Publications by authors named "Jennifer M Strahle"

31 Publications

Neurosurgical Considerations of Neurocutaneous Syndromes.

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan 28;33(1):81-89. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street Phipps 554, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

The phakomatoses are a group of genetic and acquired disorders characterized by neurologic, cutaneous, and often ocular manifestations, thus commonly referred to as neurocutaneous syndromes. In several of these conditions the underlying genetic pathophysiology has been elucidated, which will continue to play an important role in advancing therapeutic techniques. This article focuses on several examples of such neurocutaneous syndromes, with special attention to the relevant neurosurgical considerations of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.013DOI Listing
January 2022

Syndromic Hydrocephalus.

Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan;33(1):67-79

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Washington University in Saint Louis, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Campus Box 8057, St Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Hydrocephalus, the abnormal accumulation and impaired circulation/clearance of cerebrospinal fluid, occurs as a common phenotypic feature of a diverse group of genetic syndromes. In this review, we outline the genetic mutations, pathogenesis, and accompanying symptoms underlying syndromic hydrocephalus in the context of: L1 syndrome, syndromic craniosynostoses, achondroplasia, NF 1/2, Down's syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Walker-Warburg syndrome, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and osteogenesis imperfecta. Further, we discuss emerging genetic variants associated with syndromic hydrocephalus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.006DOI Listing
January 2022

Does ventricle size contribute to cognitive outcomes in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus? Role of early definitive intervention.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Oct 15:1-11. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

1Departments of Neurological Surgery.

Objective: Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) is associated with significant morbidity, smaller hippocampal volumes, and impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants. The timing of temporary CSF (tCSF) diversion has been studied; however, the optimal time for permanent CSF (pCSF) diversion is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether cumulative ventricle size or timing of pCSF diversion is associated with neurodevelopmental outcome and hippocampal size in preterm infants with PHH.

Methods: Twenty-five very preterm neonates (born at ≤ 32 weeks' gestational age) with high-grade intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), subsequent PHH, and pCSF diversion with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (n = 20) or endoscopic third ventriculostomy (n = 5) were followed until 2 years of age. Infants underwent serial cranial ultrasounds from birth until 1 year after pCSF diversion, brain MRI at term-equivalent age, and assessment based on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, at 2 years of age. Frontooccipital horn ratio (FOHR) measurements were derived from cranial ultrasounds and term-equivalent brain MRI. Hippocampal volumes were segmented and calculated from term-equivalent brain MRI. Cumulative ventricle size until the time of pCSF diversion was estimated using FOHR measurements from each cranial ultrasound performed prior to permanent intervention.

Results: The average gestational ages at tCSF and pCSF diversion were 28.9 and 39.0 weeks, respectively. An earlier chronological age at the time of pCSF diversion was associated with larger right hippocampal volumes on term-equivalent MRI (Pearson's r = -0.403, p = 0.046) and improved cognitive (r = -0.554, p = 0.047), motor (r = -0.487, p = 0.048), and language (r = -0.414, p = 0.021) outcomes at 2 years of age. Additionally, a smaller cumulative ventricle size from birth to pCSF diversion was associated with larger right hippocampal volumes (r = -0.483, p = 0.014) and improved cognitive (r = -0.711, p = 0.001), motor (r = -0.675, p = 0.003), and language (r = -0.618, p = 0.011) outcomes. There was no relationship between time to tCSF diversion or cumulative ventricle size prior to tCSF diversion and neurodevelopmental outcome or hippocampal size. Finally, a smaller cumulative ventricular size prior to either tCSF diversion or pCSF diversion was associated with a smaller ventricular size 1 year after pCSF diversion (r = 0.422, p = 0.040, R2 = 0.178 and r = 0.519, p = 0.009, R2 = 0.269, respectively).

Conclusions: In infants with PHH, a smaller cumulative ventricular size and shorter time to pCSF diversion were associated with larger right hippocampal volumes, improved neurocognitive outcomes, and reduced long-term ventriculomegaly. Future prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.4.PEDS212DOI Listing
October 2021

Longitudinal scoliosis behavior in Chiari malformation with and without syringomyelia.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Sep 3:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

5Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: The objective of this study was to understand the natural history of scoliosis in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with and without syringomyelia.

Methods: A retrospective review of data was conducted. Patients with CM-I were identified from a cohort of 14,118 individuals age 18 years or younger who had undergone MRI over an 11-year period at the University of Michigan. Patients eligible for study inclusion had a coronal curve ≥ 10° on radiography, associated CM-I with or without syringomyelia, and at least 1 year of clinical follow-up prior to any surgery. Curve magnitude at initial diagnosis, prior to posterior fossa decompression (PFD; if applicable), and at the last follow-up (prior to any surgical correction of scoliosis) was recorded, and clinical and radiographic characteristics were noted. The change in curve magnitude by 10° was defined as curve progression (increase by 10°) or regression (decrease by 10°).

Results: Forty-three patients met the study inclusion criteria and were analyzed. About one-third (35%) of the patients presented with symptoms attributed to their CM-I. The mean degree of scoliosis at presentation was 32.6° ± 17.7°. Twenty-one patients (49%) had an associated syrinx. The mean tonsil position below the level of the foramen magnum was 9.8 ± 5.8 mm. Patients with a syrinx were more likely to have a curve > 20° (86% vs 41%, p = 0.002). Curve magnitude remained stable (≤ ±10°) in 77% of patients (33/43), progressed in 16% (7/43), and regressed in 7% (3/43). Mean age was higher (14.8 ± 0.59 years) among patients with regressed curves (p = 0.026). All regressed curves initially measured ≤ 20° (mean 14° ± 5.3°), and none of the patients with regressed curves had a syrinx. The change in curve magnitude was statistically similar in patients with (7.32° ± 17.7°) and without (5.32° ± 15.8°) a syrinx (p = 0.67). After a mean follow-up of 3.13 ± 2.04 years prior to surgery, 27 patients (63%) ultimately underwent posterior fossa or scoliosis correction surgery. For those who eventually underwent PFD only, the rate of change in curve magnitude prior to surgery was 0.054° ± 0.79°. The rate of change in curve magnitude was statistically similar before (0.054° ± 0.79°) and after (0.042° ± 0.33°) surgery (p = 0.45) for patients who underwent PFD surgery only.

