Publications by authors named "Jennifer Tarpinian"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nonlethal presentations of CYP26B1-related skeletal anomalies and multiple synostoses syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 09 23;185(9):2766-2775. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Retinoic acid exposures as well as defects in the retinoic acid-degrading enzyme CYP26B1 have teratogenic effects on both limb and craniofacial skeleton. An initial report of four individuals described a syndrome of fetal and infantile lethality with craniosynostosis and skeletal anomalies caused by homozygous pathogenic missense variants in CYP26B1. In contrast, a 22-year-old female was reported with a homozygous missense pathogenic variant in CYP26B1 with complex multisuture craniosynostosis and intellectual disability, suggesting that in some cases, biallelic pathogenic variants of CYP26B1 may be compatible with life. Here we describe four additional living individuals from two families with compound heterozygous pathogenic missense variants in CYP26B1. Structural assessment of these additional missense variants places them further from the catalytic site and supports a model consistent with milder nonlethal disease. In addition to previously reported findings of multisuture craniosynostosis, conductive hearing loss, joint contractures, long slender fingers, camptodactly, broad fingertips, and developmental delay/intellectual disability, skeletal imaging in our cases also revealed gracile long bones, gracile ribs, radioulnar synostosis, and carpal and/or tarsal fusions. These individuals broaden the phenotypic range of biallelic pathogenic variants in CYPB26B1 and most significantly clarify that mortality can range from perinatal lethality to survival into adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62387DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluation and classification of severity for 176 genes on an expanded carrier screening panel.

Prenat Diagn 2020 09 16;40(10):1246-1257. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Division of Medical Affairs, Myriad Women's Health, South San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Disease severity is important when considering genes for inclusion on reproductive expanded carrier screening (ECS) panels. We applied a validated and previously published algorithm that classifies diseases into four severity categories (mild, moderate, severe, and profound) to 176 genes screened by ECS. Disease traits defining severity categories in the algorithm were then mapped to four severity-related ECS panel design criteria cited by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG).

Methods: Eight genetic counselors (GCs) and four medical geneticists (MDs) applied the severity algorithm to subsets of 176 genes. MDs and GCs then determined by group consensus how each of these disease traits mapped to ACOG severity criteria, enabling determination of the number of ACOG severity criteria met by each gene.

Results: Upon consensus GC and MD application of the severity algorithm, 68 (39%) genes were classified as profound, 71 (40%) as severe, 36 (20%) as moderate, and one (1%) as mild. After mapping of disease traits to ACOG severity criteria, 170 out of 176 genes (96.6%) were found to meet at least one of the four criteria, 129 genes (73.3%) met at least two, 73 genes (41.5%) met at least three, and 17 genes (9.7%) met all four.

Conclusion: This study classified the severity of a large set of Mendelian genes by collaborative clinical expert application of a trait-based algorithm. Further, it operationalized difficult to interpret ACOG severity criteria via mapping of disease traits, thereby promoting consistency of ACOG criteria interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540025PMC
September 2020

Further delineation of the clinical spectrum of KAT6B disorders and allelic series of pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 08 19;22(8):1338-1347. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Genitopatellar syndrome and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome are caused by variants in the KAT6B gene and are part of a broad clinical spectrum called KAT6B disorders, whose variable expressivity is increasingly being recognized.

Methods: We herein present the phenotypes of 32 previously unreported individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of a KAT6B disorder, report 24 new pathogenic KAT6B variants, and review phenotypic information available on all published individuals with this condition. We also suggest a classification of clinical subtypes within the KAT6B disorder spectrum.

Results: We demonstrate that cerebral anomalies, optic nerve hypoplasia, neurobehavioral difficulties, and distal limb anomalies other than long thumbs and great toes, such as polydactyly, are more frequently observed than initially reported. Intestinal malrotation and its serious consequences can be present in affected individuals. Additionally, we identified four children with Pierre Robin sequence, four individuals who had increased nuchal translucency/cystic hygroma prenatally, and two fetuses with severe renal anomalies leading to renal failure. We also report an individual in which a pathogenic variant was inherited from a mildly affected parent.

