Publications by authors named "Jennifer Scodes"

39 Publications

Comparison of counseling methods to promote employment for HIV+ ADULTS.

Work 2021 ;69(3):981-995

Department of Mental Health Data Science New York State Psychiatric Institute New York, NY, USA.

Background: Despite improved health and during a strong job market (pre-COVID-19), a substantial proportion of HIV+ adults remained unemployed. This study sought to provide time-limited counseling to promote employment goals.

Objective: To determine whether behavioral activation (BA) or supportive counseling (SC), would be more effective in promoting vocational goals (full or part-time, paid or volunteer).

Methods: The study included two groups: those with clinically significant fatigue, who were first treated with armodafinil. Once their fatigue diminished, they were enrolled in the counseling program. Those without fatigue were enrolled directly. Both BA and SC interventions were manualized, consisting of eight individual sessions plus a follow-up.

Results: 116 participants entered counseling, including 87 assigned to BA and 29 to SC. Of these, 79 completed counseling or found a job by session eight. By follow-up, 51%of BA versus 41%of SC participants had found jobs, a non-significant difference either clinically or statistically.

Conclusions: Multiple issues contributed to difficulty in employment, including gaps in resumes, loss of contact with former colleagues, and uncertainty about career direction. Ongoing barriers included substance use, housing instability, ambivalence about forfeiting government benefits, as well as inadequately treated depression. Success in employment for about half of participants is, in this context, a reasonable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-213529DOI Listing
July 2021

Sublingual Buprenorphine-Naloxone Compared With Injection Naltrexone for Opioid Use Disorder: Potential Utility of Patient Characteristics in Guiding Choice of Treatment.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 Jul 25;178(7):660-671. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (Nunes, Scodes, Campbell); Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York (Pavlicova); and New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York (Lee, Novo, Rotrosen).

Objective: Sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone and extended-release injection naltrexone are effective treatments, with distinct mechanisms, for opioid use disorder. The authors examined whether patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were associated with better response to one medication or the other.

Methods: In a multisite 24-week randomized comparative-effectiveness trial of assignment to buprenorphine-naloxone (N=287) compared with extended-release naltrexone (N=283) comprising inpatients planning to initiate medication treatment for opioid use disorder, 50 demographic and clinical characteristics were examined as moderators of the effect of medication assignment on relapse to regular opioid use and failure to initiate medication. Moderator-by-medication interactions were estimated using logistic regression with correction for multiple testing.

Results: In the intent-to-treat sample, patients who reported being homeless had a lower relapse rate if they were assigned to receive extended-release naltrexone (51.6%) compared with buprenorphine-naloxone (70.4%) (odds ratio=0.45, 95% CI=0.22, 0.90); patients who were not homeless had a higher relapse rate if they were assigned to extended-release naltrexone (70.9%) compared with buprenorphine-naloxone (53.1%) (odds ratio=2.15, 95% CI=1.44, 3.21). In the subsample of patients who initiated medication, the interaction was not significant, with a similar pattern of lower relapse with extended-release naltrexone (41.4%) compared with buprenorphine (68.6%) among homeless patients (odds ratio=0.32, 95% CI=0.15, 0.68) but less difference among those not homeless (extended-release naltrexone, 57.2%; buprenorphine, 52.0%; odds ratio=1.24, 95% CI=0.80, 1.90). For failure to initiate medication, moderators were stated preference for medication (failure was less likely if the patient was assigned to the medication preferred), parole and probation status (fewer failures with extended-release naltrexone for those on parole or probation), and presence of pain and timing of randomization (more failure with extended-release naltrexone for patients endorsing moderate to severe pain and randomized early while still undergoing medically managed withdrawal).

Conclusions: Among patients with opioid use disorder admitted to inpatient treatment, homelessness, parole and probation status, medication preference, and factors likely to influence tolerability of medication initiation may be important in matching patients to buprenorphine or extended-release naltrexone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20060816DOI Listing
July 2021

Reductions in tobacco use in naltrexone, relative to buprenorphine-maintained individuals with opioid use disorder: Secondary analysis from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 May 21;130:108489. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, One Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Background: Smoking prevalence in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) is over 80%. Research suggests that opioid use significantly increases smoking, which could account for the strikingly low smoking-cessation rates observed in both methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained patients, even with the use of first-line smoking-cessation interventions. If opioids present a barrier to smoking-cessation, then better smoking outcomes should be observed in OUD patients treated with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, an opioid antagonist) compared to those receiving buprenorphine (BUP-NX, a partial opioid agonist).

Methods: The current study is a secondary analysis of a 24-week, multi-site, open-label, randomized clinical trial conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network comparing the effectiveness of XR-NTX vs. BUP-NX for adults with OUD. Longitudinal mixed effects models were used to determine if there was a significant reduction in cigarette use among daily smokers successfully inducted to treatment (n = 373) and a subset of those who completed treatment (n = 169).

Results: Among daily smokers inducted onto OUD medication, those in the XR-NTX group smoked fewer cigarettes per day (M = 11.36, SE = 0.62) relative to smokers in the BUP-NX group (M = 13.33, SE = 0.58) across all study visits, (b (SE) = -1.97 (0.55), p < .01). Results were similar for the treatment completers.

Conclusions: OUD patients treated with XR-NTX reduced cigarette use more than those treated with BUP-NX, suggesting that XR-NTX in combination with other smoking cessation interventions might be a better choice for OUD smokers interested in reducing their tobacco use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108489DOI Listing
May 2021

Naturalistic follow-up after a trial of medications for opioid use disorder: Medication status, opioid use, and relapse.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 30;131:108447. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, United States of America. Electronic address:

Aim: This report examined naturalistic opioid use outcomes and utilization of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) 36 weeks post-randomization in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) Extended-Release Naltrexone (XR-NTX) versus Buprenorphine-Naloxone (BUP-NX) for Opioid Treatment trial (CTN-0051, X:BOT).

Design: X:BOT was a multisite, randomized, 24-week comparative effectiveness trial of BUP-NX (N = 287) and XR-NTX (N = 283). Study medications were discontinued following treatment completion, relapse, or dropout. Participants were encouraged to continue MOUD. This report examined opioid use outcomes in 428 (75%) of the 570 participants who attended the 36-week follow-up visit.