Conclusions: The natural history of scoliosis in the presence of CM-I is variable, though most curves remained stable. All curves that regressed were ≤ 20° at initial diagnosis, and most patients in such cases were older at scoliosis diagnosis. Patients who underwent no surgery or PFD only had similar profiles for the change in curve magnitude, which remained relatively stable overall, as compared to patients who underwent PFD and subsequent fusion, who demonstrated curve progression. Among the patients with a syrinx, no curves regressed, most remained stable, and some progressed. Understanding this variability is a first step toward building a prediction model for outcomes for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.5.PEDS20915DOI Listing
September 2021

Extradural decompression versus duraplasty in Chiari malformation type I with syrinx: outcomes on scoliosis from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jun 18:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

25Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objective: Scoliosis is common in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I)-associated syringomyelia. While it is known that treatment with posterior fossa decompression (PFD) may reduce the progression of scoliosis, it is unknown if decompression with duraplasty is superior to extradural decompression.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of 1257 pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for patients with scoliosis who underwent PFD with or without duraplasty.

Results: In total, 422 patients who underwent PFD had a clinical diagnosis of scoliosis. Of these patients, 346 underwent duraplasty, 51 received extradural decompression alone, and 25 were excluded because no data were available on the type of PFD. The mean clinical follow-up was 2.6 years. Overall, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of fusion or proportion of patients with curve progression between those with and those without a duraplasty. However, after controlling for age, sex, preoperative curve magnitude, syrinx length, syrinx width, and holocord syrinx, extradural decompression was associated with curve progression > 10°, but not increased occurrence of fusion. Older age at PFD and larger preoperative curve magnitude were independently associated with subsequent occurrence of fusion. Greater syrinx reduction after PFD of either type was associated with decreased occurrence of fusion.

Conclusions: In patients with CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis undergoing PFD, there was no difference in subsequent occurrence of surgical correction of scoliosis between those receiving a duraplasty and those with an extradural decompression. However, after controlling for preoperative factors including age, syrinx characteristics, and curve magnitude, patients treated with duraplasty were less likely to have curve progression than patients treated with extradural decompression. Further study is needed to evaluate the role of duraplasty in curve stabilization after PFD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.12.PEDS20552DOI Listing
June 2021

A multicenter validation of the condylar-C2 sagittal vertical alignment in Chiari malformation type I: a study using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jun 4:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

1Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Primary Children's Hospital, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: The condylar-C2 sagittal vertical alignment (C-C2SVA) describes the relationship between the occipitoatlantal joint and C2 in patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I). It has been suggested that a C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm is predictive of the need for occipitocervical fusion (OCF) or ventral brainstem decompression (VBD). The authors' objective was to validate the predictive utility of the C-C2SVA by using a large, multicenter cohort of patients.

Methods: This validation study used a cohort of patients derived from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium; patients < 21 years old with CM-I and syringomyelia treated from June 2011 to May 2016 were identified. The primary outcome was the need for OCF and/or VBD. After patients who required OCF and/or VBD were identified, 10 age- and sex-matched controls served as comparisons for each OCF/VBD patient. The C-C2SVA (defined as the position of a plumb line from the midpoint of the O-C1 joint relative to the posterior aspect of the C2-3 disc space), pBC2 (a line perpendicular to a line from the basion to the posteroinferior aspect of the C2 body), and clival-axial angle (CXA) were measured on sagittal MRI. The secondary outcome was the need for ≥ 2 CM-related operations.

Results: Of the 206 patients identified, 20 underwent OCF/VBD and 14 underwent repeat posterior fossa decompression. A C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm was 100% sensitive and 86% specific for requiring OCF/VBD, with a 12.6% misclassification rate, whereas CXA < 125° was 55% sensitive and 99% specific, and pBC2 ≥ 9 was 20% sensitive and 88% specific. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that there was a significantly shorter time to second decompression in children with C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm (p = 0.0039). The mean C-C2SVA was greater (6.13 ± 1.28 vs 3.13 ± 1.95 mm, p < 0.0001), CXA was lower (126° ± 15.4° vs 145° ± 10.7°, p < 0.05), and pBC2 was similar (7.65 ± 1.79 vs 7.02 ± 1.26 mm, p = 0.31) among those who underwent OCF/VBD versus decompression only. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the continuous measurement of C-C2SVA was 0.52; the kappa value was 0.47 for the binary categorization of C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm.

Conclusions: These results validated the C-C2SVA using a large, multicenter, external cohort with 100% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and a 12.6% misclassification rate. A C-C2SVA ≥ 5 mm is highly predictive of the need for OCF/VBD in patients with CM-I. The authors recommend that this measurement be considered among the tools to identify the "high-risk" CM-I phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.12.PEDS20809DOI Listing
June 2021

Longitudinal CSF Iron Pathway Proteins in Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus: Associations with Ventricle Size and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.

Ann Neurol 2021 08 25;90(2):217-226. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Objective: Iron has been implicated in the pathogenesis of brain injury and hydrocephalus after preterm germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage, however, it is unknown how external or endogenous intraventricular clearance of iron pathway proteins affect the outcome in this group.

Methods: This prospective multicenter cohort included patients with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) who underwent (1) temporary and permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion and (2) Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III testing around 2 years of age. CSF proteins in the iron handling pathway were analyzed longitudinally and compared to ventricle size and neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Results: Thirty-seven patients met inclusion criteria with a median estimated gestational age at birth of 25 weeks; 65% were boys. Ventricular CSF levels of hemoglobin, iron, total bilirubin, and ferritin decreased between temporary and permanent CSF diversion with no change in CSF levels of ceruloplasmin, transferrin, haptoglobin, and hepcidin. There was an increase in CSF hemopexin during this interval. Larger ventricle size at permanent CSF diversion was associated with elevated CSF ferritin (p = 0.015) and decreased CSF hemopexin (p = 0.007). CSF levels of proteins at temporary CSF diversion were not associated with outcome, however, higher CSF transferrin at permanent CSF diversion was associated with improved cognitive outcome (p = 0.015). Importantly, longitudinal change in CSF iron pathway proteins, ferritin (decrease), and transferrin (increase) were associated with improved cognitive (p = 0.04) and motor (p = 0.03) scores and improved cognitive (p = 0.04), language (p = 0.035), and motor (p = 0.008) scores, respectively.