Conclusion: Our work provides a comprehensive review and expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of KAT6B disorders that will assist clinicians in the assessment, counseling, and management of affected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0811-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737399PMC
August 2020

A Centralized Approach for Practicing Genomic Medicine.

Pediatrics 2020 03 26;145(3). Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Roberts Individualized Medical Genetics Center, Division of Human Genetics.

Next-generation sequencing has revolutionized the diagnostic process, making broadscale testing affordable and applicable to almost all specialties; however, there remain several challenges in its widespread implementation. Barriers such as lack of infrastructure or expertise within local health systems and complex result interpretation or counseling make it harder for frontline clinicians to incorporate genomic testing in their existing workflow. The general population is more informed and interested in pursuing genetic testing, and this has been coupled with the increasing accessibility of direct-to-consumer testing. As a result of these changes, primary care physicians and nongenetics specialty providers find themselves seeing patients for whom genetic testing would be beneficial but managing genetic test results that are out of their scope of practice. In this report, we present a practical and centralized approach to providing genomic services through an independent, enterprise-wide clinical service model. We present 4 years of clinical experience, with >3400 referrals, toward designing and implementing the clinical service, maximizing resources, identifying barriers, and improving patient care. We provide a framework that can be implemented at other institutions to support and integrate genomic services across the enterprise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-0855DOI Listing
March 2020

Missense Variants in the Histone Acetyltransferase Complex Component Gene TRRAP Cause Autism and Syndromic Intellectual Disability.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 03 28;104(3):530-541. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden.

Acetylation of the lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins plays a major role in regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. This process is controlled by histone acetyltransferases (HATs/KATs) found in multiprotein complexes that are recruited to chromatin by the scaffolding subunit transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (TRRAP). TRRAP is evolutionarily conserved and is among the top five genes intolerant to missense variation. Through an international collaboration, 17 distinct de novo or apparently de novo variants were identified in TRRAP in 24 individuals. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation was observed with two distinct clinical spectra. The first is a complex, multi-systemic syndrome associated with various malformations of the brain, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary system and characterized by a wide range of intellectual functioning; a number of affected individuals have intellectual disability (ID) and markedly impaired basic life functions. Individuals with this phenotype had missense variants clustering around the c.3127G>A p.(Ala1043Thr) variant identified in five individuals. The second spectrum manifested with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or ID and epilepsy. Facial dysmorphism was seen in both groups and included upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthus, telecanthus, a wide nasal bridge and ridge, a broad and smooth philtrum, and a thin upper lip. RNA sequencing analysis of skin fibroblasts derived from affected individuals skin fibroblasts showed significant changes in the expression of several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport. Thus, we describe here the clinical spectrum associated with TRRAP pathogenic missense variants, and we suggest a genotype-phenotype correlation useful for clinical evaluation of the pathogenicity of the variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407527PMC
March 2019

Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in seven patients with de novo NSD1 mutations.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 04 4;179(4):542-551. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Division of Human Genetics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by distinctive facial features and intellectual disability caused by haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been observed, with major anomalies seen more frequently in patients with 5q35 deletions than those with point mutations in NSD1. Though endocrine features have rarely been described, transient hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HI) of the neonatal period has been reported as an uncommon presentation of Sotos syndrome. Eight cases of 5q35 deletions and one patient with an intragenic NSD1 mutation with transient HI have been reported. Here, we describe seven individuals with HI caused by NSD1 gene mutations with three having persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. These patients with persistent HI and Sotos syndrome caused by NSD1 mutations, further dispel the hypothesis that HI is due to the deletion of other genes in the deleted 5q35 region. These patients emphasize that NSD1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to cause HI, and suggest that Sotos syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with neonatal HI. Lastly, these patients help extend the phenotypic spectrum of Sotos syndrome to include HI as a significant feature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454923PMC
April 2019

Expanding the Spectrum of BAF-Related Disorders: De Novo Variants in SMARCC2 Cause a Syndrome with Intellectual Disability and Developmental Delay.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 01 20;104(1):164-178. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GD Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