Setting And Participants: Adults with opioid use disorder recruited from 8 community treatment programs across the United States.

Measurements: Outcomes included medication status (on/off MOUD), type of MOUD (BUP-NX, XR-NTX, or methadone), abstinence from non-prescribed opioids, opioid use days, relapse, and other substance use 30 days prior to the 36-week visit. Relapse was defined as opioid use for 4 consecutive weeks or 7 consecutive days in the past month. Baseline and clinical variables included opioid use severity, intravenous drug use, study medication assignment, and induction status.

Findings: Of the 428 participants who completed the 36-week visit, 225 (53%) of participants were receiving MOUD and 203 (47%) were not. Compared to those off medication, participants on medication had fewer opioid use days (4.4 days (SD 9.0) versus 9.8 days (SD 12.1)), fewer met relapse criteria (37 (16.4%) versus 79 (38.9%)), and reported less stimulant use (34 (15.2%) versus 56 (27.7%)) and sedative use (14 (6.3%) versus 31 (15.3%)). There was no difference in abstinence rates between those on or off MOUD. A greater proportion of participants on XR-NTX (47 (53.4%) of 88 participants) were abstinent from non-prescribed opioids compared to those on buprenorphine (28 (23.3%) of 120 participants).

Conclusions: Naturalistic outcomes data showed that despite potential barriers to continuing treatment in the community, about half of individuals were on opioid use disorder pharmacotherapy at follow-up and those on medication generally had better outcomes. Future research should explore barriers and facilitators to treatment retention in community settings; and developing interventions tailored to improve treatment engagement and adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108447DOI Listing
April 2021

Maximizing remission from cognitive-behavioral therapy in medicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Behav Res Ther 2021 Aug 29;143:103890. Epub 2021 May 29.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Practice guidelines for adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recommend augmenting serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) with exposure and ritual prevention (EX/RP). However, fewer than half of patients remit after a standard 17-session EX/RP course. We studied whether extending the course increased overall remission rates and which patient factors predicted remission. Participants were 137 adults with clinically significant OCD (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale [Y-BOCS] score ≥18) despite an adequate SRI trial (≥12 weeks). Continuing their SRI, patients received 17 sessions of twice-weekly EX/RP (standard course). Patients who did not remit (Y-BOCS ≤12) received up to 8 additional sessions (extended course). Of 137 entrants, 123 completed treatment: 49 (35.8%) remitted with the standard course and another 46 (33.6%) with the extended course. Poorer patient homework adherence, more Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) traits, and the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66MET genotype were associated with lower odds of standard course remission. Only homework adherence differentiated non-remitters from extended course remitters. Extending the EX/RP course from 17 to 25 sessions enabled many (69.3%) OCD patients on SRIs to achieve remission. Although behavioral (patient homework adherence), psychological (OCPD traits), and biological (BDNF genotype) factors influenced odds of EX/RP remission, homework adherence was the most potent patient factor overall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2021.103890DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241471PMC
August 2021

Examination of Correlates of OUD Outcomes in Young Adults: Secondary Analysis From the XBOT Trial.

Am J Addict 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York.

Background And Objectives: Opioid use disorder (OUD) treatment outcomes are poorer for young adults than older adults. Developmental differences are broadly implicated, but particular vulnerability factor interactions are poorly understood. This study sought to identify moderators of OUD relapse between age groups.

Methods: This secondary analysis compared young adults (18-25) to older adults (26+) from a comparative effectiveness trial ("XBOT") that randomized (N = 570) participants to extended-release naltrexone or sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone. We explored the relationship between 25 prespecified patient baseline characteristics and relapse to regular opioid use by age group and treatment condition, using logistic regression.

Results: Young adults (n = 111) had higher rates of 24-week relapse than older adults (n = 459) (70.3% vs 58.8%) and differed on a number of specific characteristics, including more smokers, more intravenous opioid use, and more cannabis use. No significant moderators predicted relapse, in either three-way or two-way interactions.

Conclusions And Scientific Significance: No baseline factors were identified as moderating the relationship between age group and opioid relapse, nor any interactions between baseline characteristics, age group, and treatment condition to predict opioid relapse. Poorer treatment outcomes for young adults are likely associated with multiple developmental vulnerabilities rather than any single predominant factor. Although not reaching significance, several characteristics (using heroin, smoking tobacco, high levels of depression/anxiety, or treatment because of family/friends) showed higher odds ratio point estimates for relapse in young adults than older adults. This is the first study to explore moderators of worse OUD treatment outcomes in young adults, highlighting the need to identify predictor variables that could inform treatment enhancements. (Am J Addict 2021;00:1-12).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.13176DOI Listing
June 2021

Predictors of Persistent Symptoms in People in Coordinated Specialty Care Services for Early Psychosis in New York State.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 Jun 2:appips202000821. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City (Zambrano, Marino, Nossel, Bello, Ngo, Dixon); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City (Scodes, Marino, Nossel, Bello, Ngo, Dixon); Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City (van der Ven); School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands (van der Ven).

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of persistent transdiagnostic symptoms in the first year of enrollment in OnTrackNY, a coordinated specialty care (CSC) program for individuals with recent-onset nonaffective psychosis.

Methods: Three groups were defined by using the Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Centers Global Assessment of Functioning symptom subscale: persistently symptomatic, intermittent, and improving to moderate. The authors compared groups on baseline demographic characteristics, family and living situation, clinical measures, and pathways to care.

Results: Of 1,129 eligible participants, 12% were persistently symptomatic through follow-up. Being medication nonadherent, being homeless, having a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and having a longer duration between symptom onset and program enrollment were predictive of persistent symptoms during the first year of CSC.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that despite intensive treatment, severe symptoms in young people with psychosis may persist because of economic barriers, treatment delays, and lack of stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.202000821DOI Listing
June 2021

Association between methadone or buprenorphine use during medically supervised opioid withdrawal and extended-release injectable naltrexone induction failure.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 05 16;124:108292. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, United States of America.