Interpretation: Longitudinal changes in CSF transferrin (increase) and ferritin (decrease) are associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonatal PHH, with implications for understanding the pathogenesis of poor outcomes in PHH. ANN NEUROL 2021;90:217-226.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26133DOI Listing
August 2021

Immediate Postoperative Electroencephalography Monitoring in Pediatric Moyamoya Disease and Syndrome.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 05 15;118:40-45. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Moyamoya disease and syndrome are progressive steno-occlusive cerebrovascular diseases that manifest clinically with ischemic episodes. There is evidence for the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in preoperative and long-term postoperative evaluation of these patients, as well as in the intraoperative period to monitor for changes correlated with perioperative ischemic events. However, the utility of EEG in the immediate postprocedure time period has not previously been described.

Methods: We review six patients who underwent pial synangiosis from 2017 to 2019. EEGs from the preoperative, intraoperative, and immediate postoperative period were evaluated, as well as clinical examination changes and subsequent interventions.

Results: Six patients with postoperative EEG monitoring following pial synangiosis were included. EEG data was collected preoperatively, intraoperatively, and continuously postoperatively. Preoperatively, five of six patients had normal background activity on EEG, whereas one of six had hemispheric asymmetry. Three patients had new or worsening hemispheric intracerebral asymmetry on EEG during the immediate postsurgical period. Two of these had no clinical manifestations of ischemia, and one had transient left facial weakness. All three underwent blood pressure augmentation with improvement in the asymmetry on EEG and clinical improvement in the symptomatic patient.

Conclusions: Although widely accepted as a useful tool during the preoperative and intraoperative periods of evaluation and management of moyamoya disease and syndrome, we propose that the use of continuous EEG in the immediate postoperative period may have potential as a useful adjunct by both detecting early clinical and subclinical intracranial ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.02.004DOI Listing
May 2021

Dural augmentation approaches and complication rates after posterior fossa decompression for Chiari I malformation and syringomyelia: a Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Feb 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

3Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL.

Objective: Posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) is commonly performed for Chiari I malformation (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM). However, complication rates associated with various dural graft types are not well established. The objective of this study was to elucidate complication rates within 6 months of surgery among autograft and commonly used nonautologous grafts for pediatric patients who underwent PFDD for CM-I/SM.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database was queried for pediatric patients who had undergone PFDD for CM-I with SM. All patients had tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and ≥ 6 months of postoperative follow-up after PFDD. Complications (e.g., pseudomeningocele, CSF leak, meningitis, and hydrocephalus) and postoperative changes in syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain were compared for autograft versus nonautologous graft.

Results: A total of 781 PFDD cases were analyzed (359 autograft, 422 nonautologous graft). Nonautologous grafts included bovine pericardium (n = 63), bovine collagen (n = 225), synthetic (n = 99), and human cadaveric allograft (n = 35). Autograft (103/359, 28.7%) had a similar overall complication rate compared to nonautologous graft (143/422, 33.9%) (p = 0.12). However, nonautologous graft was associated with significantly higher rates of pseudomeningocele (p = 0.04) and meningitis (p < 0.001). The higher rate of meningitis was influenced particularly by the higher rate of chemical meningitis (p = 0.002) versus infectious meningitis (p = 0.132). Among 4 types of nonautologous grafts, there were differences in complication rates (p = 0.02), including chemical meningitis (p = 0.01) and postoperative nausea/vomiting (p = 0.03). Allograft demonstrated the lowest complication rates overall (14.3%) and yielded significantly fewer complications compared to bovine collagen (p = 0.02) and synthetic (p = 0.003) grafts. Synthetic graft yielded higher complication rates than autograft (p = 0.01). Autograft and nonautologous graft resulted in equal improvements in syrinx size (p < 0.0001). No differences were found for postoperative changes in headaches or neck pain.

Conclusions: In the largest multicenter cohort to date, complication rates for dural autograft and nonautologous graft are similar after PFDD for CM-I/SM, although nonautologous graft results in higher rates of pseudomeningocele and meningitis. Rates of meningitis differ among nonautologous graft types. Autograft and nonautologous graft are equivalent for reducing syrinx size, headaches, and neck pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.PEDS2087DOI Listing
February 2021

Case report of mesenteric strangulation secondary to longstanding ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 08 2;37(8):2719-2722. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are the most common treatment for hydrocephalus in both pediatric and adult patients. Complications resulting from the abdominal portion of shunts include tube disconnection, obstruction of the shunt tip, catheter migration, infection, abdominal pseudocysts, and bowel perforation. However, other less common complications can occur. The authors present a unique case of a patient with a longstanding VP shunt presenting with an acute abdomen secondary to knotting of the peritoneal portion of the catheter tubing.

Case Description: A 13-year-old male with past medical history significant for myelomeningocele, requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement at 18 months of age, presented to an outside hospital with chief complaint of abdominal pain. Cross-sectional imaging revealed spontaneous knot formation within the shunt tubing around the base of the small bowel mesentery. He was then transferred to our facility for general and neurosurgical evaluation. His abdominal exam was notable for diffuse distension in addition to tenderness to palpation with guarding and rebound. Given his tenuous clinical status and peritonitis, he was emergently booked for abdominal exploration. He underwent bowel resection, externalization of his shunt, with later re-anastomosis and shunt internalization. He eventually made a full recovery.

Discussion: Given the potential for significant bowel loss with this and other shunt-related complications, this case serves as a reminder that even longstanding VP shunts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in any patient with a shunt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-05019-1DOI Listing
August 2021

Occipital-Cervical Fusion and Ventral Decompression in the Surgical Management of Chiari-1 Malformation and Syringomyelia: Analysis of Data From the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

Neurosurgery 2021 01;88(2):332-341

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Occipital-cervical fusion (OCF) and ventral decompression (VD) may be used in the treatment of pediatric Chiari-1 malformation (CM-1) with syringomyelia (SM) as adjuncts to posterior fossa decompression (PFD) for complex craniovertebral junction pathology.

Objective: To examine factors influencing the use of OCF and OCF/VD in a multicenter cohort of pediatric CM-1 and SM subjects treated with PFD.

Methods: The Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry was used to examine 637 subjects with cerebellar tonsillar ectopia ≥ 5 mm, syrinx diameter ≥ 3 mm, and at least 1 yr of follow-up after their index PFD. Comparisons were made between subjects who received PFD alone and those with PFD + OCF or PFD + OCF/VD.

