of patients for early signs and enhanced management of adverse effects, especially gastrointestinal events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17588359211006348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072866PMC
April 2021

Genetically Predicted Circulating C-Reactive Protein Concentration and Colorectal Cancer Survival: A Mendelian Randomization Consortium Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Background: A positive association between circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and colorectal cancer survival was reported in observational studies, which are susceptible to unmeasured confounding and reverse causality. We used a Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival.

Methods: We used individual-level data for 16,918 eligible colorectal cancer cases of European ancestry from 15 studies within the International Survival Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We calculated a genetic-risk score based on 52 CRP-associated genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies. Because of the non-collapsibility of hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards models, we used the additive hazards model to calculate hazard differences (HD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between genetically predicted CRP concentrations and colorectal cancer-specific survival, overall and by stage at diagnosis and tumor location. Analyses were adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, genotyping platform, study, and principal components.

Results: Of the 5,395 (32%) deaths accrued over up to 10 years of follow-up, 3,808 (23%) were due to colorectal cancer. Genetically predicted CRP concentration was not associated with colorectal cancer-specific survival (HD, -1.15; 95% CI, -2.76 to 0.47 per 100,000 person-years; = 0.16). Similarly, no associations were observed in subgroup analyses by stage at diagnosis or tumor location.

Conclusions: Despite adequate power to detect moderate associations, our results did not support a causal effect of circulating CRP concentrations on colorectal cancer-specific survival.

Impact: Future research evaluating genetically determined levels of other circulating inflammatory biomarkers (i.e., IL6) with colorectal cancer survival outcomes is needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1848DOI Listing
May 2021

Health-Related Quality of Life in a Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors over More Than 10 Years Post-Diagnosis and in Comparison to a Control Cohort.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;13(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Cancer Epidemiology Group, University Cancer Center Hamburg (UCCH), University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

Breast cancer (BC) survivors often suffer from late and long-term residual symptoms of the disease and its treatment. To date, long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in breast cancer survivors has been seldom investigated and rarely compared to unaffected women (controls). This study aimed to investigate HRQoL over time using patient-reported status before diagnosis, during treatment, 1 year post-surgery, approx. 5 years and ≥10 years post-diagnosis. We also compared survivors' HRQoL with controls' still alive 10 years after recruitment. Data from the German population-based Mamma Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE) cohort of 1123 BC patients aged 50-74 years at diagnosis (2002-2005) and of 3453 matched controls were used for analysis. HRQoL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire. All analyses were conducted for all ages as well as stratified according to three age groups (≤58 years, 59-64 years, ≥64 years). Differences in survivors' general HRQoL before, during, and after therapy were investigated using a t-test/Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Changes in the HRQoL of survivors stratified by age from FU1 to FU2 were assessed via repeated analysis of variance. The HRQoL of survivors compared to the controls at FU2 was analyzed using an analysis of variance. Over all ages, the general HRQoL in patients improved in the first 5 years post-diagnosis. In the subsequent years, HRQoL slightly deteriorated but was comparable to that of the controls. Younger survivors mostly improved their HRQoL from the 5 to 10-year follow-up but remained negatively affected for most functioning and symptom scales compared to controls. In older survivors, HRQoL hardly changed over time and detriments were less pronounced compared to controls, except for insomnia. Restrictions of HRQoL persist for more than 10 years and are most prominent among younger survivors. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of such potential deteriorations and age-dependent differences in order to optimize/adapt long-term cancer survivor care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13081854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069882PMC
April 2021

Development of a method for generating SNP interaction-aware polygenic risk scores for radiotherapy toxicity.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 8;159:241-248. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Federation of Radiation Oncology, Montpellier Cancer Institute, Univ Montpellier MUSE, France. Electronic address:

Aim: To identify the effect of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) interactions on the risk of toxicity following radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer (PCa) and propose a new method for polygenic risk score incorporating SNP-SNP interactions (PRSi).