Background: Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid use disorder, but induction from active opioid use is a challenge as individuals must complete detoxification before induction. We aimed to determine whether use of methadone or buprenorphine, long acting agonist opioids commonly used for detoxification, were associated with decreased likelihood of induction onto XR-NTX.

Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of a large open-label randomized trial of buprenorphine versus XR-NTX for treatment of individuals with opioid use disorder recruited from eight short term residential (detoxification) units. This analysis only included individuals randomized to the XR-NTX arm of the trial (N = 283). The method of detoxification varied according to usual practices at each inpatient program. Logistic regression models estimating the log-odds of induction onto XR-NTX were fit, with detoxification regimen received as the predictor.

Results: In the unadjusted logistic regression model, detoxification drug received (either methadone or buprenorphine) was significantly associated with decreased likelihood of induction onto XR-NTX compared to receiving non-opioid detoxification (Overall: P < 0.001); buprenorphine vs non-opioid detoxification: OR (95% CI) = 0.32 (0.15-0.67); methadone vs non-opioid detoxification: OR (95% CI) = 0.23 (0.11-0.46). After controlling for site as a random effect, the association of detoxification drug with induction success lost statistical significance.

Conclusions: Use of agonist medication during detoxification was associated with XR-NTX induction failure. Medication choice was determined by each site's clinical practice and therefore this association could not be separated from other site level variables.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02032433.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsat.2021.108292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004552PMC
May 2021

Clients' Preferences for Family Involvement and Subsequent Family Contact Patterns Within OnTrackNY Early Psychosis Services.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 04 3;72(4):399-407. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, University of South Florida, Tampa (Jones); Division of Behavioral Health Services and Policies, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City (Basaraba, Piscitelli, Jewell, Nossel, Bello, Mascayano, Scodes, Marino, Wall, Dixon). Editor Emeritus Howard H. Goldman, M.D., Ph.D., served as decision editor on the manuscript.

Objective: Little is known about clients' preferences for family involvement and subsequent family contact in naturalistic, community-based coordinated specialty care (CSC) settings. The study's primary goal was to characterize clients' preferences and longitudinal patterns of family contact with providers across the OnTrackNY network in New York.

Methods: Clinical administrative data collected at 3-month intervals and spanning 21 OnTrackNY CSC sites were used to analyze the preferences of 761 clients at baseline (unconditional involvement, conditional involvement, or no involvement) and patterns of family contact with program staff (always, sometimes, never, or early discharge) and their correlates during the initial 12-month service period. Data from clients discharged before 12 months were included for comparison.

Results: At baseline, most clients requested some form of family involvement (unconditional, 59%; conditional, 35%; and none, 6%). Within each 3-month assessment period, rates of family contact ranged from 73% to 84%. Variables associated with both client preferences and contact patterns included baseline insurance status, housing status, race, frequency of family contact, and employment. Clients' preferences for no or conditional family involvement were associated with higher rates of early discharge (i.e., before 1 year).

Conclusions: Structuring family involvement around clients' preferences did not appear to negatively affect family contact, and for some clients, it seemed to bolster such contact. Additional mixed-methods research is needed to deepen the understanding of the contexts and reasoning underlying both client preferences for family involvement and subsequent levels of family contact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.202000241DOI Listing
April 2021

The World Health Organization Risk Drinking Levels Measure of Alcohol Consumption: Prevalence and Health Correlates in Nationally Representative Surveys of U.S. Adults, 2001-2002 and 2012-2013.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 06 21;178(6):548-559. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (Shmulewitz, Aharonovich, Wall, Hasin); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York (Shmulewitz, Aharonovich, Scodes, Wall, Hasin); Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque (Witkiewitz); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (Anton); Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Kranzler); Crescenz Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia (Kranzler); Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany (Mann); Department of Biostatistics (Wall) and Department of Epidemiology (Hasin), Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York.

Objective: Little is known about change over time in the prevalence of World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels (very high, high, moderate, low) and their association with health conditions, overall and by gender. The authors used two sets of nationally representative U.S. survey data to determine whether changes over time varied by gender and to examine whether health conditions related to alcohol were associated with WHO risk drinking level within each survey, and whether these associations differed by gender.

Methods: Data on current drinkers from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N=26,655) and the 2012-2013 NESARC-III (N=25,659) were analyzed using logistic regression. Prevalence differences between surveys were estimated for each drinking level overall and by gender. Within each survey, prevalence differences by WHO risk drinking level were estimated for alcohol use disorder (AUD), drug use disorders, functional impairment, liver disease, and depressive and anxiety disorders.

Results: In the 2012-2013 survey, the prevalences of moderate, high, and very high risk drinking were 5.9%, 3.2%, and 3.5%, respectively, representing significant increases from the prevalences in the 2001-2002 survey, which were 1.0%, 0.6%, and 0.9%, respectively. The increase for very high risk drinking among men (0.5%) was smaller than the increase among women (1.4%). Within both surveys, compared with low risk, health conditions were significantly associated with very high risk (range of prevalence differences, 2.2%-57.8%), high risk (2.6%-41.3%), and moderate risk (0.6%-29.8%) drinking. Associations were similar by gender, except that there were stronger effects for AUD in men and for functional impairment and depressive and anxiety disorders in women.

Conclusions: The increase in potentially problematic drinking levels among U.S. adults emphasizes the need for better prevention and treatment strategies. The study results support the validity of the WHO risk drinking levels, which show clinical utility as nonabstinent drinking reduction treatment goals. Such goals could engage more people in treatment, improving public health by decreasing personal and societal consequences of risk drinking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20050610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222066PMC
June 2021

The Impact of Aerobic Training on Cardiovascular Reactivity to and Recovery From Psychological and Orthostatic Challenge.

Psychosom Med 2021 Feb-Mar 01;83(2):125-137

From the Division of Behavioral Medicine, Department of Psychiatry (Sloan, Lauriola, McIntyre), Division of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry (Shapiro), Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health (Pavlicova), Columbia University Irving Medical Center; and Division of Mental Health Data Science (Choi, Choo, Scodes) and Behavioral and Psychosomatic Medicine, New York State Psychiatric Institute (Sloan), New York, New York.