Results: All 637 patients underwent PFD, 505 (79.2%) with and 132 (20.8%) without duraplasty. A total of 12 subjects went on to have OCF at some point in their management (PFD + OCF), whereas 4 had OCF and VD (PFD + OCF/VD). Of those with complete data, a history of platybasia (3/10, P = .011), Klippel-Feil (2/10, P = .015), and basilar invagination (3/12, P < .001) were increased within the OCF group, whereas only basilar invagination (1/4, P < .001) was increased in the OCF/VD group. Clivo-axial angle (CXA) was significantly lower for both OCF (128.8 ± 15.3°, P = .008) and OCF/VD (115.0 ± 11.6°, P = .025) groups when compared to PFD-only group (145.3 ± 12.7°). pB-C2 did not differ among groups.

Conclusion: Although PFD alone is adequate for treating the vast majority of CM-1/SM patients, OCF or OCF/VD may be occasionally utilized. Cranial base and spine pathologies and CXA may provide insight into the need for OCF and/or OCF/VD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803430PMC
January 2021

Tract-Specific Relationships Between Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers and Periventricular White Matter in Posthemorrhagic Hydrocephalus of Prematurity.

Neurosurgery 2021 02;88(3):698-706

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) is associated with neurological morbidity and complex neurosurgical care. Improved tools are needed to optimize treatments and to investigate the developmental sequelae of PHH.

Objective: To examine the relationship between diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of PHH.

Methods: A total of 14 preterm (PT) infants with PHH and 46 controls were included. PT CSF was collected at temporizing surgery in PHH infants (PHH PT CSF) or lumbar puncture in controls. Term-equivalent age (TEA) CSF was acquired via implanted device or at permanent CSF diversion surgery in PHH (PHH-TEA-CSF) or lumbar puncture in controls. TEA dMRI scans were used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in the genu of corpus callosum (gCC), posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), and optic radiations (OPRA). Associations between dMRI measures and CSF amyloid precursor protein (APP), neural cell adhesion-1 (NCAM-1), and L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) were assessed using Pearson correlations.

Results: APP, NCAM-1, and L1CAM were elevated over controls in PHH-PT-CSF and PHH-TEA-CSF. dMRI FA and MD differed between control and PHH infants across all tracts. PHH-PT-CSF APP levels correlated with gCC and OPRA FA and PLIC MD, while L1CAM correlated with gCC and OPRA FA. In PHH-TEA-CSF, only L1CAM correlated with OPRA MD.

Conclusion: Tract-specific associations were observed between dMRI and CSF biomarkers at the initiation of PHH treatment. dMRI and CSF biomarker analyses provide innovative complementary methods for examining PHH-related white matter injury and associated developmental sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884147PMC
February 2021

Use of fast-sequence spine MRI in pediatric patients.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Sep 18:1-6. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

1Department of Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: The immediate and long-term risk of anesthesia in the pediatric population is controversial. Traditional spine MRI protocols require the patient to remain still during the examination, and in young children this frequently results in the need for sedation administration. The authors' goal was to develop an abbreviated spine MRI protocol to reduce sedation administration in young patients undergoing spine MRI.

Methods: After IRB approval, the medical records of all pediatric patients who underwent a fast spine MRI protocol between 2017 and 2019 were reviewed. The protocol consisted of T2-weighted half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin echo, T1-weighted turbo spin echo, and T2-weighted STIR sequences acquired in the sagittal plane. The total acquisition time was 2 minutes with no single sequence acquisition longer than 60 seconds. Interpretability of the scans was assessed in accordance with the radiology report in conjunction with the neurosurgeon's clinical notes.

Results: A total of 47 fast spine MRI sessions were performed in 45 patients. The median age at the time of the MRI was 2.4 years (25th-75th quartile, 1.1-4.3 years; range 0.16-18.58 years). The most common indication for imaging was to rule out or follow a known syrinx (n = 30), followed by the need to rule out or follow known spinal dysraphism (n = 22). There were no uninterpretable or unusable scans. Eight of 47 scans were noted to have moderate motion artifact limitations with respect to the quality of the scan. Seven patients underwent a subsequent MRI with a sedated standard spine protocol within 1 year from the fast scan, which confirmed the findings on the fast MRI protocol with no new findings identified.

Conclusions: The authors report the first pediatric series of a fast spine MRI protocol for use in young patients. The protocol does not require sedation and is able to identify and monitor syrinx, spinal dysraphism, and potentially other intraspinal anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.5.PEDS20137DOI Listing
September 2020

Intraventricular Hemorrhage Clearance in Human Neonatal Cerebrospinal Fluid: Associations With Hydrocephalus.

Stroke 2020 06 13;51(6):1712-1719. Epub 2020 May 13.

From the Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University in St Louis, MO (C.B., M.P., D.M., D.D.L., J.M.S.).

Background and Purpose- Preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are at risk for posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and poor neurological outcomes. Iron has been implicated in ventriculomegaly, hippocampal injury, and poor outcomes following IVH. We hypothesized that levels of cerebrospinal fluid blood breakdown products and endogenous iron clearance proteins in neonates with IVH differ from those of neonates with IVH who subsequently develop posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Methods- Premature neonates with an estimated gestational age at birth <30 weeks who underwent lumbar puncture for clinical evaluation an average of 2 weeks after birth were evaluated. Groups consisted of controls (n=16), low-grade IVH (grades I-II; n=4), high-grade IVH (grades III-IV; n=6), and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (n=9). Control subjects were preterm neonates born at <30 weeks' gestation without brain abnormality or hemorrhage on cranial ultrasound, who underwent lumbar puncture for clinical purposes. Cerebrospinal fluid hemoglobin, total bilirubin, total iron, ferritin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, haptoglobin, and hemopexin were quantified. Results- Cerebrospinal fluid hemoglobin levels were increased in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus compared with high-grade IVH (9.45 versus 6.06 µg/mL, <0.05) and cerebrospinal fluid ferritin levels were increased in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus compared with controls (511.33 versus 67.08, <0.01). No significant group differences existed for the other cerebrospinal fluid blood breakdown and iron-handling proteins tested. We observed positive correlations between ventricular enlargement (frontal occipital horn ratio) and ferritin (Pearson =0.67), hemoglobin (Pearson =0.68), and total bilirubin (Pearson =0.69). Conclusions- Neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus had significantly higher levels of hemoglobin than those with high-grade IVH. Levels of blood breakdown products, hemoglobin, ferritin, and bilirubin correlated with ventricular size. There was no elevation of several iron-scavenging proteins in cerebrospinal fluid in neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocpehalus, indicative of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus as a disease state occurring when endogenous iron clearance mechanisms are overwhelmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253327PMC
June 2020

Obex position is associated with syringomyelia and use of posterior fossa decompression among patients with Chiari I malformation.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Apr 10:1-8. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery.