Materials And Methods: Analysis included the REQUITE PCa cohort that received external beam RT and was followed for 2 years. Late toxicity endpoints were: rectal bleeding, urinary frequency, haematuria, nocturia, decreased urinary stream. Among 43 literature-identified SNPs, the 30% most strongly associated with each toxicity were tested. SNP-SNP combinations (named SNP-allele sets) seen in ≥10% of the cohort were condensed into risk (RS) and protection (PS) scores, respectively indicating increased or decreased toxicity risk. Performance of RS and PS was evaluated by logistic regression. RS and PS were then combined into a single PRSi evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: Among 1,387 analysed patients, toxicity rates were 11.7% (rectal bleeding), 4.0% (urinary frequency), 5.5% (haematuria), 7.8% (nocturia) and 17.1% (decreased urinary stream). RS and PS combined 8 to 15 different SNP-allele sets, depending on the toxicity endpoint. Distributions of PRSi differed significantly in patients with/without toxicity with AUCs ranging from 0.61 to 0.78. PRSi was better than the classical summed PRS, particularly for the urinary frequency, haematuria and decreased urinary stream endpoints.

Conclusions: Our method incorporates SNP-SNP interactions when calculating PRS for radiotherapy toxicity. Our approach is better than classical summation in discriminating patients with toxicity and should enable incorporating genetic information to improve normal tissue complication probability models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2021.03.024DOI Listing
June 2021

Polymorphisms within Autophagy-Related Genes Influence the Risk of Developing Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Four Large Cohorts.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

The role of genetic variation in autophagy-related genes in modulating autophagy and cancer is poorly understood. Here, we comprehensively investigated the association of autophagy-related variants with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and provide new insights about the molecular mechanisms underlying the associations. After meta-analysis of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from four independent European cohorts (8006 CRC cases and 7070 controls), two loci, ( = 2.19 × 10) and ( = 6.28 × 10) were associated with the risk of CRC. Mechanistically, the allele was associated with IL1 β levels after the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with ( = 0.002), CD24 + CD38 + CD27 + IgM + B cell levels in blood ( = 0.0038) and serum levels of en-RAGE ( = 0.0068). allele was associated with TNF α and IL1 β levels after the stimulation of PBMCs with LPS ( = 0.0088 and = 0.0076, respectively), CD14+CD16- cell levels in blood ( = 0.0068) and serum levels of CCL19 and cortisol ( = 0.0052 and = 0.0074, respectively). Interestingly, no association with autophagy flux was observed. These results suggested an effect of the and loci in the pathogenesis of CRC, likely through the modulation of host immune responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13061258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998818PMC
March 2021

Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent: a Mendelian randomization study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1490-1502

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited.

Objectives: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR).

Methods: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions.

Results: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B-6 were not associated with disease risk.

Conclusions: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B-12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168352PMC
June 2021

The association of vitamin D with survival in colorectal cancer patients depends on antioxidant capacity.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1458-1467

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Vitamin D plays a role in detoxifying free radicals, which might explain the previously reported lower mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with higher vitamin D concentrations.

Objectives: We aimed to assess whether the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with prognosis in CRC patients differ by total thiol concentration (TTC), a biomarker of antioxidant capacity.

Methods: CRC patients who were diagnosed from 2003 to 2010 and recruited into a population-based study in southern Germany (n = 2,592) were followed over a period of 6 y. 25(OH)D and TTC were evaluated from blood samples collected shortly after CRC diagnosis. Associations of 25(OH)D with all-cause and CRC mortality according to TTC were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.

Results: There was a weak positive correlation between 25(OH)D and TTC (r = 0.26, P < 0.001). 25(OH)D was inversely associated with mortality among patients in the lowest and middle TTC tertiles, but no associations were found among patients in the highest TTC tertile (P-interaction = 0.01). Among patients in the lowest/middle TTC tertiles, those in the middle and highest (compared with lowest) 25(OH)D tertiles had 31% and 44% lower all-cause mortality (P < 0.001) and 25% and 45% lower CRC mortality (P < 0.001), respectively. However, in the highest TTC tertile, 25(OH)D was not associated with all-cause (P = 0.638) or CRC mortality (P = 0.395).

Conclusions: The survival advantages in CRC patients with adequate vitamin D strongly depend on antioxidant capacity and are most pronounced in cases of low antioxidant capacity. These findings suggest that TTC and other biomarkers of antioxidant status may be useful as the basis for enhanced selection criteria of patients for vitamin D supplementation, in addition to the conventional judgment based on blood 25(OH)D concentrations, and also for refining selection of patients for clinical trials aiming to estimate the effect of vitamin D supplementation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa405DOI Listing
June 2021

Circulating B-vitamin biomarkers and B-vitamin supplement use in relation to quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer: results from the FOCUS consortium.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1468-1481

Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: B vitamins have been associated with the risk and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), given their central roles in nucleotide synthesis and methylation, yet their association with quality of life in established CRC is unclear.