Objective: Elevated cardiovascular reactivity to, and reduced recovery from, challenging events may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, and exercise training may reduce this reactivity. However, in a randomized controlled trial of aerobic versus strength training in sedentary, healthy young adults, we found no training group differences in reactivity or recovery. Because strength training also may have a reactivity-reducing effect, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from another trial, this time with a wait-list control condition.

Methods: One hundred nineteen healthy, young, sedentary adults were randomized to a 12-week aerobic training program or wait-list control. Before (T1) and after (T2) training and after 4 weeks of sedentary deconditioning (T3), we measured heart rate (HR), heart rate variability, and blood pressure at rest and in response to and recovery from psychological and orthostatic challenge. Data were analyzed using a group (aerobic versus wait-list) by session (T1, T2, and deconditioning) and by period (baseline, psychological challenge, recovery, standing) three-way analysis of variance with prespecified contrasts.

Results: Aerobic capacity significantly increased at T2 and decreased at T3 only in the aerobic training group. The groups did not differ on HR, heart rate variability, or blood pressure reactivity to or recovery from challenge. Without baseline adjustment, there were no significant treatment differences in response to challenges. With baseline adjustment, there were significant treatment by session effects for HR (Cohen d = 0.54, p = .002), systolic blood pressure (d = 0.44, p = .014), diastolic blood pressure (d = 0.74, p = .002), and root mean squared successive difference (d = 0.48, p = .006) reactivity from T1 to T2 only for orthostatic challenge: at T2, reactivity in the aerobic group was nonsignificantly reduced, compared with T1. In the wait-list group, reactivity significantly increased after T1.

Conclusions: This study raises further doubt about attenuation of cardiovascular reactivity or enhancement of recovery as a cardioprotective mechanism of aerobic exercise training.Clinical Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT01335737.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858227PMC
January 2022

Design of a Payment Decision-Support Tool for Coordinated Specialty Care for Early Psychosis.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 02 3;72(2):180-185. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Population Health Sciences (Bao, Jeng, Papp, Ancker) and Department of Psychiatry (Bao), Weill Cornell Medicine, New York City; Department of Population Health Science and Policy and Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City (Li); New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City (Scodes, Humensky, Wall, Pincus, Smith, Dixon); Department of Psychiatry, Irving Medical Center (Scodes, Humensky, Wall, Pincus, Smith, Dixon), and Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health (Wall), Columbia University, New York City; Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College, City University of New York, New York City (Lee).

A strengthened evidence base and earmarked federal funding have spurred the implementation of coordinated specialty care (CSC) for people experiencing early psychosis. However, existing funding mechanisms are insufficient and unsustainable to support population-wide deployment of CSC. This article describes the design framework of an innovative payment model for CSC that includes a bundled case rate payment and an optional outcome-based payment. To assist CSC payer and provider organizations in designing payment systems tailored to local preferences and circumstances, the research team is developing a decision-support tool that allows users to define design choices and provide input. The authors document the analytical algorithms underlying the tool and discuss how it could be further developed or expanded for CSC and other behavioral health interventions that feature an interdisciplinary team of clinicians and nonclinical professionals, public education and outreach, patient centeredness, and a recovery orientation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.202000129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317229PMC
February 2021

OnTrackNY's learning healthcare system.

J Clin Transl Sci 2020 Apr 6;4(4):301-306. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Division of Behavioral Health Services and Policy Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.

Worldwide, early intervention services for young people with recent-onset psychosis have been associated with improvements in outcomes, including reductions in hospitalization, symptoms, and improvements in treatment engagement and work/school participation. States have received federal mental health block grant funding to implement team-based, multi-element, evidence-based early intervention services, now called coordinated specialty care (CSC) in the USA. New York State's CSC program, OnTrackNY, has grown into a 23-site, statewide network, serving over 1800 individuals since its 2013 inception. A state-supported intermediary organization, OnTrackCentral, has overseen the growth of OnTrackNY. OnTrackNY has been committed to quality improvement since its inception. In 2019, OnTrackNY was awarded a regional hub within the National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored Early Psychosis Intervention Network (EPINET). The participation in the national EPINET initiative reframes and expands OnTrackNY's quality improvement activities. The national EPINET initiative aims to develop a learning healthcare system (LHS); OnTrackNY's participation will facilitate the development of infrastructure, including a systematic approach to facilitating stakeholder input and enhancing the data and informatics infrastructure to promote quality improvement. Additionally, this infrastructure will support practice-based research to improve care. The investment of the EPINET network to build regional and national LHSs will accelerate innovations to improve quality of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cts.2020.35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7681143PMC
April 2020

Sociodemographic, clinical and help-seeking characteristics of homeless young people with recent onset of psychosis enrolled in specialized early intervention services.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2021 Aug 2;15(4):1044-1050. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York, USA.

Aim: To examine differences in demographic, clinical, social, functional and help-seeking characteristics of homeless vs housed individuals enrolled in specialized early intervention teams in the United States.

Methods: Participants comprised 1349 individuals enrolled across 21 teams. Teams report individual-level data including homelessness status at admission. Bivariate differences between homeless and housed participants were analysed using Wilcoxon-rank, chi-square, Fisher-exact and t tests, as appropriate.

Results: Approximately 5% of participants were homeless at admission. Homeless participants were less likely to be enrolled in school and/or employed (12.2% vs 43.4%); to have more involvement in the legal system (23.0% vs 6.2%); and to have had a more restrictive pathway to care, than housed participants.

Conclusions: Homeless young people with recent-onset psychosis have a substantially greater need for a diversity of services for psychosocial needs. Homeless individuals may also have a more adverse pathway to care and directed outreach to engage this population may be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.13028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237376PMC
August 2021

Young Adults Have Worse Outcomes Than Older Adults: Secondary Analysis of a Medication Trial for Opioid Use Disorder.

J Adolesc Health 2020 12 29;67(6):778-785. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York.

Purpose: Young adults are disproportionately affected by the current opioid crisis. Although medications for opioid use disorder are broadly effective, with reductions in morbidity and mortality, the particular effectiveness of medications for opioid use disorder among young adults is less well understood.

