Publications by authors named "Jennifer S Weaver"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Musculoskeletal Manifestations of COVID-19: Currently Described Clinical Symptoms and Multimodality Imaging Findings.

Radiographics 2022 Jul 22:220036. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

From the Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N Saint Clair St, Suite 800, Chicago, IL 60611 (I.M.O., A.M.S.); Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, N.M. (J.S.W., M.S.T.); Department of Medical Imaging, Ann & Robert Lurie Children's Hospital, Chicago, Ill (J.D.S.); Department of Radiology, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Ill (W.A.M.); and Departments of Medical Imaging and Orthopaedics, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Ariz (M.S.T.).

COVID-19, the clinical syndrome produced by infection with SARS-CoV-2, can result in multisystem organ dysfunction, including respiratory failure and hypercoagulability, which can lead to critical illness and death. Musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations of COVID-19 are common but have been relatively underreported, possibly because of the severity of manifestations in other organ systems. Additionally, patients who have undergone sedation and who are critically ill are often unable to alert clinicians of their MSK symptoms. Furthermore, some therapeutic measures such as medications and vaccinations can worsen existing MSK symptoms or cause additional symptoms. Symptoms may persist or occur months after the initial infection, known as post-COVID condition or long COVID. As the global experience with COVID-19 and the vaccination effort increases, certain patterns of MSK disease involving the bones, muscles, peripheral nerves, blood vessels, and joints have emerged, many of which are likely related to a hyperinflammatory host response, prothrombotic state, or therapeutic efforts rather than direct viral toxicity. Imaging findings for various COVID-19-related MSK pathologic conditions across a variety of modalities are being recognized, which can be helpful for diagnosis, treatment guidance, and follow-up. RSNA, 2022.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.220036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9341171PMC
July 2022

Posttreatment Imaging of the Wrist and Hand: Update 2022.

Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2022 Jun 2;26(3):295-313. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Common indications for surgical procedures of the wrist and hand include acute fractures or fracture-dislocations; nonunited fractures; posttraumatic, degenerative, and inflammatory arthritides and tendinopathies; injuries to tendons, ligaments, and the triangular fibrocartilage complex; and entrapment neuropathies. Soft tissue or osseous infections or masses may also need surgical treatment. Several of these procedures require surgical hardware placement, and most entail clinical follow-up with periodic imaging. Radiography should be the first imaging modality in the evaluation of the postoperative wrist and hand. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic ultrasonography, and occasionally nuclear medicine studies may be performed to diagnose or better characterize suspected postoperative complications. To provide adequate evaluation of postoperative imaging of the wrist and hand, the interpreting radiologist must be familiar with the basic principles of these surgical procedures and both the imaging appearance of normal postoperative findings as well as the potential complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-1743538DOI Listing
June 2022

Prevalence of Monosodium Urate (MSU) Deposits in Cadavers Detected by Dual-Energy Computed Tomography (DECT).

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 May 16;12(5). Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Institute of Clinical and Functional Anatomy, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) allows direct visualization of monosodium urate (MSU) deposits in joints and soft tissues.

Purpose: To describe the distribution of MSU deposits in cadavers using DECT in the head, body trunk, and feet.

Materials And Methods: A total of 49 cadavers (41 embalmed and 8 fresh cadavers; 20 male, 29 female; mean age, 79.5 years; SD ± 11.3; range 52-95) of unknown clinical history underwent DECT to assess MSU deposits in the head, body trunk, and feet. Lens, thoracic aorta, and foot tendon dissections of fresh cadavers were used to verify MSU deposits by polarizing light microscopy.

Results: 33/41 embalmed cadavers (80.5%) showed MSU deposits within the thoracic aorta. 11/41 cadavers (26.8%) showed MSU deposits within the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints and 46.3% of cadavers demonstrated MSU deposits within foot tendons, larger than and equal to 5 mm. No MSU deposits were detected in the cranium/intracerebral vessels, or the coronary arteries. Microscopy used as a gold standard could verify the presence of MSU deposits within the lens, thoracic aorta, or foot tendons in eight fresh cadavers.