Objective: Chiari I malformation (CM-I) has traditionally been defined by measuring the position of the cerebellar tonsils relative to the foramen magnum. The relationships of tonsillar position to clinical presentation, syringomyelia, scoliosis, and the use of posterior fossa decompression (PFD) surgery have been studied extensively and yielded inconsistent results. Obex position has been proposed as a useful adjunctive descriptor for CM-I and may be associated with clinical disease severity.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of 442 CM-I patients with MRI who presented for clinical evaluation between 2003 and 2018. Clinical and radiological variables were measured for all patients, including presence/location of headaches, Chiari Severity Index (CSI) grade, tonsil position, obex position, clival canal angle, pB-C2 distance, occipitalization of the atlas, basilar invagination, syringomyelia, syrinx diameter, scoliosis, and use of PFD. Radiological measurements were then used to predict clinical characteristics using regression and survival analyses, with performing PFD, the presence of a syrinx, and scoliosis as outcome variables.

Results: Among the radiological measurements, tonsil position, obex position, and syringomyelia were each independently associated with use of PFD. Together, obex position, tonsil position, and syringomyelia (area under the curve [AUC] 89%) or obex position and tonsil position (AUC 85.4%) were more strongly associated with use of PFD than tonsil position alone (AUC 76%) (Pdiff = 3.4 × 10-6 and 6 × 10-4, respectively) but were only slightly more associated than obex position alone (AUC 82%) (Pdiff = 0.01 and 0.18, respectively). Additionally, obex position was significantly associated with occipital headaches, CSI grade, syringomyelia, and scoliosis, independent of tonsil position. Tonsil position was associated with each of these traits when analyzed alone but did not remain significantly associated with use of PFD when included in multivariate analyses with obex position.

Conclusions: Compared with tonsil position alone, obex position is more strongly associated with symptomatic CM-I, as measured by presence of a syrinx, scoliosis, or use of PFD surgery. These results support the role of obex position as a useful radiological measurement to inform the evaluation and potentially the management of CM-I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.2.PEDS19486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554138PMC
April 2020

Radiological and clinical associations with scoliosis outcomes after posterior fossa decompression in patients with Chiari malformation and syrinx from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Apr 10:1-7. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: In patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and a syrinx who also have scoliosis, clinical and radiological predictors of curve regression after posterior fossa decompression are not well known. Prior reports indicate that age younger than 10 years and a curve magnitude < 35° are favorable predictors of curve regression following surgery. The aim of this study was to determine baseline radiological factors, including craniocervical junction alignment, that might predict curve stability or improvement after posterior fossa decompression.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and a syrinx (≥ 3 mm in width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°) in patients who underwent posterior fossa decompression and who also had follow-up imaging.

Results: Of 825 patients with CM-I and a syrinx, 251 (30.4%) were noted to have scoliosis present at the time of diagnosis. Forty-one (16.3%) of these patients underwent posterior fossa decompression and had follow-up imaging to assess for scoliosis. Twenty-three patients (56%) were female, the mean age at time of CM-I decompression was 10.0 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 1.3 years. Nine patients (22%) had stable curves, 16 (39%) showed improvement (> 5°), and 16 (39%) displayed curve progression (> 5°) during the follow-up period. Younger age at the time of decompression was associated with improvement in curve magnitude; for those with curves of ≤ 35°, 17% of patients younger than 10 years of age had curve progression compared with 64% of those 10 years of age or older (p = 0.008). There was no difference by age for those with curves > 35°. Tonsil position, baseline syrinx dimensions, and change in syrinx size were not associated with the change in curve magnitude. There was no difference in progression after surgery in patients who were also treated with a brace compared to those who were not treated with a brace for scoliosis.

Conclusions: In this cohort of patients with CM-I, a syrinx, and scoliosis, younger age at the time of decompression was associated with improvement in curve magnitude following surgery, especially in patients younger than 10 years of age with curves of ≤ 35°. Baseline tonsil position, syrinx dimensions, frontooccipital horn ratio, and craniocervical junction morphology were not associated with changes in curve magnitude after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.PEDS18755DOI Listing
April 2020

Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients treated for Chiari malformation type I and syringomyelia: a study from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Mar 6:1-11. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

31Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: Factors associated with syrinx size in pediatric patients undergoing posterior fossa decompression (PFD) or PFD with duraplasty (PFDD) for Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syringomyelia (SM; CM-I+SM) are not well established.

Methods: Using the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium registry, the authors analyzed variables associated with syrinx radiological outcomes in patients (< 20 years old at the time of surgery) with CM-I+SM undergoing PFD or PFDD. Syrinx resolution was defined as an anteroposterior (AP) diameter of ≤ 2 mm or ≤ 3 mm or a reduction in AP diameter of ≥ 50%. Syrinx regression or progression was defined using 1) change in syrinx AP diameter (≥ 1 mm), or 2) change in syrinx length (craniocaudal, ≥ 1 vertebral level). Syrinx stability was defined as a < 1-mm change in syrinx AP diameter and no change in syrinx length.

Results: The authors identified 380 patients with CM-I+SM who underwent PFD or PFDD. Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed younger age at surgery and PFDD as being independently associated with syrinx resolution, defined as a ≤ 2-mm or ≤ 3-mm AP diameter or ≥ 50% reduction in AP diameter. Radiological syrinx resolution was associated with improvement in headache (p < 0.005) and neck pain (p < 0.011) after PFD or PFDD. Next, PFDD (p = 0.005), scoliosis (p = 0.007), and syrinx location across multiple spinal segments (p = 0.001) were associated with syrinx diameter regression, whereas increased preoperative frontal-occipital horn ratio (FOHR; p = 0.007) and syrinx location spanning multiple spinal segments (p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length regression. Scoliosis (HR 0.38 [95% CI 0.16-0.91], p = 0.03) and smaller syrinx diameter (5.82 ± 3.38 vs 7.86 ± 3.05 mm; HR 0.60 [95% CI 0.34-1.03], p = 0.002) were associated with syrinx diameter stability, whereas shorter preoperative syrinx length (5.75 ± 4.01 vs 9.65 ± 4.31 levels; HR 0.21 [95% CI 0.12-0.38], p = 0.0001) and smaller pB-C2 distance (6.86 ± 1.27 vs 7.18 ± 1.38 mm; HR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05], p = 0.04) were associated with syrinx length stability. Finally, younger age at surgery (8.19 ± 5.02 vs 10.29 ± 4.25 years; HR 1.89 [95% CI 1.31-3.04], p = 0.01) was associated with syrinx diameter progression, whereas increased postoperative syrinx diameter (6.73 ± 3.64 vs 3.97 ± 3.07 mm; HR 3.10 [95% CI 1.67-5.76], p = 0.003), was associated with syrinx length progression. PFD versus PFDD was not associated with syrinx progression or reoperation rate.