Methods: This secondary analysis compared young adults (aged 18-25 years) with older adults (aged ≥26 years) in a large comparative effectiveness trial ("XBOT") that randomized subjects to extended-release naltrexone or sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone for 6 months. Opioid relapse was defined by opioid use over four consecutive weeks or seven consecutive days, using urine testing and self-report.

Results: Among subjects in the intention-to-treat sample (n = 570, all randomized participants), a main effect of age group was found, with higher relapse rates among young adults (70.3%) compared with older adults (58.2%), with an odds ratio of 1.72 (95% confidence interval = 1.08-2.70), p = .02. In the per-protocol sample (n = 474, only participants who started medication), relapse rates were higher among young adults (66.3%) compared with older adults (50.8%), with an odds ratio of 1.91 (95% confidence interval = 1.19-3.06). Among the intention-to-treat sample, survival analysis revealed a significant time-by-age group interaction (p = .01) with more relapse over time in young adults. No significant interactions between age and medication group were detected.

Conclusions: Young adults have increased rates of relapse compared with older adults, perhaps because of vulnerabilities that increase their risk for treatment dropout and medication nonadherence, regardless of medication assignment. These results suggest that specialized, developmentally informed interventions may be needed to improve retention and successful treatment of opioid use disorder among young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.07.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683373PMC
December 2020

Variants of opioid genes and response to treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine-naloxone versus extended-release naltrexone in Caucasians.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2020 11 27;46(6):761-768. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, the Rockefeller University , New York, NY, USA.

: Sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX), an FDA-approved treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD), combines buprenorphine (a partial mu/kappa agonist) with naloxone (a mu/ kappa antagonist). Extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-NTX; a mu receptor antagonist and kappa receptor partial agonist) is also an FDA-approved treatment for OUD. However, while some patients respond well to these medications, many others leave treatment and relapse. : Determine whether gene variants in the opioid gene system are associated with better or worse treatment response. : In a 24-week, multisite, randomized, comparative effectiveness trial of daily, sublingual self-administration of BUP-NX versus monthly injection of XR-NTX conducted in the National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network, DNA was collected and four opioid gene variants were evaluated: (1) mu opioid receptor 118A>G; (2) 68-bp repeat in prodynorphin; (3) prodynorphin SNP rs910080; and (4) kappa opioid receptor SNP rs6473797. In non-Hispanic Caucasians ( = 334), two outcomes measures were assessed: received first dose (yes/no) and received last dose (yes/no). Separate logistic regressions were used to model each outcome measure as a function of treatment (XR-NTX vs BUP-NX), each gene variant, and their interaction. : There were no significant main effects of gene variant on receiving first dose or last dose. There were also no significant gene variant by treatment interactions. : The outcome of treatment of OUD with medications is likely a complex function of multiple factors, including environmental, psychosocial, and possibly genetic, such that major effects of genetic variants may be unlikely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2020.1797064DOI Listing
November 2020

Extended-release naltrexone versus buprenorphine-naloxone to treat opioid use disorder among black adults.

Addict Behav 2020 11 18;110:106514. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Dr., New York, NY 10032, United States.

Few studies examine the effectiveness of treatments for opioid use disorder (OUD) among Black individuals despite recent evidence suggesting opioid overdose death rates are, in some cases, highest and increasing at a faster rate among Black people compared to other racial/ethnic groups. This secondary analysis study investigated treatment preference, retention, and relapse rates amongst a subgroup of 73 Black participants with OUD (81% male, mean age 39.05, SD = 11.80) participating in a 24-week multisite randomized clinical trial ("X:BOT") comparing the effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) and sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX) between 2014 and 2017. Chi-square analyses were used to investigate treatment preference assessed at baseline, and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate differences in the odds of retention and relapse assessed over the 24-week course of treatment between treatment groups. Our findings suggest no differences in preference for XR-NTX versus BUP-NX. However, similar to the parent trial, there was an induction hurdle such that only 59.5% of those randomized to XR-NTX successfully initiated medication compared to 91.6% of those randomized to BUP-NX (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.52). No significant differences were found in treatment retention (intention-to-treat: OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.43, 3.28; per-protocol [i.e., those who initiated medication]: OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.20, 1.82) or relapse rates between treatment groups (intention-to-treat: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.57, 4.13; per-protocol: OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.23, 2.06). Although there is a significant initiation hurdle with XR-NTX, once inducted, both medications appear similar in effectiveness, but as in the main study, dropout rates were high. Future research is needed on how to improve adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433932PMC
November 2020

Reduction in World Health Organization Risk Drinking Levels and Cardiovascular Disease.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 08 3;44(8):1625-1635. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York.

Background: Reductions in World Health Organization (WHO) risk drinking levels have recently been shown to lower the risk of multiple adverse health outcomes, but prior work has not examined reductions in WHO risk drinking levels in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death for men and women in the United States and of global mortality. This study examined associations between reductions in WHO risk drinking levels and subsequent risk for CVD.

Methods: In a US national survey, 1,058 very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers participated in Wave 1 interviews (2001 to 2002) and Wave 2 follow-ups (2004 to 2005). Self-reported CVD history that was communicated to the participant by a doctor or other healthcare professionals included arteriosclerosis, hypertension, angina, tachycardia, or myocardial infarction. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) evaluating relationships between ≥2-level reductions in WHO risk drinking levels from Wave 1 to Wave 2 and the risk of Wave 2 CVD, controlling for baseline characteristics.

Results: Reductions of ≥2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD in individuals who at Wave 1 were very-high-risk (aOR = 0.58 [0.41 to 0.80]) or high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.81 [0.70 to 0.94]). Interaction terms showed that this relationship varied by age. Among individuals >40 years old at Wave 1, reductions of ≥2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD among very-high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.42 [0.28 to 0.63]) but not high-risk drinkers (p = 0.50). Among individuals ≤40 years old at Wave 1, reductions of ≥2 WHO risk drinking levels were associated with significantly lower odds of CVD among high-risk drinkers (aOR = 0.50 [0.37 to 0.69]) but not very-high-risk drinkers (p = 0.27).