Objectives: To investigate whether quality of life 6 months postdiagnosis is associated with: 1) circulating concentrations of B vitamins and related biomarkers 6 months postdiagnosis; 2) changes in these concentrations between diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis; 3) B-vitamin supplement use 6 months postdiagnosis; and 4) changes in B-vitamin supplement use between diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis.

Methods: We included 1676 newly diagnosed stage I-III CRC patients from 3 prospective European cohorts. Circulating concentrations of 9 biomarkers related to the B vitamins folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and cobalamin were measured at diagnosis and 6 months postdiagnosis. Information on dietary supplement use was collected at both time points. Health-related quality of life (global quality of life, functioning scales, and fatigue) was assessed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 6 months postdiagnosis. Confounder-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed, adjusted for multiple testing.

Results: Higher pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) was cross-sectionally associated with better physical, role, and social functioning, as well as reduced fatigue, 6 months postdiagnosis. Associations were observed for a doubling in the hydroxykynurenine ratio [3-hydroxykynurenine: (kynurenic acid + xanthurenic acid + 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid + anthranilic acid); an inverse marker of vitamin B6] and both reduced global quality of life (β = -3.62; 95% CI: -5.88, -1.36) and worse physical functioning (β = -5.01; 95% CI: -7.09, -2.94). Dose-response relations were observed for PLP and quality of life. No associations were observed for changes in biomarker concentrations between diagnosis and 6 months. Participants who stopped using B-vitamin supplements after diagnosis reported higher fatigue than nonusers.

Conclusions: Higher vitamin B6 status was associated with better quality of life, yet limited associations were observed for the use of B-vitamin supplements. Vitamin B6 needs further study to clarify its role in relation to quality of life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168355PMC
June 2021

Smoking, Genetic Predisposition, and Colorectal Cancer Risk.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 1;12(3):e00317. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Introduction: Smoking and genetic predisposition are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to assess and compare their individual and joint impact on CRC risk using the novel approach of genetic risk equivalent (GRE).

Methods: Data were extracted from the Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening study, a large population-based case-control study in Germany. A polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 140 CRC-related single nucleotide polymorphisms was derived to quantify genetic risk. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and joint impact of smoking and PRS on CRC risk, and to quantify the smoking effect in terms of GRE, the corresponding effect conveyed by a defined difference in PRS percentiles.

Results: There were 5,086 patients with CRC and 4,120 controls included. Current smokers had a 48% higher risk of CRC than never smokers (adjusted odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.27-1.72). A PRS above the 90th percentile was significantly associated with a 3.6-, 4.3-, and 6.4-fold increased risk of CRC in never, former, and current smokers, respectively, when compared with a PRS below the 10th percentile in never smokers. The interaction between smoking and PRS on CRC risk did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.53). The effect of smoking was equivalent to the effect of having a 30 percentile higher level of PRS (GRE 30, 95% confidence interval 18-42).

Discussion: Both smoking and the PRS carry essentially independent CRC risk information, and their joint consideration provides powerful risk stratification. Abstinence from smoking can compensate for a substantial proportion of genetically determined CRC risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925134PMC
March 2021

Colorectal Cancer Risk by Genetic Variants in Populations With and Without Colonoscopy History.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 Feb 23;5(1):pkab008. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Polygenic risk scores (PRS), which are derived from results of large genome-wide association studies, are increasingly propagated for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk stratification. The majority of studies included in the large genome-wide association studies consortia were conducted in the United States and Germany, where colonoscopy with detection and removal of polyps has been widely practiced over the last decades. We aimed to assess if and to what extent the history of colonoscopy with polypectomy may alter metrics of the predictive ability of PRS for CRC risk.

Methods: A PRS based on 140 single nucleotide polymorphisms was compared between 4939 CRC patients and 3797 control persons of the Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening (DACHS) study, a population-based case-control study conducted in Germany. Risk discrimination was quantified according to the history of colonoscopy and polypectomy by areas under the curves (AUCs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: AUCs and 95% CIs were higher among subjects without previous colonoscopy (AUC = 0.622, 95% CI = 0.606 to 0.639) than among those with previous colonoscopy and polypectomy (AUC = 0.568, 95% CI = 0.536 to 0.601; difference [Δ AUC] = 0.054,  = .004). Such differences were consistently seen in sex-specific groups (women: Δ AUC = 0.073,  = .02; men: Δ AUC = 0.046,  = .048) and age-specific groups (younger than 70 years: Δ AUC = 0.052,  = .07; 70 years or older: Δ AUC = 0.049,  = .045).