Conclusions: These data suggest that PFDD and age are independently associated with radiological syrinx improvement, although forthcoming results from the PFDD versus PFD randomized controlled trial (NCT02669836, clinicaltrials.gov) will best answer this question.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.1.PEDS19493DOI Listing
March 2020

Cerebrovascular Complications of Pediatric Blunt Trauma.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 07 11;108:5-12. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:

Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke can occur in the setting of pediatric trauma, particularly those with head or neck injuries. The risk of stroke appears highest within the first two weeks after trauma. Stroke diagnosis may be challenging due to lack of awareness or concurrent injuries limiting detailed neurological assessment. Other injuries may also complicate stroke management, with competing priorities for blood pressure, ventilator management, or antithrombotic timing. Here we review epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic approach to blunt arterial injuries including dissection, cerebral sinovenous thrombosis, mineralizing angiopathy, stroke from abusive head trauma, and traumatic hemorrhagic stroke. Owing to the complexities and heterogeneity of concomitant injuries in stroke related to trauma, a single pathway for stroke management is impractical. Therefore providers must understand the goals and possible costs or consequences of stroke management decisions to individualize patient care. We discuss the physiological principles of cerebral perfusion and oxygen delivery, considerations for ventilator strategy when stroke and lung injury are present, and current available evidence of the risks and benefits of anticoagulation to provide a framework for multidisciplinary discussions of cerebrovascular injury management in pediatric patients with trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.12.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306436PMC
July 2020

Syringomyelia in children with closed spinal dysraphism: long-term outcomes after surgical intervention.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Dec 13:1-7. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

2Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: The nature of the relationship between spinal cord syrinx and tethered cord is not well known. It is unclear if surgical cord untethering results in resolution or improvement of an associated syrinx. The objective of this study was to report the response of spinal cord syrinx to surgical cord untethering.

Methods: The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients with a syrinx and tethered cord who presented to a single institution over an 11-year interval. Patients with open neural tube defects were excluded. Thirty-one patients were identified, 25 of whom had both clinical and imaging follow-up after surgery. Patients were grouped according to etiology of the tethered cord. Clinical outcomes and syrinx characteristics were recorded.

Results: Of the 25 patients with tethered cord, 68% (n = 17) were male. The average age at presentation was 2.5 years (0-10.1 years) and age at surgery was 3.7 years (range 1 day to 17 years). Etiologies of tethered cord were lipomyelomeningocele (n = 8), thickened/fatty filum (n = 7), intradural lipoma (n = 5), myelocystocele (n = 2), meningocele (n = 2), and diastematomyelia (n = 1). Twenty-three of the patients underwent primary untethering, whereas 2 patients had received untethering previously at another institution. The average syrinx length and width prior to surgery were 4.81 vertebral levels (SD 4.35) and 5.19 mm (SD 2.55 mm), respectively. Conus level ranged from L1 to S3. Patients were followed for an average of 8.4 years (1.35-15.85 years). Overall there was no significant change in syrinx length or width postoperatively; the average syrinx length increased by 0.86 vertebral levels (SD 4.36) and width decreased by 0.72 mm (SD 2.94 mm). Seven of 25 patients had improvement in at least one presenting symptom, including scoliosis, weakness, bowel/bladder dysfunction, and pain. Eight patients had stable presenting symptoms. Six patients were asymptomatic and 5 patients had new or worsening symptoms, which included scoliosis, pain, or sensory changes.

Conclusions: Although some syrinxes improved after surgery for tethered cord, radiological improvement was not consistent and did not appear to be associated with change in clinical symptoms. The decision to surgically untether a cord should be focused on the clinical symptoms and not the presence of a syrinx alone. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.9.PEDS1944DOI Listing
December 2019

Radiological and clinical predictors of scoliosis in patients with Chiari malformation type I and spinal cord syrinx from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Aug 16:1-8. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

23Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Objective: Scoliosis is frequently a presenting sign of Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) with syrinx. The authors' goal was to define scoliosis in this population and describe how radiological characteristics of CM-I and syrinx relate to the presence and severity of scoliosis.

Methods: A large multicenter retrospective and prospective registry of pediatric patients with CM-I (tonsils ≥ 5 mm below the foramen magnum) and syrinx (≥ 3 mm in axial width) was reviewed for clinical and radiological characteristics of CM-I, syrinx, and scoliosis (coronal curve ≥ 10°).

Results: Based on available imaging of patients with CM-I and syrinx, 260 of 825 patients (31%) had a clear diagnosis of scoliosis based on radiographs or coronal MRI. Forty-nine patients (5.9%) did not have scoliosis, and in 516 (63%) patients, a clear determination of the presence or absence of scoliosis could not be made. Comparison of patients with and those without a definite scoliosis diagnosis indicated that scoliosis was associated with wider syrinxes (8.7 vs 6.3 mm, OR 1.25, p < 0.001), longer syrinxes (10.3 vs 6.2 levels, OR 1.18, p < 0.001), syrinxes with their rostral extent located in the cervical spine (94% vs 80%, OR 3.91, p = 0.001), and holocord syrinxes (50% vs 16%, OR 5.61, p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis revealed syrinx length and the presence of holocord syrinx to be independent predictors of scoliosis in this patient cohort. Scoliosis was not associated with sex, age at CM-I diagnosis, tonsil position, pB-C2 distance (measured perpendicular distance from the ventral dura to a line drawn from the basion to the posterior-inferior aspect of C2), clivoaxial angle, or frontal-occipital horn ratio. Average curve magnitude was 29.9°, and 37.7% of patients had a left thoracic curve. Older age at CM-I or syrinx diagnosis (p < 0.0001) was associated with greater curve magnitude whereas there was no association between syrinx dimensions and curve magnitude.