Conclusions: Microscopy confirmed the presence of MSU deposits in fresh cadavers within the lens, thoracic aorta, and foot tendons, whereas no MSU deposits could be detected in cranium/intracerebral vessels or coronary arteries. DECT may offer great potential as a screening tool to detect MSU deposits and measure the total uric acid burden in the body. The clinical impact of this cadaver study in terms of assessment of MSU burden should be further proven.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12051240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9139977PMC
May 2022

Magnetic resonance imaging of musculoskeletal infections.

Pol J Radiol 2022 5;87:e141-e162. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality in the evaluation of musculoskeletal (MSK) soft tissue, joint, and bone infections. It allows prompt diagnosis and assessment of the extent of disease, which permits timely treatment to optimize long-term clinical outcomes. MRI is highly sensitive and specific in detecting the common findings of MSK infections, such as superficial and deep soft tissue oedema, joint, bursal and tendon sheath effusions, lymphadenopathy, bone marrow oedema, erosive bone changes and periostitis, and bone and cartilage destruction and sequestration. Contrast-enhanced MRI allows detection of non-enhancing fluid collections and necrotic tissues, rim-enhancing abscesses, heterogeneously or diffusely enhancing phlegmons, and enhancing active synovitis. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is useful in detecting soft-tissue abscesses, particularly in patients who cannot receive gadolinium-based intravenous contrast. MRI is less sensitive than computed tomography (CT) in detecting soft-tissue gas. This article describes the pathophysiology of pyogenic MSK infections, including the route of contamination and common causative organisms, typical MR imaging findings of various soft tissue infections including cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis and necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis, infectious bursitis, infectious tenosynovitis, and infectious lymphadenitis, and of joint and bone infections including septic arthritis and osteomyelitis (acute, subacute, and chronic). The authors also discuss MRI findings and pitfalls related to infected hardware and diabetic foot infections, and briefly review standards of treatment of various pyogenic MSK infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pjr.2022.113825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9047866PMC
March 2022

Magnetic resonance imaging of rheumatological diseases.

Pol J Radiol 2022 20;87:e93-e112. Epub 2022 Feb 20.

Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is extremely useful in the early diagnosis of rheumatologic diseases, as well as in the monitoring of treatment response and disease progression to optimize long-term clinical outcomes. MRI is highly sensitive and specific in detecting the common findings in rheumatologic diseases, such as bone marrow oedema, cartilage disruption, articular erosions, joint effusions, bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis. This imaging modality can demonstrate structural changes of cartilage and bone destruction years earlier than radiographs. Rheumatoid arthritis, crystal deposition diseases (including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease), seronegative spondyloarthropathies (including psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis), and osteoarthritis have characteristic appearances on MRI. Contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging can provide additional evaluation of active synovitis. This article describes the MRI findings of normal joints, as well as the pathophysiological mechanisms and typical MRI findings of rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pjr.2022.113390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8906181PMC
February 2022

Gouty Arthropathy: Review of Clinical Manifestations and Treatment, with Emphasis on Imaging.

J Clin Med 2021 Dec 29;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Gout, a crystalline arthropathy caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the articular and periarticular soft tissues, is a frequent cause of painful arthropathy. Imaging has an important role in the initial evaluation as well as the treatment and follow up of gouty arthropathy. The imaging findings of gouty arthropathy on radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, dual energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging are described to include findings of the early, acute and chronic phases of gout. These findings include early monosodium urate deposits, osseous erosions, and tophi, which may involve periarticular tissues, tendons, and bursae. Treatment of gout includes non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, colchicine, glucocorticoids, interleukin-1 inhibitors, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosuric drugs, and recombinant uricase. Imaging is critical in monitoring response to therapy; clinical management can be modulated based on imaging findings. This review article describes the current standard of care in imaging and treatment of gouty arthropathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm11010166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8745871PMC
December 2021

A multimodality review of male urethral imaging: pearls and pitfalls with an update on urethral stricture treatment.

Br J Radiol 2022 Jun 5;95(1134):20211034. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Radiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States.