SMARCC2 (BAF170) is one of the invariable core subunits of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling BAF (BRG1-associated factor) complex and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and corticogenesis. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding other components of the BAF complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. Despite its significant biological role, variants in SMARCC2 have not been directly associated with human disease previously. Using whole-exome sequencing and a web-based gene-matching program, we identified 15 individuals with variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and growth retardation harboring one of 13 heterozygous variants in SMARCC2, most of them novel and proven de novo. The clinical presentation overlaps with intellectual disability syndromes associated with other BAF subunits, such as Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes and includes prominent speech impairment, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features such as hypertrichosis, thick eyebrows, thin upper lip vermilion, and upturned nose. Nine out of the fifteen individuals harbor variants in the highly conserved SMARCC2 DNA-interacting domains (SANT and SWIRM) and present with a more severe phenotype. Two of these individuals present cardiac abnormalities. Transcriptomic analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals highlights a group of differentially expressed genes with possible roles in regulation of neuronal development and function, namely H19, SCRG1, RELN, and CACNB4. Our findings suggest a novel SMARCC2-related syndrome that overlaps with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variants in BAF-complex subunits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323608PMC
January 2019

Automated Clinical Exome Reanalysis Reveals Novel Diagnoses.

J Mol Diagn 2019 01;21(1):38-48

Division of Genomic Diagnostics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Clinical exome sequencing (CES) has a reported diagnostic yield of 20% to 30% for most clinical indications. The ongoing discovery of novel gene-disease and variant-disease associations are expected to increase the diagnostic yield of CES. Performing systematic reanalysis of previously nondiagnostic CES samples represents a significant challenge for clinical laboratories. Here, we present the results of a novel automated reanalysis methodology applied to 300 CES samples initially analyzed between June 2014 and September 2016. Application of our reanalysis methodology reduced reanalysis variant analysis burden by >93% and correctly captured 70 of 70 previously identified diagnostic variants among 60 samples with previously identified diagnoses. Notably, reanalysis of 240 initially nondiagnostic samples using information available on July 1, 2017, revealed 38 novel diagnoses, representing a 15.8% increase in diagnostic yield. Modeling monthly iterative reanalysis of 240 nondiagnostic samples revealed a diagnostic rate of 0.57% of samples per month. Modeling the workload required for monthly iterative reanalysis of nondiagnostic samples revealed a variant analysis burden of approximately 5 variants/month for proband-only and approximately 0.5 variants/month for trio samples. Approximately 45% of samples required evaluation during each monthly interval, and 61.3% of samples were reevaluated across three consecutive reanalyses. In sum, automated reanalysis methods can facilitate efficient reevaluation of nondiagnostic samples using up-to-date literature and can provide significant value to clinical laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2018.07.008DOI Listing
January 2019

PCDH19-related epilepsy in a male with Klinefelter syndrome: Additional evidence supporting PCDH19 cellular interference disease mechanism.

Epilepsy Res 2018 09 18;145:89-92. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Division of Genomic Diagnostics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Heterozygous de novo or inherited pathogenic variants in the PCDH19 gene cause a spectrum of neurodevelopmental features including developmental delay and seizures. PCDH19 epilepsy was previously known as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females", since the condition almost exclusively affects females. It is hypothesized that the co-existence of two populations of neurons, some with and some without PCDH19 protein expression, results in pathologically abnormal interactions between these neurons, a mechanism also referred to as cellular interference. Consequently, PCDH19-related epilepsies are inherited in an atypical X-linked pattern, such that hemizygous, non-mosaic, 46,XY males are typically unaffected, while individuals with a disease-causing PCDH19 variant, mainly heterozygous females and mosaic males, are affected. As a corollary to this hypothesis, an individual with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (47,XXY) who has a heterozygous disease-causing PCDH19 variant should develop PCDH19-related epilepsy. Here, we report such evidence: - a male child with KS and PCDH19-related epilepsy - supporting the PCDH19 cellular interference disease hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2018.06.008DOI Listing
September 2018

A Recurrent De Novo PACS2 Heterozygous Missense Variant Causes Neonatal-Onset Developmental Epileptic Encephalopathy, Facial Dysmorphism, and Cerebellar Dysgenesis.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 05 12;102(5):995-1007. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, 9700 RB Groningen, the Netherlands.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986694PMC
May 2018

AUDIOME: a tiered exome sequencing-based comprehensive gene panel for the diagnosis of heterogeneous nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss.