Conclusions: Syrinx characteristics, but not tonsil position, were related to the presence of scoliosis in patients with CM-I, and there was an independent association of syrinx length and holocord syrinx with scoliosis. Further study is needed to evaluate the nature of the relationship between syrinx and scoliosis in patients with CM-I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.5.PEDS18527DOI Listing
August 2019

Impaired hippocampal development and outcomes in very preterm infants with perinatal brain injury.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 18;22:101787. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States; Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States; Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, United States.

Preterm infants are at high risk for brain injury during the perinatal period. Intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, the two most common patterns of brain injury in prematurely-born children, are associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. The hippocampus is known to be critical for learning and memory; however, it remains unknown how these forms of brain injury affect hippocampal growth and how the resulting alterations in hippocampal development relate to childhood outcomes. To investigate these relationships, hippocampal segmentations were performed on term equivalent MRI scans from 55 full-term infants, 85 very preterm infants (born ≤32 weeks gestation) with no to mild brain injury and 73 very preterm infants with brain injury (e.g., grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, cystic periventricular leukomalacia). Infants then underwent standardized neurodevelopmental testing using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition at age 2 years, corrected for prematurity. To delineate the effects of brain injury on early hippocampal development, hippocampal volumes were compared across groups and associations between neonatal volumes and neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 2 years were explored. Very preterm infants with brain injury had smaller hippocampal volumes at term equivalent age compared to term and very preterm infants with no to mild injury, with the smallest hippocampi among those with grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Further, larger ventricle size was associated with smaller hippocampal size. Smaller hippocampal volumes were related to worse motor performance at age 2 years across all groups. In addition, smaller hippocampal volumes in infants with brain injury were correlated with impaired cognitive scores at age 2 years, a relationship specific to this group. Consistent with our preclinical findings, these findings demonstrate that perinatal brain injury is associated with hippocampal size in preterm infants, with smaller volumes related to domain-specific neurodevelopmental impairments in this high-risk clinical population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446074PMC
January 2020

Blood Exposure Causes Ventricular Zone Disruption and Glial Activation In Vitro.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2018 09;77(9):803-813

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine and the St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri.

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is the most common cause of pediatric hydrocephalus in North America but remains poorly understood. Cell junction-mediated ventricular zone (VZ) disruption and astrogliosis are associated with the pathogenesis of congenital, nonhemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Recently, our group demonstrated that VZ disruption is also present in preterm infants with IVH. On the basis of this observation, we hypothesized that blood triggers the loss of VZ cell junction integrity and related cytopathology. In order to test this hypothesis, we developed an in vitro model of IVH by applying syngeneic blood to cultured VZ cells obtained from newborn mice. Following blood treatment, cells were assayed for N-cadherin-dependent adherens junctions, ciliated ependymal cells, and markers of glial activation using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. After 24-48 hours of exposure to blood, VZ cell junctions were disrupted as determined by a significant reduction in N-cadherin expression (p < 0.05). This was also associated with significant decrease in multiciliated cells and increase in glial fibrillary acid protein-expressing cells (p < 0.05). These observations suggest that, in vitro, blood triggers VZ cell loss and glial activation in a pattern that mirrors the cytopathology of human IVH and supports the relevance of this in vitro model to define injury mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nly058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927874PMC
September 2018

Predictors of mortality for preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage: a population-based study.

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 11 9;34(11):2203-2213. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, One Children's Place, Suite 4S20, St. Louis Children's Hospital, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Purpose: The goal of this longitudinal, population-level study was to examine factors affecting mortality in preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH).

Methods: The study examined patients who were born at 36 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA) or less with a diagnosis of IVH between the years 2005 and 2014 using data from the New York and Nebraska State Inpatient Databases. Potential predictors for mortality were investigated with multivariable survival analysis.

Results: The cohort included 7437 preterm infants with IVH. All-cause inpatient mortality occurred in 746 (10.0%). The majority of deaths were in infants born at less than 25 weeks EGA (378 or 50.7%) and with birthweight less than 750 g (459 or 61.5%). Mortality was highest for children with grade IV IVH (306/848 or 36.1%), followed by grades III (203/955 or 21.3%), II (103/1328 or 7.8%), and I (134/4306 or 3.1%). Hydrocephalus was diagnosed within 6 months in 627 (8.4%) patients, with cerebrospinal fluid shunts required in 237 (3.2%). Shunts were eventually revised in 122 (51.5% of shunts), and 43 (18.1%) had infections. Multivariable Cox survival analyses found male sex (HR 1.3 [95% CI 1.1-1.5]), Asian race (HR 1.5 [1.1-2.2]), lower EGA (HR 9.9 [6.3-15.5] for < 25 weeks), higher IVH grade (HR 6.1 [4.9-7.6] for grade IV), gastrostomy (HR 4.0 [2.0-7.7]), tracheostomy (HR 3.5 [1.7-7.1]), and shunt infection (HR 3.2 [1.0-9.9]) to be independently associated with increased mortality risk.

Conclusions: This database is the first of its kind assembled for population-based investigations of long-term neurosurgical outcomes in preterm infants with IVH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-018-3897-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6326904PMC
November 2018

De Novo Mutation in Genes Regulating Neural Stem Cell Fate in Human Congenital Hydrocephalus.

Neuron 2018 07 5;99(2):302-314.e4. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Yale Center for Genome Analysis, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Congenital hydrocephalus (CH), featuring markedly enlarged brain ventricles, is thought to arise from failed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis and is treated with lifelong surgical CSF shunting with substantial morbidity. CH pathogenesis is poorly understood. Exome sequencing of 125 CH trios and 52 additional probands identified three genes with significant burden of rare damaging de novo or transmitted mutations: TRIM71 (p = 2.15 × 10), SMARCC1 (p = 8.15 × 10), and PTCH1 (p = 1.06 × 10). Additionally, two de novo duplications were identified at the SHH locus, encoding the PTCH1 ligand (p = 1.2 × 10). Together, these probands account for ∼10% of studied cases. Strikingly, all four genes are required for neural tube development and regulate ventricular zone neural stem cell fate. These results implicate impaired neurogenesis (rather than active CSF accumulation) in the pathogenesis of a subset of CH patients, with potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic ramifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.06.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839075PMC
July 2018

Focal traumatic rupture of a dermoid cyst in a pediatric patient: case report and literature review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 12 30;34(12):2485-2490. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Neurological Surgery, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, 1 Children's Place, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Dermoid cysts are rare congenital teratomas that can occasionally rupture and cause chemical meningitis, neurological deficit, or hydrocephalus. Rarely, dermoid cysts in the pediatric population can rupture spontaneously and even more rarely rupture due to trauma. To date, there are only five documented cases of traumatic rupture of a dermoid cyst. A 2-year-old male presented with 5 days of left eye ptosis and ophthalmoplegia after suffering a fall and was found to have a ruptured left anterior clinoid dermoid cyst that was surgically resected. The patient had significant improvement postoperatively.