Optimum radiological assessment of the male urethra requires knowledge of the normal urethral anatomy and ideal imaging techniques based on the specific clinical scenario. Retrograde urethrography is the workhorse examination for male urethral imaging, usually utilized as the initial, and often solitary, modality of choice not only in the setting of trauma, but also in the pre- and post-operative evaluation of urethral strictures. There is, however, growing interest in utilization of ultrasound and magnetic resonance for evaluation of the male urethra owing to lack of ionizing radiation and improved delineation of the adjacent tissue. We review the various modalities utilized for imaging of the male urethra for a variety of known or suspected disorders, and provide an update on current treatments of urethral strictures. Additionally, we detail the key information needed by urologists to guide management of urethral strictures. We conclude with a brief discussion of neophallus urethral diseases following female-to-male sexual confirmation surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20211034DOI Listing
June 2022

Imaging and Treatment of Posttraumatic Ankle and Hindfoot Osteoarthritis.

J Clin Med 2021 Dec 13;10(24). Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA.

Posttraumatic osteoarthritis of the ankle and hindfoot is a common and frequently debilitating disorder. 70% to 90% of ankle osteoarthritis is related to prior trauma that encompasses a spectrum of disorders including fractures and ligamentous injuries that either disrupt the articular surface or result in instability of the joint. In addition to clinical evaluation, imaging plays a substantial role in the treatment planning of posttraumatic ankle and hindfoot osteoarthritis. Imaging evaluation must be tailored to specific clinical scenarios and includes weight bearing radiography that utilizes standard and specialty views, computed tomography which can be performed with a standard or a weight bearing technique, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound evaluation. This review article aims to familiarize the reader with treatment rationale, to provide a brief review of surgical techniques and to illustrate expected imaging appearances of common operative procedures performed in the setting of posttraumatic ankle and hindfoot osteoarthritis, such as joint-preserving procedures, ankle fusion, subtalar fusion, tibiotalarcalcaneal fusion and ankle arthroplasty. Preoperative findings will be discussed along with the expected postoperative appearance of various procedures in order to improve detection of their complications on imaging and to provide optimal patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10245848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8703616PMC
December 2021

Clinical Manifestations and Medical Imaging of Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Fetal Through Adulthood.

Acta Med Acad 2021 Aug;50(2):277-291

University of Utah, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences.

The aim of this paper is to describe the varying clinical and imaging manifestations of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) in the fetus, the child, and the adult. OI is a genetic disorder with mutation of Type 1 and non-type 1 collagen genes that results in disruption of multiple collagen based organ systems, most notably bones, often leading to "brittle bones". Additional features such as blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, joint and ligamentous hyperlaxity, hearing loss and cardiac defects may be present. Currently, there are at least 30 recognized genetic forms of OI. Given the multiple genes involved, variable genetic inheritance, and the wide range in phenotype, diagnosis can be challenging. While OI may sometimes be diagnosed in the fetus, patients with mild forms of OI may be diagnosed in childhood or even in adulthood. Imaging, including ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, plays an important role in the diagnoses of OI in the fetus, the child, and the adult. Imaging is also crucial in identifying the many multisystem manifestations of OI. In particular, imaging can help differentiate manifestations of OI from injuries sustained in non-accidental trauma. Age, severity and manner of presentation of OI vary broadly depending on the specific genetic mutation involved, mode of inheritance, and age of the patient. Successful diagnosis of OI hinges on a detailed knowledge of the variable presentation and complications that may be encountered with this disease. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, OI comprises a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders responsible for bone fragility and additional connective tissue disorders, which can result in specific clinical and imaging findings in the fetus, the child, and the adult.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5644/ama2006-124.343DOI Listing
August 2021

Approaching diversity and inclusion in the radiology department.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 12 15;46(12):5471-5474. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, University of Utah, 30 North 1900 East #1A071, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA.

There are numerous benefits to increasing diversity and inclusion within our radiology departments, and both areas need to be a part of our core mission to garner real change. A diverse and inclusive radiology department not only benefits the radiology department, but also our patients and society as a whole. Our paper provides our thoughts on a practical step-by-step guide on how to increase both diversity and inclusion within the radiology workplace, such that every voice can be heard, and every person can be seen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03148-yDOI Listing
December 2021

Provocative thoughts from COVID-19: physician-centric solutions to physician burnout.