Conclusions: Predictive performance of PRS may be underestimated in populations with widespread use of colonoscopy. Future studies using PRS to develop CRC prediction models should carefully consider colonoscopy history to provide more accurate estimates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898082PMC
February 2021

Genetic architectures of proximal and distal colorectal cancer are partly distinct.

Gut 2021 Jul 25;70(7):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.

Design: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.

Results: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.

Conclusion: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321534DOI Listing
July 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Uptake Rates of Novel Therapies and Survival Among Privately Insured Versus Publicly Insured Patients With Colorectal Cancer in Germany.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Apr 12;19(4):411-420. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

1Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg.

Background: In the era of personalized medicine, cancer care is subject to major changes and innovations. It is unclear, however, to what extent implementation of such innovations and their impact on patient outcomes differ by health insurance type. This study compared provision of treatment and survival outcomes among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who had statutory health insurance (SHI) versus private health insurance (PHI) in Germany.

Methods: We analyzed patterns of CRC treatment (surgery, chemotherapy/radiotherapy, and targeted therapy) and survival in a large cohort of patients who were diagnosed with CRC in 2003 through 2014 and were observed for an average of 6 years. Associations of type of health insurance with treatment administration and with overall, CRC-specific, and recurrence-free survival were investigated using multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively.

Results: Of 3,977 patients with CRC, 427 (11%) had PHI. Although type of health insurance was not associated with treatment administration in patients with stage I-III disease, those with stage IV disease with PHI more often received targeted therapy (65% vs 40%; odds ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.20-4.91), with differences decreasing over time because of catch-up of uptake rates in patients with SHI. Median overall survival was longer in patients with PHI than in those with SHI (137.0 vs 114.9 months; P=.010), but survival advantages were explained to a large extent by differences in sociodemographic factors. In patients with stage IV disease, survival advantages of PHI were nonsignificant and were restricted to the early years after diagnosis.

Conclusions: We observed major differences in uptake of targeted therapy between patients with PHI and those with SHI but no differences in patient survival after adjusting for relevant sociodemographic, clinical, and tumor characteristics. Further studies are needed on factors associated with the uptake of therapeutic innovations and their impact on patient survival by health insurance type.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7636DOI Listing
April 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Factors and Survival by Tumor Subtype: Pooled Analyses from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Apr 26;30(4):623-642. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Gynaecology Research Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: It is not known whether modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype.

Methods: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype.

Results: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype ( > 0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI ≥30 versus 18.5-25 kg/m [HR (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19 (1.06-1.34)]; current versus never smoking [1.37 (1.27-1.47)], high versus low physical activity [0.43 (0.21-0.86)], age ≥30 years versus <20 years at first pregnancy [0.79 (0.72-0.86)]; >0-<5 years versus ≥10 years since last full-term birth [1.31 (1.11-1.55)]; ever versus never use of oral contraceptives [0.91 (0.87-0.96)]; ever versus never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy [0.61 (0.54-0.69)]. Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; for example, 1.11 (1.02-1.21) for current versus never smoking.

Conclusions: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype.

Impact: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026532PMC
April 2021

CYP3A7*1C allele: linking premenopausal oestrone and progesterone levels with risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.

Br J Cancer 2021 02 26;124(4):842-854. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry.

Results: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10).