Significance: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature of a ruptured dermoid cyst after trauma in a pediatric patient and the first case of a traumatically ruptured dermoid cyst presenting with neurological deficit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-018-3879-6DOI Listing
December 2018

Time-to-event analysis of surgically treated posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in preterm infants: a single-institution retrospective study.

Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 7;33(11):1917-1926. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis Children's Hospital, One Children's Place, Suite 4S20, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report time points relevant to the neurosurgical management of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH).

Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on 104 preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) who received neurosurgical intervention for PHH at St. Louis Children's Hospital from 1994 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed for various endpoints.

Results: IVH grade on head ultrasound obtained through routine clinical care was II, III, and IV in 5 (4.8%), 33 (31.7%), and 66 (63.5%) of the patients, respectively. Neither IVH size nor location appeared to affect development of PHH. Days from birth to IVH, ventriculomegaly, temporizing neurosurgical procedure (TNP), and permanent neurosurgical intervention were 2.0 (95% CI 1.7-2.3), 3.0 (2.5-3.5), 24.0 (22.2-25.8), and 101.0 (90.4-111.6), respectively. Grades III and IV IVH did not differ in age at IVH diagnosis (Χ (1 d.f.) = 1.32, p = 0.25), ventriculomegaly (Χ  = 0.73, p = 0.40), TNP (Χ  = 0.61, p = 0.43), or permanent intervention (Χ  = 2.48, p = 0.17). Ventricular reservoirs and ventriculosubgaleal shunts were used in 71 (68.3%) and 30 (28.8%), respectively. Eighty (76.9%) of the patients ultimately received a VPS. Five (4.8%) underwent a primary endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), and two (1.9%) had ETV for a revision procedure. Four of the seven ETVs had choroid plexus cauterization.

Conclusions: Although most infants who develop IVH and ventriculomegaly will do so within a few days of birth, at-risk infants should be observed for at least 4 weeks with serial head ultrasounds to monitor for PHH requiring surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-017-3588-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5647248PMC
November 2017

Intraventricular Hemorrhage: the Role of Blood Components in Secondary Injury and Hydrocephalus.

Transl Stroke Res 2016 12 30;7(6):447-451. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-016-0480-8DOI Listing
December 2016

Hemoglobin-induced neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus after neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage.

Brain Res 2016 Mar 7;1635:86-94. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; Department of Neurological Surgery, St. Louis Children's Hospital, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Neuronal degeneration following neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is incompletely understood. Understanding the mechanisms of degeneration and cell loss may point toward specific treatments to limit injury. We evaluated the role of hemoglobin (Hb) in cell death after intraventricular injection in neonatal rats. Hb was injected into the right lateral ventricle of post-natal day 7 rats. Rats exposed to anesthesia were used for controls. The CA-1 region of the hippocampus was analyzed via immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining, Western blots, and double-labeling stains. Compared to controls, intraventricular injection of Hb decreased hippocampal volume (27% decrease; p<0.05), induced neuronal loss (31% loss; p<0.01), and increased neuronal degeneration (2.7 fold increase; p<0.01), which were all significantly reduced with the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Hb upregulated p-JNK (1.8 fold increase; p<0.05) and increased expression of the Hb/haptoglobin endocytotic receptor CD163 in neurons in vivo and in vitro (cultured cortical neurons). Hb induced expression of the CD163 receptor, which co-localized with p-JNK in hippocampal neurons, suggesting a potential pathway by which Hb enters the neuron to result in cell death. There were no differences in neuronal loss or degenerating neurons in Hb-injected animals that developed hydrocephalus versus those that did not. Intraventricular injection of Hb causes hippocampal neuronal degeneration and cell loss and increases brain p-JNK levels. p-JNK co-localized with the Hb/haptoglobin receptor CD163, suggesting a novel pathway by which Hb enters the neuron after IVH to result in cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2015.12.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4801173PMC
March 2016

Role of hemoglobin and iron in hydrocephalus after neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage.

Neurosurgery 2014 Dec;75(6):696-705; discussion 706

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background: Neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhage is common and often results in hydrocephalus. The pathogenesis of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus is not fully understood.

Objective: To explore the potential role of hemoglobin and iron released after hemorrhage.

Methods: Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), hemoglobin, or iron was injected into the right lateral ventricle of postnatal day-7 Sprague Dawley rats. Ventricle size, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, and the presence of iron were evaluated 24 and 72 hours after injection. A subset of animals was treated with an iron chelator (deferoxamine) or vehicle for 24 hours after hemoglobin injection, and ventricle size and cell death were evaluated.

Results: Intraventricular injection of hemoglobin and iron resulted in ventricular enlargement at 24 hours compared with the injection of aCSF. Protoporphyrin IX, the iron-deficient immediate heme precursor, did not result in ventricular enlargement after injection into the ventricle. HO-1, the enzyme that releases iron from heme, was increased in the hippocampus and cortex of hemoglobin-injected animals at 24 hours compared with aCSF-injected controls. Treatment with an iron chelator, deferoxamine, decreased hemoglobin-induced ventricular enlargement and cell death.

Conclusion: Intraventricular injection of hemoglobin and iron can induce hydrocephalus. Treatment with an iron chelator reduced hemoglobin-induced ventricular enlargement. This has implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

Abbreviations: aCSF, artificial cerebrospinal fluidDAB, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-4HClGMH-IVH, germinal matrix hemorrhage/intraventricular hemorrhageHO-1, heme oxygenase-1ICH, intracerebral hemorrhagePBS, phosphate-buffered salineSVZ, subventricular zoneTBST, tris-buffered saline with Tween 20.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1227/NEU.0000000000000524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4237659PMC
December 2014
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