Publications by authors named "Jennifer M Urbanski"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cloning and sequence analysis of the circadian clock genes period and timeless in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

J Med Entomol 2012 May;49(3):777-82

Department of Biology, Reiss 406, Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, DC 20057-1229, USA.

The genes period (per) and timeless (tim) are core components of the circadian clock that regulates a wide range of rhythmic biochemical, physiological, and behavioral processes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We used degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) to clone and sequence the entire cDNAs of both the per and tim genes in Aedes albopictus (Skuse). We also used the 5' end of the Ae. albopictus per cDNA to identify previously unannotated sequence coding for the N-terminal region of the PERIOD protein in Aedes aegypti L. We sequenced genomic DNA of one mosquito from each of three geographically distinct populations (New Jersey, Florida, and Brazil), and identified three introns in the per gene and eight introns in the tim gene. Phylogenetic analyses and comparison of functional domains support the orthology of the newly identified per and tim genes. Analysis of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates indicates that both the per and tim genes have evolved under strong selective constraint subsequent to the divergence ofAe. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Taken together, these results provide resources that can be used to investigate the molecular genetics of circadian phenotypes in Ae. albopictus and other culicids, to perform comparative analyses of insect circadian clock function, and also to conduct phylogeographic analyses using single-copy nuclear introns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/me11171DOI Listing
May 2012

The molecular physiology of increased egg desiccation resistance during diapause in the invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

Proc Biol Sci 2010 Sep 21;277(1694):2683-92. Epub 2010 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, Georgetown University, 37th and O Sts. NW, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial adaptation to seasonal environmental variation in a wide range of arthropods, but relatively little is known regarding the molecular basis of this important trait. In temperate populations of the mosquito Aedes albopictus, exposure to short-day (SD) lengths causes the female to produce diapause eggs. Tropical populations do not undergo a photoperiodic diapause. We identified a fatty acyl coA elongase transcript that is more abundant under SD versus long-day (LD) photoperiods in mature oocyte tissue of replicate temperate, but not tropical, A. albopictus populations. Fatty acyl CoA elongases are involved in the synthesis of long chain fatty acids (hydrocarbon precursors). Diapause eggs from a temperate population had one-third more surface hydrocarbons and one-half the water loss rates of non-diapause eggs. Eggs from a tropical population reared under SD and LD photoperiods did not differ in surface hydrocarbon abundance or water loss rates. In both a temperate and tropical population, composition of hydrocarbon chain lengths did not differ between eggs from SD versus LD conditions. These results implicate the expression of fatty acyl coA elongase and changes in quantity, but not composition, of egg surface hydrocarbons as important components of increased desiccation resistance during diapause in A. albopictus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.0362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2982042PMC
September 2010

A transcriptional element of the diapause program in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization.

J Insect Physiol 2010 Sep 21;56(9):1147-54. Epub 2010 Mar 21.

Department of Biology, Georgetown University, Reiss 406, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Many temperate insects cope with the unfavorable conditions of winter by entering a photoperiodic diapause, but the molecular basis of this crucial adaptation is not well understood. In temperate populations of Aedes albopictus, exposure to short-day lengths causes the adult female to oviposit diapausing eggs. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed on RNA isolated from mature (stage V) oocytes of a temperate population of Ae. albopictus. A total of 438 inserts were sequenced from the SSH library and 324 unique (non-redundant) sequences were identified. QRT-PCR experiments were performed for 53 transcripts using a novel experimental design that included replicate temperate populations that do undergo photoperiodic diapause and replicate tropical populations that do not undergo a photoperiodic diapause. There was greater abundance of an epithelial membrane protein transcript under short-day versus long-day photoperiods in multiple temperate, but not tropical, populations. This gene may function during the diapause program by increasing desiccation resistance or energy reserves. The expression of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein transcript in response to SD versus LD photoperiod differed between temperate and tropical populations but does not appear to be causally involved in diapause. Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) was performed to determine the entire cDNA sequence of both transcripts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2010.03.008DOI Listing
September 2010

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.

Science 2009 Apr;324(5926):522-8

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1169588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2943200PMC
April 2009