Conclusions: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01185-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884683PMC
February 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Genes - Association Analysis in More than 113,000 Women.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):428-439. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The authors' affiliations are as follows: the Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Departments of Public Health and Primary Care (L.D., S. Carvalho, J.A., K.A.P., Q.W., M.K.B., J.D., B.D., N. Mavaddat, K. Michailidou, A.C.A., P.D.P.P., D.F.E.) and Oncology (C.L., P.A.H., C. Baynes, D.M.C., L.F., V.R., M. Shah, P.D.P.P., A.M.D., D.F.E.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (A. Campbell, D.J.P.), and the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology (D.J.P.), University of Edinburgh, the Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre (D.A.C., J.F.), and the Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh Medical School (A. Campbell, J.F.), Edinburgh, the Divisions of Informatics, Imaging, and Data Sciences (E.F.H.), Cancer Sciences (A. Howell), Population Health, Health Services Research, and Primary Care (A. Lophatananon, K. Muir), and Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), University of Manchester, the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Unit (E.F.H.) and the Nightingale Breast Screening Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital (E.F.H., H.I.), Academic Health Science Centre and North West Genomics Laboratory Hub, and the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), Manchester, the School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London (E.J.S.), the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (I.T.), and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford (I.T.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Human Genotyping-CEGEN Unit, Human Cancer Genetic Program (A.G.-N., M.R.A., N.Á., B.H., R.N.-T.), and the Human Genetics Group (V.F., A.O., J.B.), Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras (A.O., J.B.), Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital Universitario La Paz (M.P.Z.), and Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (M. de la Hoya), Madrid, the Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (A. Carracedo, M.G.-D.), and Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras y Centro Nacional de Genotipado, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (A. Carracedo), Santiago de Compostela, the Oncology and Genetics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Xerencia de Xestion Integrada de Vigo-Servizo Galeo de Saúde, Vigo (J.E.C.), and Servicio de Cirugía General y Especialidades, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo (J.I.A.P.) - all in Spain; the Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund (C. Wahlström, J.V., M.L., T. Törngren, Å.B., A.K.), the Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (C. Blomqvist), and the Departments of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (K.C., M.E., M.G., P. Hall, W.H., K.H.), Oncology, Södersjukhuset (P. Hall, S. Margolin), Molecular Medicine and Surgery (A. Lindblom), and Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (S. Margolin, C. Wendt), Karolinska Institutet, and the Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital (A. Lindblom), Stockholm - all in Sweden; the Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD (M.T.P., C.F., G.C.-T., A.B.S.), the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), the Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), and the Department of Clinical Pathology (M.C.S.), University of Melbourne, Anatomical Pathology, Alfred Hospital (C.M.), and the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (M.C.S.), Melbourne, VIC, and Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (G.G.G., M.C.S., R.L.M.) - all in Australia; the Division of Molecular Pathology (R.K., S. Cornelissen, M.K.S.), Family Cancer Clinic (F.B.L.H., L.E.K.), Department of Epidemiology (M.A.R.), and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology (M.K.S.), the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Division Laboratories, Pharmacy and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center, Utrecht (M.G.E.M.A.), the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (J.M.C., A.M.W.O.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (B.A.M.H.-G., A. Hollestelle, M.J.H.), Rotterdam, the Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (E.B.G.G.), the Departments of Human Genetics (I.M.M.L., M.P.G.V., P.D.), Clinical Genetics (C.J.A.), and Pathology (P.D.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (A.R.M.), and the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (J.C.O.) - all in the Netherlands; the Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute (B.D.), and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (T.A., S.J.C., X.R.Y., M.G.-C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (B.D.), and the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (R.M.V.D.), Boston; the Departments of Clinical Genetics (K.A.), Oncology (C. Blomqvist), and Obstetrics and Gynecology (H.N., M. Suvanto), Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, and the Unit of Clinical Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (P. Auvinen), the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oncology (P. Auvinen), the Translational Cancer Research Area (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology, and Forensic Medicine (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), University of Eastern Finland, and the Biobank of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital (V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), Kuopio - both in Finland; the N.N. Alexandrov Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Minsk, Belarus (N.N.A., N.V.B.); the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel (N.A.), the Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology (H. Becher) and Cancer Epidemiology Group (T.M., J.C.-C.), University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (M.W.B., P.A.F., L.H.) and Institute of Human Genetics (A.B.E.), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, Erlangen, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology (S.B., A. Jung, P.M.K., J.C.-C.), Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080 (B. Burwinkel, H.S.), Division of Pediatric Neurooncology (A.F.), and Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer (U.H., M.M., M.U.R., D.T.), German Cancer Research Center, Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer, University Women's Clinic Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg (B. Burwinkel, A.S., H.S.), Hopp Children's Cancer Center (A.F.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg (P.M.K.), and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital and German Cancer Research Center (A.S., C.S.), Heidelberg, the Department of Radiation Oncology (N.V.B., M. Bremer, H.C.) and the Gynecology Research Unit (N.V.B., T.D., P. Hillemanns, T.-W.P.-S., P.S.), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Münster, Münster (N.B.-M.), Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart (H. Brauch, W.-Y.L.), iFIT-Cluster of Excellence, University of Tübingen, and the German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, Partner Site Tübingen (H. Brauch), and the University of Tübingen (W.-Y.L.), Tübingen, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum (T.B.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (C.E.), Center for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (E.H., R.K.S.) and Center for Integrated Oncology (E.H., R.K.S.), Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn (Y.-D.K.), the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Munich, Campus Großhadern, Munich (A. Meindl), and the Institute of Pathology, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (T.R.) - all in Germany; the Gynecological Cancer Registry, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (P. Arveux), and the Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Team Exposome and Heredity, INSERM, University Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (E.C.-D., P.G., T. Truong) - both in France; the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (M. Bermisheva, E.K.), the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University (E.K., D.P., Y.V.), and the Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology (Y.V.), Ufa, Russia; the Department of Genetics and Pathology (K.B., A. Jakubowska, J. Lubiński, K.P.) and the Independent Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Diagnostics (A. Jakubowska), Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (S.E.B., B.G.N.), and the Department of Breast Surgery (H.F.), Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (S.E.B., B.G.N.) - both in Denmark; the Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) (B. Bonanni), the Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano (S. Manoukian), the Genome Diagnostics Program, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (P.P.), and the Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (P.R.), Milan; the Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet (A.-L.B.-D., G.I.G.A., V.N.K.), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (A.-L.B.-D., V.N.K.), Oslo; Medical Faculty, Universidad de La Sabana (I.B.), and the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department (F.G.) and Institute of Human Genetics (D.T.), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia; the Department of Internal Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah (N.J.C., M.J.M., J.A.W.), and the Intermountain Healthcare Biorepository and Department of Pathology, Intermountain Healthcare (M.H.C.), Salt Lake City; the David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles (P.A.F.), and Moores Cancer Center (M.G.-D., M.E.M.) and the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (M.E.M.), University of California San Diego, La Jolla; the Departments of Medical Oncology (V.G., D.M.) and Pathology (M.T.), University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, and the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (E.S.) - both in Greece; the Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital (G.G., I.L.A.), the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (A.M.M.) and Molecular Genetics (I.L.A.), University of Toronto, and the Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network (A.M.M.), Toronto, and the Genomics Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Québec City, QC (J.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Electron Microscopy and Molecular Pathology (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L.), the Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L., K. Michailidou), and the Biostatistics Unit (K. Michailidou), Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus; the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health (M. Hartman, R.M.V.D.) and the Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (R.M.V.D.), National University of Singapore, the Department of Surgery, National University Health System (M. Hartman, J. Li), and the Human Genetics Division, Genome Institute of Singapore (J. Li), Singapore; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia (W.K.H.), and the Breast Cancer Research Programme, Cancer Research Malaysia (W.K.H., P.S.N., S.-Y.Y., S.H.T.), Selangor, and the Breast Cancer Research Unit, Cancer Research Institute (N.A.M.T.), and the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (N.A.M.T., P.S.N., S.H.T.), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur - both in Malaysia; Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (M.J.K., N. Miller); the Department of Surgery, Daerim Saint Mary's Hospital (S.-W.K.), the Department of Surgery, Ulsan University College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center (J.W.L.), the Department of Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine and Soonchunhyang University Hospital (M.H.L.), Integrated Major in Innovative Medical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.K.P.), and the Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University (S.K.P.), Seoul, South Korea; the Department of Basic Sciences, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan (M.U.R.); and the National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.T.).