Conclusions: These results show that reductions in WHO risk drinking levels are associated with reduced CVD risk among very-high-risk and high-risk drinkers in the US general population, and provide further evidence that reducing high levels of drinking provides important benefit across multiple clinical domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484295PMC
August 2020

Trajectories of occupational and social functioning in people with recent-onset non-affective psychosis enrolled in specialized early intervention services across New York state.

Schizophr Res 2020 08 5;222:218-226. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA; Division of Behavioral Health Services and Policy Research & Center for Practice Innovations, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Despite the benefits of early intervention services for the initial stages of psychosis ongoing impairments in functioning are common.

Aims: To identify 1-year trajectories of occupational and social functioning in individuals enrolled in OnTrackNY, a statewide program offering early intervention services for recent-onset psychosis in community settings.

Method: We included 937 persons with recent-onset psychosis enrolled at 19 programs across New York State. Demographic, social and clinical data was collected at program entry and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. We used growth mixture models to identify occupational and social functioning trajectories and examined the association between trajectory class, baseline factors and symptoms during 1-year follow-up.

Results: Four distinct trajectory classes of occupational and social functioning were identified. The converging (58.0%) class had disparate levels of functioning at baseline (low occupational, higher social) which eventually converged. The other classes had high-stable (14.8%), moderate-stable (17.8%) and low-improving (9.4%) trajectories. Female gender, educational attainment and private insurance status were significantly associated with the trajectory characterized by higher functioning, while living alone, homelessness, a longer period from psychosis onset to program enrollment, a schizophrenia diagnosis and cannabis use at enrollment were associated with the poorest trajectory. The differences in severity of symptoms by trajectory class diminished over time.

Conclusions: Trajectories of occupational and social functioning showed substantial variation, but overall, remained stable or improved during 1-year follow-up. The relationship between symptoms and occupational and social functioning attenuated after the acute treatment phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.05.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273912PMC
August 2020

Persistent cannabis use among young adults with early psychosis receiving coordinated specialty care in the United States.

Schizophr Res 2020 08 28;222:274-282. Epub 2020 May 28.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York 10032, NY, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY, USA 10032.

Persistent cannabis use among young adults with first episode psychosis (FEP), even those receiving early intervention services, has been associated with poor outcomes. In the United States (US), Coordinated Specialty Care (CSC) has been shown to be more effective at reducing symptoms, improving quality of life and increasing involvement in work or school, compared to typical care for FEP. However, little is known about the prevalence, course and outcomes for cannabis use in this real-world, clinical setting. This study examined the prevalence, course and outcomes of cannabis use categorized into three groups: no use, reduced use, and persistent use, among a sample of 938 CSC participants enrolled for at least 1 year. Prevalence of cannabis use was 38.8% at admission and 32.8% of the sample had persistent cannabis use at 1 year. At baseline, persistent cannabis users were more likely to be male (p < .001), white, non-Hispanic and black non-Hispanic (p = .001), have worse symptoms as measured by the GAF (p < .001), increased suicidality (p = .024), violent ideation (p = .008), and legal trouble (p = .006) compared with non-users. At 1 year, persistent users maintained worse symptoms compared with non-users (p = .021) while those who reduced use had significant improvement in symptoms compared with persistent users (p = .008). This study suggests that cannabis use is common among young adults enrolled in a CSC program in the US and that persistent cannabis users may have worse outcomes while reducing cannabis use may improve outcomes. These findings highlight the potential impact of secondary prevention in this population through reduction in cannabis use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.05.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237378PMC
August 2020

Substance Use and Mental Health in Emerging Adult Vs Older Adult Men and Women With Opioid Use Disorder.

Am J Addict 2020 11 21;29(6):536-542. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts.

Background And Objectives: We examined age differences across genders in clinical characteristics in emerging adult (≤25 years) vs older adult patients (26+ years) with opioid use disorder (OUD).

Methods: Participants (N = 570; 30% female) entering a comparative effectiveness medication trial of buprenorphine vs extended-release naltrexone.

Results: Differences in clinical characteristics in emerging adult vs older participants were similar across genders. However, women 26+ years reported more mental health problems compared with women ≤25, while men ≤25 years reported more mental health problems compared with men 26+ years.

Discussion And Conclusion: Different strategies for emerging adult and older patients seeking OUD treatment may be necessary to address psychiatric comorbidities that differ across genders in this population.

Scientific Significance: Comprehensive psychiatric assessment should be systematically included in OUD treatment for all genders. Treatment should focus on the emerging adult developmental phase when appropriate, with psychiatric treatment tailored for women and men, separately, across the lifespan. (Am J Addict 2020;29:536-542).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajad.13059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657988PMC
November 2020

Secondary Analysis of Pain Outcomes in a Large Pragmatic Randomized Trial of Buprenorphine/Naloxone Versus Methadone for Opioid Use Disorder.

J Addict Med 2020 Sep/Oct;14(5):e188-e194

New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, (MS, SL, ANCC, JS, AB, EVN); Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, (MS, SL, ANCC, JS, EVN); Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, (MP); Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine; Center of Excellence in Substance Abuse Treatment and Education VA Puget Sound Health Care System, WA (AJS).

Objective: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with chronic pain. We investigated the association between medication treatments for OUD and pain in a post-hoc secondary analysis of a randomized trial of methadone versus buprenorphine/naloxone.

Methods: 1241 individuals with OUD participated in an open label, pragmatic randomized trial of methadone versus buprenorphine/naloxone in nine treatment programs licensed to dispense agonist medication for OUD between 2006 to 2009. In this post-hoc analysis, pain was dichotomized (present or not present) using responses from the Short Form-36. Logistic regression models were fit to test the effect of (1) having baseline pain on week 24 retention, (2) treatment assignment on improvement in pain among those reporting pain at baseline, and (3) pain improvement at week 4 on week 24 retention among those reporting pain at baseline.

Results: Almost half (48.2%) of the sample reported pain at baseline. Participants with baseline pain did not significantly differ in week 24 retention compared to those without baseline pain. Among those reporting pain at baseline, there was no significant difference between treatment arms in improvement of pain at week 4, but improvement in pain at week 4 was associated with significantly greater odds of being retained at week 24 (OR [95% CI] = 1.76 [1.10, 2.82], P = 0.020).

