Publications by authors named "Jennifer Sass"

31 Publications

Response to Acquavella J, conflict of interest: a hazard for epidemiology.

Ann Epidemiol 2019 08 16;36:62-63. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Rideau Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2019.07.010DOI Listing
August 2019

Organophosphate exposures during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment: Recommendations for essential policy reforms.

PLoS Med 2018 10 24;15(10):e1002671. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Mailman School of Public Health and Children's Center for Environmental Health at Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

In a Policy Forum, Irva Hertz-Picciotto and colleagues review the scientific evidence linking organophosphate pesticides to cognitive, behavioral, and neurological deficits in children and recommend actions to reduce exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6200179PMC
October 2018

Use of a modified GreenScreen tool to conduct a screening-level comparative hazard assessment of conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver.

Environ Health 2016 11 8;15(1):105. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Green Seal, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Increased concern for potential health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including nanomaterials, in consumer products is driving demand for greater transparency regarding potential risks. Chemical hazard assessment is a powerful tool to inform product design, development and procurement and has been integrated into alternative assessment frameworks. The extent to which assessment methods originally designed for conventionally-sized materials can be used for nanomaterials, which have size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have not been well established. We contracted with a certified GreenScreen profiler to conduct three GreenScreen hazard assessments, for conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver. The contractor summarized publicly available literature, and used defined GreenScreen hazard criteria and expert judgment to assign and report hazard classification levels, along with indications of confidence in those assignments. Where data were not available, a data gap (DG) was assigned. Using the individual endpoint scores, an aggregated benchmark score (BM) was applied.

Results: Conventional silver and low-soluble nanosilver were assigned the highest possible hazard score and a silica-silver nanocomposite called AGS-20 could not be scored due to data gaps. AGS-20 is approved for use as antimicrobials by the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Conclusions: An existing method for chemical hazard assessment and communication can be used - with minor adaptations- to compare hazards across conventional and nano forms of a substance. The differences in data gaps and in hazard profiles support the argument that each silver form should be considered unique and subjected to hazard assessment to inform regulatory decisions and decisions about product design and development. A critical limitation of hazard assessments for nanomaterials is the lack of nano-specific hazard data - where data are available, we demonstrate that existing hazard assessment systems can work. The work is relevant for risk assessors and regulators. We recommend that regulatory agencies and others require more robust data sets on each novel nanomaterial before granting market approval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-016-0188-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101654PMC
November 2016

Cancer risk: role of environment.

Science 2015 Feb 5;347(6223):727. Epub 2015 Feb 5.

Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC 20005, USA. George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa6246DOI Listing
February 2015

Supporting the need for rigorous enforceable disclosure policies for scientific journals.

Authors:
Jennifer Sass

Addiction 2009 Nov;104(11):1788-9

Natural Resources Defense Council, NW, Washington, DC 20005, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02699.xDOI Listing
November 2009

Meeting report: hazard assessment for nanoparticles--report from an interdisciplinary workshop.

Environ Health Perspect 2007 Nov;115(11):1654-9

Environmental Defense, Washington, DC 20009, USA.

In this report we present the findings from a nanotoxicology workshop held 6-7 April 2006 at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC. Over 2 days, 26 scientists from government, academia, industry, and nonprofit organizations addressed two specific questions: what information is needed to understand the human health impact of engineered nanoparticles and how is this information best obtained? To assess hazards of nanoparticles in the near-term, most participants noted the need to use existing in vivo toxicologic tests because of their greater familiarity and interpretability. For all types of toxicology tests, the best measures of nanoparticle dose need to be determined. Most participants agreed that a standard set of nanoparticles should be validated by laboratories worldwide and made available for benchmarking tests of other newly created nanoparticles. The group concluded that a battery of tests should be developed to uncover particularly hazardous properties. Given the large number of diverse materials, most participants favored a tiered approach. Over the long term, research aimed at developing a mechanistic understanding of the numerous characteristics that influence nanoparticle toxicity was deemed essential. Predicting the potential toxicity of emerging nanoparticles will require hypothesis-driven research that elucidates how physicochemical parameters influence toxic effects on biological systems. Research needs should be determined in the context of the current availability of testing methods for nanoscale particles. Finally, the group identified general policy and strategic opportunities to accelerate the development and implementation of testing protocols and ensure that the information generated is translated effectively for all stakeholders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2072837PMC
November 2007

Require comprehensive safety data for all chemicals.

New Solut 2007 ;17(3):233-58

Science & Environmental Health Network, 1050 Neilson St. Albany, CA 94706, USA.