Background: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking.

Methods: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity.

Results: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (, , , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (, , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in and , odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in , , , , , and , odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in , , and were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For , , and , missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants.

Conclusions: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913948DOI Listing
February 2021

Lack of an association between gallstone disease and bilirubin levels with risk of colorectal cancer: a Mendelian randomisation analysis.

Br J Cancer 2021 Mar 7;124(6):1169-1174. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

Background: Epidemiological studies of the relationship between gallstone disease and circulating levels of bilirubin with risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) have been inconsistent. To address possible confounding and reverse causation, we examine the relationship between these potential risk factors and CRC using Mendelian randomisation (MR).

Methods: We used two-sample MR to examine the relationship between genetic liability to gallstone disease and circulating levels of bilirubin with CRC in 26,397 patients and 41,481 controls. We calculated the odds ratio per genetically predicted SD unit increase in log bilirubin levels (OR) for CRC and tested for a non-zero causal effect of gallstones on CRC. Sensitivity analysis was applied to identify violations of estimator assumptions.

Results: No association between either gallstone disease (P value = 0.60) or circulating levels of bilirubin (OR = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96-1.03, P value = 0.90) with CRC was shown.

Conclusions: Despite the large scale of this study, we found no evidence for a causal relationship between either circulating levels of bilirubin or gallstone disease with risk of developing CRC. While the magnitude of effect suggested by some observational studies can confidently be excluded, we cannot exclude the possibility of smaller effect sizes and non-linear relationships.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01211-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961009PMC
March 2021

The effect of family history on screening procedures and prognosis in breast cancer patients - Results of a large population-based case-control study.