Conclusion And Relevance: In this large multisite randomized trial of medication treatments for OUD, nearly half of the participants reported pain at baseline, and improvement in pain early in treatment was associated with increased likelihood of retention in treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ADM.0000000000000630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415472PMC
June 2021

The effects of aerobic training on subclinical negative affect: A randomized controlled trial.

Health Psychol 2020 Apr 9;39(4):255-264. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center.

Objective: The antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of aerobic exercise are well known, but less is known about its effects on subclinical levels of trait negative affect in healthy but sedentary adults. In the present study, we test the effects of a 3-month randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise training in young to midlife adults on trait measures of depression, anxiety, hostility, and anger.

Method: One-hundred and 19 men (n = 56) and women (n = 63) aged 20-45 were randomized to 1 of 2 conditions: (a) 12 weeks of aerobic exercise after which they were asked to halt exercising and decondition for 4 weeks, or (b) a 16-week waitlist control group. Assessments of depression, anxiety, hostility and anger were completed at study entry, Week 12 and Week 16.

Results: At study entry, participants scored low on measures of depression, anxiety, hostility and anger. Analyses among the intent-to-treat and per protocol samples found significant treatment effects of aerobic training for hostility and depression, but not for anxiety and anger. Within-group analyses demonstrated that depression and hostility scores decreased in the exercise group over the course of the intervention, while remaining stable in the control group. These effects persisted for the exercise group at nonsignificant levels after 4 weeks of deconditioning.

Conclusions: Aerobic exercise training has significant psychological effects even in sedentary yet euthymic adults, adding experimental data on the known benefits of exercise in this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078065PMC
April 2020

Trajectory classes of opioid use among individuals in a randomized controlled trial comparing extended-release naltrexone and buprenorphine-naloxone.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 12 21;205:107649. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Columbia University Irving Medical Center and New York State Psychiatric Institute, United States.

Objectives: To advance our understanding of medication treatments for opioid use disorders (OUDs), identification of distinct subgroups and factors associated with differential treatment response is critical. We examined trajectories of opioid use for patients with OUD who were randomized to (but not in all cases inducted onto) buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NX) or extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), and identified characteristics associated with each trajectory.

Methods: Growth mixture models (GMMs) were run to identify distinct trajectories of days of opioid use among a subsample of 535 individuals with OUD who participated in a 24-week randomized controlled trial (RCT; 2014-2016) of BUP-NX (n = 281) or XR-NTX (n = 254).

Results: Four distinct opioid use trajectory classes were identified for BUP-NX (near abstinent/no use (59%); low use (13.2%); low use, increasing over time (15%); and moderate use, increasing over time (12.8%)). Three distinct opioid use trajectory classes were found for XR-NTX (near abstinent/no use (59.1%); low use (14.6%); and moderate use, increasing over time (26.4%)). Across both BUP-NX and XR-NTX, the near abstinent/no use class had the highest number of medical management visits. Within BUP-NX, the low use class had a greater proportion of individuals with a previous successful treatment history compared with other classes. Within XR-NTX, the moderate use, increasing over time class had the highest proportion of Hispanic participants compared with other classes.

Conclusions: Findings highlight the significant heterogeneity of opioid use during a RCT of BUP-NX and XR-NTX and factors associated with opioid use patterns including medical management visits and history of treatment success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990451PMC
December 2019

Determinants of pathways to care among young adults with early psychosis entering a coordinated specialty care program.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2020 10 10;14(5):544-552. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York.

Aim: To describe the characteristics of the pathway to coordinated specialty care for young adults with early psychosis in the United States, to examine how various factors correlate with the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), and to explore factors associated with time from onset of symptoms to first mental health service contact (help-seeking DUP).

Methods: The sample included 779 individuals ages 16 to 30 with recent-onset non-affective psychosis enrolled in OnTrackNY. Domains assessed included demographics, clinical characteristics, mental health service utilization and characteristics of the pathway to care. Primary outcomes included the time from onset of psychotic symptoms to admission to OnTrackNY (DUP) and time from onset of psychotic symptoms to first mental health service contact (help-seeking DUP).

Results: The mean DUP was 231.2 days (SD = 87.7, median = 169) and mean help-seeking DUP was 73.7 days (SD = 110.8, median = 27). Being in school, better social functioning, and greater number of ER visits or hospitalizations were associated with shorter DUP. Violent ideation or behaviour and having an outpatient mental health visit as the first service contact or hallucinations as the reason for first service contact were significantly associated with longer DUP. Only the type of first service contact (outpatient mental health treatment or other non-mental health service provider) and having hallucinations as the clinical reason for the first service contact were associated with help-seeking DUP.

Conclusions: Referral delays were longer than help-seeking delays. Strategies to reduce treatment referral delays through systems-level interventions may be most likely to reduce the overall DUP in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.12877DOI Listing
October 2020

Reduction in non-abstinent World Health Organization (WHO) drinking risk levels and drug use disorders: 3-year follow-up results in the US general population.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 08 29;201:16-22. Epub 2019 May 29.

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA; New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY, 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Background: To provide information on the clinical relevance of a reduction in the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking risk categories, we examined their relationship to an important indicator of how individuals feel and function: drug use disorders (DUDs), i.e., those involving substances other than alcohol.

Method: Current drinkers in a U.S. national survey (n = 22,005) were interviewed in 2001-02 and re-interviewed 3 years later. WHO drinking risk levels and DSM-IV-defined DUD were assessed at both waves. The relationship of changes in WHO drinking risk levels to the presence of DUD were examined using adjusted odds ratios (aOR).

Results: At Wave 1, 2.5% of respondents were WHO very-high-risk drinkers, and 2.5%, 4.8%, and 90.2% were high-risk, moderate-risk, and low-risk drinkers, respectively. Among Wave 1 very-high-risk drinkers, significantly lower odds of DUD at Wave 2 were predicted by reductions in WHO risk levels of one, two or three levels (aOR = 0.15, 0.01, 0.24, respectively; all p-values <.0001). Among participants who initially were drinking at lower risk levels, reductions in drinking or abstinence were generally associated with significantly lower odds of DUD, although the results were less consistent.