Reform No. 5 of the Louisville Charter addresses the pervasive lack of publicly available information about the effects of many chemicals on human health and the environment. This lack of information persists for the majority of chemicals in commerce because the current laws in the United States do not systematically require it to be produced or motivate its voluntary production. These information gaps undermine the effectiveness of the existing environmental statutes, the liability system, the ability of the market to stimulate development of safer chemicals and, if they persist, complete realization of the other elements of the Louisville Charter. Therefore, this Reform calls for manufacturers of chemicals to be required to provide health and safety information as a condition for placing and keeping a chemical on the market.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/NS.17.3.gDOI Listing
March 2008

European Union bans atrazine, while the United States negotiates continued use.

Int J Occup Environ Health 2006 Jul-Sep;12(3):260-7

Health and Environment Program, Natural Resources Defense Council, 1200 New York Avenue, N.W., Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005, USA.

Atrazine is a common agricultural herbicide with endocrine disruptor activity. There is evidence that it interferes with reproduction and development, and may cause cancer. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved its continued use in October 2003, that same month the European Union (EU) announced a ban of atrazine because of ubiquitous and unpreventable water contamination. The authors reviewed regulatory procedures and government documents, and report efforts by the manufacturer of atrazine, Syngenta, to influence the U.S. atrazine assessment, by submitting flawed scientific data as evidence of no harm, and by meeting repeatedly and privately with EPA to negotiate the government's regulatory approach. Many of the details of these negotiations continue to be withheld from the public, despite EPA regulations and federal open-government laws that require such decisions to be made in the open.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/oeh.2006.12.3.260DOI Listing
December 2006

Credibility of scientists: conflict of interest and bias.

Authors:
Jennifer Sass

Environ Health Perspect 2006 Mar;114(3):A147-8; author reply A148

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1392264PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.114-a147bDOI Listing
March 2006

Industry efforts to weaken the EPA's classification of the carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene.

Int J Occup Environ Health 2005 Oct-Dec;11(4):378-83

Natural Resources Defense Council, 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005, USA.

Industry's success in negotiating away science at the level of governmental regulatory agencies is eroding the integrity of the regulatory process. Maneuvers used by industry to weaken the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's classification of the carcinogenicity of butadiene are described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/oeh.2005.11.4.378DOI Listing
February 2006

Vinyl chloride: a case study of data suppression and misrepresentation.

Environ Health Perspect 2005 Jul;113(7):809-12

Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC 20005, USA.

When the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized its 2000 update of the toxicological effects of vinyl chloride (VC), it was concerned with two issues: the classification of VC as a carcinogen and the numerical estimate of its potency. In this commentary we describe how the U.S. EPA review of VC toxicology, which was drafted with substantial input from the chemical industry, weakened safeguards on both points. First, the assessment down-plays risks from all cancer sites other than the liver. Second, the estimate of cancer potency was reduced 10-fold from values previously used for environmental decision making, a finding that reduces the cost and extent of pollution reduction and cleanup measures. We suggest that this assessment reflects discredited scientific practices and recommend that the U.S. EPA reverse its trend toward ever-increasing collaborations with the regulated industries when generating scientific reviews and risk assessments.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1257639PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.7716DOI Listing
July 2005

U.S. Department of Defense and White House working together to avoid cleanup and liability for perchlorate pollution.

Authors:
Jennifer Sass

Int J Occup Environ Health 2004 Jul-Sep;10(3):330-4

Health and Environment Program, Natural Resources Defense Council, 1200 New York Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20005, USA.

The toxic anti-thyroidic chemical perchlorate, used in rocket fuel, has leached from military dumpsites into public drinking water sources, contaminating the water at dangerous levels in many states. The Department of Defense and its contractors such as Lockheed Martin are using obfuscation to wage a campaign to slow or block Environmental Protection Agency regulatory measures that might cost them billions of dollars in cleanup and liability. The influence of the DOD over the EPA is cause for extreme concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/oeh.2004.10.3.330DOI Listing
March 2005

Continued insensitivity to conflicts of interest at IARC.

Authors:
Jennifer Sass

Int J Occup Environ Health 2003 Jan-Mar;9(1):88-9; discussion 89

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/107735203800328957DOI Listing
August 2003

Lead IARC towards compliance with WHO/IARC Declaration of Interests (DOI) policy.

Authors:
Jennifer Sass

Int J Occup Environ Health 2002 Jul-Sep;8(3):277-8

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/107735202800338911DOI Listing
February 2003