Breast 2021 Feb 24;55:98-104. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Gynecology, Martinistraße 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The potential benefit of additional breast cancer screening examinations in moderate risk patients (patients with a history of breast cancer in one or two family members) remains unclear.

Methods: A large population-based case-control study on breast cancer in postmenopausal women in Germany recruited 2002-2005 (3813 cases and 7341 age-matched controls) was used to assess the association of family history with breast cancer risk. Analysis of family history, participation in screening procedures, and tumor size regarding prognosis in patients was based on follow-up data until 2015.

Results: A first degree family history of breast cancer was associated with higher breast cancer risk (OR 1.39, p < 0.001). Patients with a first degree family history of breast cancer were more likely to have had >10 mammograms (MG) (42.7% vs. 24.9%, p < 0.001) and showed a higher rate of imaging-detected tumors (MG or ultrasound) (45.8% vs. 31.9%, p < 0.001). A smaller tumor size at initial diagnosis (below 2 cm) was more likely in patients with a positive family history (OR 1.45, p < 0.001) and a higher number of MG (≥10 MG: OR 2.29). After accounting for tumor characteristics, mammogram regularity (HR 0.72, p < 0.001) and imaging-assisted tumor detection (HR 0.66, p < 0.001) were associated with better overall survival but not with a positive family history.

Discussion: Patients with a positive family history had a higher rate of imaging detected tumors with smaller size at initial diagnosis compared to patients without affected family members. Screening was associated with improved survival after a breast cancer diagnosis, irrespective of a positive family history.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2020.12.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782318PMC
February 2021

Adiposity, metabolites, and colorectal cancer risk: Mendelian randomization study.

BMC Med 2020 12 17;18(1):396. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood.

Methods: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models.

Results: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01855-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745469PMC
December 2020

A Combined Proteomics and Mendelian Randomization Approach to Investigate the Effects of Aspirin-Targeted Proteins on Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Mar 14;30(3):564-575. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

Background: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk.

Methods: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL ( = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium ( = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls).

Results: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively).

Conclusions: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis.

Impact: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086774PMC
March 2021

Comorbidity burden in long-term breast cancer survivors compared with a cohort of population-based controls from the MARIE study.

Cancer 2021 Apr 1;127(7):1154-1160. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The number of elderly cancer survivors is growing because of increasing survival rates. A high comorbidity burden in the elderly can affect their quality of life and survival. The aim of this study was to examine whether breast cancer survivors and population-based controls have a different comorbidity burden after long-term follow-up.

Methods: This study used data from a German breast cancer case-control study, which initially comprised 3813 breast cancer cases aged 50 to 74 years who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2005 and 7341 population-based controls. Participants were followed up in 2014/2016. A modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (mCCI) was calculated to quantify severe comorbidities. Negative binomial regression was performed to estimate rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between case-control status and mCCI (dependent variable) for the baseline population and for those who participated at follow-up, with adjustments made for relevant lifestyle factors.

Results: In total, 1925 cases and 3674 controls participated in the follow-up 12 years after recruitment. In the baseline population 35% had at least 1 comorbid condition.In long-term survivors this proportion was 52%. No difference was found in the mCCI between breast cancer cases and controls at baseline (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.11) or between long-term survivors of the 2 groups at baseline (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97-1.18) or at follow-up (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91-1.10).

Conclusions: The comorbidity burden of long-term breast cancer survivors and controls increased over time; however, it remained similar in both groups after 12 years of follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33363DOI Listing
April 2021

Whole blood DNA methylation aging markers predict colorectal cancer survival: a prospective cohort study.

Clin Epigenetics 2020 11 30;12(1):184. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 581, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Blood DNA methylation-based aging algorithms predict mortality in the general population. We investigated the prognostic value of five established DNA methylation aging algorithms for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: AgeAccelHorvath, AgeAccelHannum, DNAmMRscore, AgeAccelPheno and AgeAccelGrim were constructed using whole blood epi-genomic data from 2206 CRC patients. After a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 1079 deaths were documented, including 596 from CRC. Associations of the aging algorithms with survival outcomes were evaluated using the Cox regression and survival curves. Harrell's C-statistics were computed to investigate predictive performance.

