Publications by authors named "Jennifer M Briens"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Glycemic, insulinemic and methylglyoxal postprandial responses to starches alone or in whole diets in dogs versus cats: Relating the concept of glycemic index to metabolic responses and gene expression.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jul 30;257:110973. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Toxicology Graduate Program, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3, Canada; Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada. Electronic address:

Species differences between domestic cats (Felis catus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) has led to differences in their ability to digest, absorb and metabolize carbohydrates through poorly characterized mechanisms. The current study aimed to first examine biopsied small intestine, pancreas, liver and skeletal muscle from laboratory beagles and domestic cats for mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in starch digestion (amylase), glucose transport (sodium-dependent SGLTs and -independent glucose transporters, GLUT) and glucose metabolism (hexokinase and glucokinase). Cats had lower mRNA expression of most genes examined in almost all tissues compared to dogs (p < 0.05). Next, postprandial glucose, insulin, methylglyoxal (a toxic glucose metabolite) and d-lactate (metabolite of methylglyoxal) after single feedings of different starch sources were tested in fasted dogs and cats. After feeding pure glucose, peak postprandial blood glucose and methylglyoxal were surprisingly similar between dogs and cats, except cats had a longer time to peak and a greater area under the curve consistent with lower glycolytic enzyme expression. After feeding starches or whole diets to dogs, postprandial glycemic response, glycemic index, insulin, methylglyoxal and d-lactate followed reported glycemic index trends in humans. In contrast, cats showed very low to negligible postprandial glycemic responses and low insulin after feeding different starch sources, but not whole diets, with no relationship to methylglyoxal or d-lactate. Thus, the concept of glycemic index appears valid in dogs, but not cats. Differences in amylase, glucose transporters, and glycolytic enzymes are consistent with species differences in starch and glucose handling between cats and dogs.
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July 2021

Cardiometabolic response of juvenile rainbow trout exposed to dietary selenomethionine.

Aquat Toxicol 2018 May 8;198:175-189. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B4, Canada; Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5B3, Canada. Electronic address:

Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities. Previous studies have reported that elevated dietary exposure of fish to selenomethionine (Se-Met) can cause significant cardiotoxicity and alter aerobic metabolic capacity, energy homeostasis and swimming performance. The goal of this study aims to further investigate mechanisms of sublethal Se-Met toxicity, particularly potential underlying cardiovascular and metabolic implications of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of dietary Se-Met in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile rainbow trout were fed either control food (1.3 μg Se/g d.m.) or Se-Met spiked food (6.4, 15.8 or 47.8 μg Se/g d.m.) for 60 d at 3% body weight per day. Following exposure, ultrahigh resolution B-mode and Doppler ultrasound was used to characterize cardiac function in vivo. Chronic dietary exposure to Se-Met significantly increased stroke volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction. Fish fed with Se-Met spiked food had elevated liver glycogen and triglyceride stores, suggesting impaired energy homeostasis. Exposure to Se-Met significantly decreased mRNA abundance of citrate synthase (CS) in liver and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clad H1 (SERPINH) in heart, and increased mRNA abundance of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) and key cardiac remodelling enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in heart. Taken together, these responses are consistent with a compensatory cardiac response to increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, namely a decrease in ventricular stiffness and improved cardiac function. These cardiac alterations in trout hearts were linked to metabolic disruption in other major metabolic tissues (liver and skeletal muscle), impaired glucose tolerance with increased levels of the toxic glucose metabolite, methylglyoxal, increased lipid peroxidation in skeletal muscle, development of cataracts and prolonged feeding behaviour, indicative of visual impairment. Therefore, although juvenile rainbow trout hearts were apparently able to functionally compensate for adverse metabolic and anti-oxidant changes after chronic dietary exposure Se-Met, complications associated with hyperglycemia in mammalian species were evident and would threaten survival of juvenile and adult fish.
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May 2018