Genet Med 2018 12 29;20(12):1600-1608. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Division of Genomic Diagnostics, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose: Hereditary hearing loss is highly heterogeneous. To keep up with rapidly emerging disease-causing genes, we developed the AUDIOME test for nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) using an exome sequencing (ES) platform and targeted analysis for the curated genes.

Methods: A tiered strategy was implemented for this test. Tier 1 includes combined Sanger and targeted deletion analyses of the two most common NSHL genes and two mitochondrial genes. Nondiagnostic tier 1 cases are subjected to ES and array followed by targeted analysis of the remaining AUDIOME genes.

Results: ES resulted in good coverage of the selected genes with 98.24% of targeted bases at >15 ×. A fill-in strategy was developed for the poorly covered regions, which generally fell within GC-rich or highly homologous regions. Prospective testing of 33 patients with NSHL revealed a diagnosis in 11 (33%) and a possible diagnosis in 8 cases (24.2%). Among those, 10 individuals had variants in tier 1 genes. The ES data in the remaining nondiagnostic cases are readily available for further analysis.

Conclusion: The tiered and ES-based test provides an efficient and cost-effective diagnostic strategy for NSHL, with the potential to reflex to full exome to identify causal changes outside of the AUDIOME test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2018.48DOI Listing
December 2018

De novo variants in Myelin regulatory factor (MYRF) as candidates of a new syndrome of cardiac and urogenital anomalies.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 04 15;176(4):969-972. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Division of Human Genetics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Myelin Regulatory Factor (MYRF) is a transcription factor that has previously been associated with the control of the expression of myelin-related genes. However, it is highly expressed in human tissues and mouse embryonic tissues outside the nervous system such as the stomach, lung, and small intestine. It has not previously been reported as a cause of any Mendelian disease. We report here two males with Scimitar syndrome [MIM 106700], and other features including penoscrotal hypospadias, cryptorchidism, pulmonary hypoplasia, tracheal anomalies, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, cleft spleen, thymic involution, and thyroid fibrosis. Gross neurologic functioning appears to be within normal limits. In both individuals a de novo variant in MYRF was identified using exome sequencing. Neither variant is found in gnomAD. Heterozygous variants in MYRF should be considered in patients with variants of Scimitar syndrome and urogenital anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867271PMC
April 2018

A Recurrent De Novo Variant in NACC1 Causes a Syndrome Characterized by Infantile Epilepsy, Cataracts, and Profound Developmental Delay.

Am J Hum Genet 2017 Feb 26;100(2):343-351. Epub 2017 Jan 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has increasingly enabled new pathogenic gene variant identification for undiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders and provided insights into both gene function and disease biology. Here, we describe seven children with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by microcephaly, profound developmental delays and/or intellectual disability, cataracts, severe epilepsy including infantile spasms, irritability, failure to thrive, and stereotypic hand movements. Brain imaging in these individuals reveals delay in myelination and cerebral atrophy. We observe an identical recurrent de novo heterozygous c.892C>T (p.Arg298Trp) variant in the nucleus accumbens associated 1 (NACC1) gene in seven affected individuals. One of the seven individuals is mosaic for this variant. NACC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor implicated in gene expression and has not previously been associated with germline disorders. The probability of finding the same missense NACC1 variant by chance in 7 out of 17,228 individuals who underwent WES for diagnoses of neurodevelopmental phenotypes is extremely small and achieves genome-wide significance (p = 1.25 × 10). Selective constraint against missense variants in NACC1 makes this excess of an identical missense variant in all seven individuals more remarkable. Our findings are consistent with a germline recurrent mutational hotspot associated with an allele-specific neurodevelopmental phenotype in NACC1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5294886PMC
February 2017
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