Results: Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all-cause mortality for patients in the third compared to the first tertile were 1.66 (1.32, 2.09) for the DNAmMRscore, 1.35 (1.14, 1.59) for AgeAccelPheno and 1.65 (1.37, 2.00) for AgeAccelGrim, even after adjustment for age, sex and stage. AgeAccelHorvath and AgeAccelHannum were not associated with all-cause or CRC-specific mortality. In stage-specific analyses, associations were much stronger for patients with early or intermediate stage cancers (stages I, II and III) than for patients with metastatic (stage IV) cancers. Associations were weaker and less often statistically significant for CRC-specific mortality. Adding DNAmMRscore, AgeAccelPheno or AgeAccelGrim to models including age, sex and tumor stage improved predictive performance moderately.

Conclusions: DNAmMRscore, AgeAccelPheno and AgeAccelGrim could serve as non-invasive CRC prognostic biomarkers independent of other commonly used markers. Further research should aim for tailoring and refining such algorithms for CRC patients and to explore their value for enhanced prediction of treatment success and treatment decisions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-020-00977-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708179PMC
November 2020

Changes in alcohol consumption, body weight and physical activity among breast cancer survivors and population-based unaffected women in a prospective study.

Cancer Epidemiol 2021 02 19;70:101852. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Cancer Epidemiology Group, University Cancer Center Hamburg (UCCH), Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany; Department of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: It is unclear whether a breast cancer diagnosis affects health behaviour changes that occur with ageing. We aimed to compare long-term changes of alcohol consumption, body weight, and physical activity in women with breast cancer and in age-matched unaffected women.

Methods: We used data from 1,925 women with breast cancer and 3,473 unaffected women aged 50-74 years enrolled in the population-based case-control study MARIE (Mamma Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation) in 2002-2005, who also completed the follow-up in 2014-2016. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between breast cancer status and categories of change in alcohol consumption, weight and physical activity.

Results: After 11.6 years of follow-up, breast cancer survivors had significantly lower odds than unaffected women of increasing alcohol consumption from ≤10 to >10 g/day (adjusted OR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.35-0.65), but were more likely to experience a major weight change of ≥10 % compared to having stable weight (±<5 %) (OR for increase and decrease 1.32, 95 % CI 1.03-1.70 and 1.36, 95 % CI 1.05-1.77, resp.) and to decrease transport physical activity to below 2.5 h/week compared to maintaining the activity level (OR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.26-2.04). No significant group difference was found for changes in recreational physical activity.

Conclusion: Our data indicate that some long-term health behaviour changes can be attributed to a breast cancer diagnosis rather than ageing, suggesting that long-term medical care of breast cancer survivors could pay greater attention to weight control and sufficient physical activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101852DOI Listing
February 2021

External Validation of a Predictive Model for Acute Skin Radiation Toxicity in the REQUITE Breast Cohort.

Front Oncol 2020 30;10:575909. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Translational Radiobiology Group, Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Acute skin toxicity is a common and usually transient side-effect of breast radiotherapy although, if sufficiently severe, it can affect breast cosmesis, aftercare costs and the patient's quality-of-life. The aim of this study was to develop predictive models for acute skin toxicity using published risk factors and externally validate the models in patients recruited into the prospective multi-center REQUITE (validating pREdictive models and biomarkers of radiotherapy toxicity to reduce side-effects and improve QUalITy of lifE in cancer survivors) study. Patient and treatment-related risk factors significantly associated with acute breast radiation toxicity on multivariate analysis were identified in the literature. These predictors were used to develop risk models for acute erythema and acute desquamation (skin loss) in three Radiogenomics Consortium cohorts of patients treated by breast-conserving surgery and whole breast external beam radiotherapy ( = 2,031). The models were externally validated in the REQUITE breast cancer cohort ( = 2,057). The final risk model for acute erythema included BMI, breast size, hypo-fractionation, boost, tamoxifen use and smoking status. This model was validated in REQUITE with moderate discrimination (AUC 0.65), calibration and agreement between predicted and observed toxicity (Brier score 0.17). The risk model for acute desquamation, excluding the predictor tamoxifen use, failed to validate in the REQUITE cohort. While most published prediction research in the field has focused on model development, this study reports successful external validation of a predictive model using clinical risk factors for acute erythema following radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery. This model retained discriminatory power but will benefit from further re-calibration. A similar model to predict acute desquamation failed to validate in the REQUITE cohort. Future improvements and more accurate predictions are expected through the addition of genetic markers and application of other modeling and machine learning techniques.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.575909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664984PMC
October 2020