Conclusions: Among very-high-risk drinkers, reduction in the WHO drinking risk categories were associated with lower risk of a DUD. These results add to findings indicating that reductions in WHO drinking risk levels are a meaningful indicator of how individuals feel and function and could therefore serve as informative outcomes in alcohol clinical trials. WHO risk levels can also guide treatment goals and clinical recommendations on drinking reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.03.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662197PMC
August 2019

Shared and non-shared risk and protective factors of binge eating and binge drinking from adolescence to young adulthood.

J Health Psychol 2021 05 24;26(6):805-817. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

University of Minnesota, USA.

This study aimed to elucidate the shared and non-shared behavioral, sociocultural, and personal risk factors underlying binge eating and binge drinking among a sample ( = 1764) of participants from Project EAT at baseline and 10-year follow-up. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses revealed a range of risk factors associated with binge eating and binge drinking at 10 years, which varied by gender. The results revealed that risks associated with binge eating and binge drinking often differed, and thus full-scale dual preventive interventions for concurrent binge eating and binge drinking may be less effective. However, general prevention and intervention programs may emphasize shared risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359105319844588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6813845PMC
May 2021

Reduction in non-abstinent WHO drinking risk levels and depression/anxiety disorders: 3-year follow-up results in the US general population.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 04 14;197:228-235. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA; New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Non-abstinent drinking reductions that predict improvement in how individuals feel or function, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking risk levels, may be useful outcomes in clinical trials for alcohol use disorders (AUD).

Methods: Current drinkers in a U.S. national survey (n = 22,005) were interviewed in 2001-02 (Wave 1) and re-interviewed 3 years later (Wave 2). WHO drinking risk levels, a 4- level categorization system (very-high-risk, high-risk, moderate-risk, and low-risk drinkers) defined using estimated mean ethanol consumption (grams) per day in the prior 12 months, and DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorders were assessed at both waves. Logistic regression was used to produce adjusted odds ratios (aOR) testing the associations of changes between Wave 1 and Wave 2 WHO risk levels to the presence or persistence of depression and/or anxiety disorder by each initial Wave 1 risk level.

Results: Among Wave 1 very-high-risk drinkers, lower odds of depression and/or anxiety disorders at Wave 2 were predicted by reductions in WHO risk levels of one-, two- or three-levels (aOR = 0.42, 0.37, 0.67, p-values 0.04-<.0001), as was the persistence of depression and/or anxiety disorders among those with such disorders at Wave 1 (aOR = 0.37, 0.29, 0.51, p-values .03-<.0001). Results were less consistent for participants initially drinking at lower risk levels.

Conclusions: Among very-high-risk drinkers, reductions in the WHO drinking risk categories were associated with lower risk of depression and/or anxiety disorders. These results add to findings indicating reductions in WHO risk levels are a meaningful indicator of how individuals feel and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440807PMC
April 2019

Anger-reduction treatment reduces negative affect reactivity to daily stressors.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2019 Feb 3;87(2):141-150. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center.

Objective: Negative affect (NA) reactivity to daily stressors may confer health risks over and above stress exposure, especially in chronically angry adults. This randomized controlled trial tests the hypothesis that a 12-week cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) anger-reduction treatment would decrease NA reactivity to daily stressors assessed via ambulatory diary for those in treatment, but not on a wait-list for treatment.

Method: Healthy adults (N = 158, aged 20-45 years, 53.20% women) scoring high on Spielberger's (1988) Trait Anger, a scale from the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, were randomly assigned to a CBT treatment or wait-list control group, and completed 24 hr of prerandomization and postintervention ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of NA intensity and stress events every 20 ± 5 min. A longitudinal model using a generalized estimating equation examined whether stressor exposure and NA reactions to momentary stressors changed from pre- to posttreatment in the CBT group.

Results: There was a significant 3-way interaction (t28 = 2.29, p = .03) between stressor, treatment group, and EMA day, indicating that NA reactivity decreased for the treatment group 1.60 points more than for the wait-list group (a 379.38% greater change in NA reactivity). NA during stressors was 1.18 points lower (a 28.42% decrease) for the treatment group at EMA Day 2 (p = .04), whereas wait-list NA during stressors nonsignificantly increased.

Conclusion: CBT to decrease chronic anger is associated with lower NA reactivity to daily stressors in this sample and could be a promising treatment to mitigate the health impact of stress in this clinical population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336501PMC
February 2019

Aerobic Exercise Training and Inducible Inflammation: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy, Young Adults.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 09;7(17):e010201

9 The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Northwell Health Manhassett NY.

Background Consensus panels regularly recommend aerobic exercise for its health-promoting properties, due in part to presumed anti-inflammatory effects, but many studies show no such effect, possibly related to study differences in participants, interventions, inflammatory markers, and statistical approaches. This variability makes an unequivocal determination of the anti-inflammatory effects of aerobic training elusive. Methods and Results We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training or a wait list control condition followed by 4 weeks of sedentary deconditioning on lipopolysaccharide (0, 0.1, and 1.0 ng/mL)-inducible tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and on toll-like receptor 4 in 119 healthy, sedentary young adults. Aerobic capacity by cardiopulmonary exercise testing was measured at study entry (T1) and after training (T2) and deconditioning (T3). Despite a 15% increase in maximal oxygen consumption, there were no changes in inflammatory markers. Additional analyses revealed a differential longitudinal aerobic exercise training effect by lipopolysaccharide level in inducible TNF -α ( P=0.08) and IL-6 ( P=0.011), showing T1 to T2 increases rather than decreases in inducible (lipopolysaccharide 0.1, 1.0 versus 0.0 ng/mL) TNF- α (51% increase, P=0.041) and IL-6 (42% increase, P=0.11), and significant T2 to T3 decreases in inducible TNF- α (54% decrease, P=0.007) and IL-6 (55% decrease, P<0.001). There were no significant changes in either group at the 0.0 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide level for TNF- α or IL-6. Conclusions The failure to support the primary hypotheses and the unexpected post hoc findings of an exercise-training-induced proinflammatory response raise questions about whether and under what conditions exercise training has anti-inflammatory effects. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 01335737.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201415PMC
September 2018
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