Clin Imaging 2021 10 23;78:184-186. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, MSC 10 55301 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/JRevRad1.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.03.016DOI Listing
October 2021

Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee.

Pol J Radiol 2020 11;85:e509-e531. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, USA.

Knee pain is frequently seen in patients of all ages, with a wide range of possible aetiologies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee is a common diagnostic examination performed for detecting and characterising acute and chronic internal derangement injuries of the knee and helps guide patient management. This article reviews the current clinical practice of MRI evaluation and interpretation of meniscal, ligamentous, cartilaginous, and synovial disorders within the knee that are commonly encountered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pjr.2020.99415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571514PMC
September 2020

Sonographic findings of pectoralis major tears with surgical, clinical, and magnetic resonance imaging correlation in 6 patients.

J Ultrasound Med 2005 Jan;24(1):25-31

Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, TC-2910G, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0326, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this research was to describe the sonographic findings of pectoralis major injuries with clinical, surgical, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlation.

Methods: Images from sonographic examinations of the pectoralis major muscle of 6 patients were retrospectively evaluated and characterized. The sonographic findings were compared with clinical, surgical, and MRI findings.

Results: The 6 patients were male (mean age, 30 years) with injuries sustained during weight lifting, football, and shotgun firing. Two of the 6 patients had MRI correlation; 1 had surgical correlation; 2 had both surgical and MRI correlation; and 1 had clinical follow-up. The sternal head was injured in 5 patients; 4 involved the musculotendinous junction, and 1 involved the distal tendon. The sonographic findings of muscle fiber retraction and surrounding hemorrhage allowed identification of the affected muscle. Direct impact injury causing hematoma involved the clavicular head in 1 patient. In total, 5 cases were partial-thickness pectoralis major tears, whereas complete distal tendon disruption was found in 1.

Conclusions: Sonographic imaging longitudinal to the pectoralis muscle fibers showed fiber disruption, retraction, and possible hypoechoic or anechoic hematoma, most commonly involving the musculotendinous junction of the sternal head. Distal tendon assessment is important to evaluate for a full-thickness pectoralis major tear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7863/jum.2005.24.1.25DOI Listing
January 2005

Sonographic findings of adductor insertion avulsion syndrome with magnetic resonance imaging correlation.

J Ultrasound Med 2003 Apr;22(4):403-7

Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0326, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7863/jum.2003.22.4.403DOI Listing
April 2003

G2 arrest in Xenopus oocytes depends on phosphorylation of cdc25 by protein kinase A.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Dec 11;99(26):16794-9. Epub 2002 Dec 11.

Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Xenopus oocytes, which are arrested in G(2) of meiosis I, contain complexes of cyclin B-cdc2 (M phase-promoting factor) that are kept repressed by inhibitory phosphorylations on cdc2 at Thr-14 and Tyr-15. Progesterone induces a cytoplasmic signaling pathway that leads to activation of cdc25, the phosphatase that removes these phosphorylations, catalyzing entry into M phase. It has been known for 25 years that high levels of cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) are required to maintain the G(2) arrest and that a drop in PKA activity is required for M phase-promoting factor activation, but no physiological targets of PKA have been identified. We present evidence that cdc25 is a critical target of PKA. (i) In vitro, cdc25 Ser-287 serves as a major site of phosphorylation by PKA, resulting in sequestration by 14-3-3. (ii) Endogenous cdc25 is phosphorylated on Ser-287 in oocytes and dephosphorylated in response to progesterone just before cdc2 dephosphorylation and M-phase entry. (iii) High PKA activity maintains phosphorylation of Ser-287 in vivo, whereas inhibition of PKA by its heat-stable inhibitor (PKI) induces dephosphorylation of Ser-287. (iv) Overexpression of mutant cdc25 (S287A) bypasses the ability of PKA to maintain oocytes in G(2) arrest. These findings argue that cdc25 is a physiologically relevant target of PKA in oocytes. In the early embryonic cell cycles, Ser-287 is phosphorylated during interphase and dephosphorylated just before cdc2 activation and mitotic entry. Thus, in addition to its role in checkpoint arrest, cdc25 Ser-287 serves as a site for regulation during normal, unperturbed cell cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.222661299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC139223PMC
December 2002
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