Publications by authors named "Jennifer L Topmiller"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nano-metal oxides: Exposure and engineering control assessment.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2017 09;14(9):727-737

a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) , Cincinnati , Ohio.

In January 2007, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a field study to evaluate process specific emissions during the production of ENMs. This study was performed using the nanoparticle emission assessment technique (NEAT). During this study, it was determined that ENMs were released during production and cleaning of the process reactor. Airborne concentrations of silver, nickel, and iron were found both in the employee's personal breathing zone and area samples during reactor cleaning. At the completion of this initial survey, it was suggested that a flanged attachment be added to the local exhaust ventilation system.  NIOSH re-evaluated the facility in December 2011 to assess worker exposures following an increase in production rates. This study included a fully comprehensive emissions, exposure, and engineering control evaluation of the entire process. This study made use of the nanoparticle exposure assessment technique (NEAT 2.0). Data obtained from filter-based samples and direct reading instruments indicate that reactor cleanout increased the overall particle concentration in the immediate area. However, it does not appear that these concentrations affect areas outside of the production floor. As the distance between the reactor and the sample location increased, the observed particle number concentration decreased, creating a concentration gradient with respect to the reactor. The results of this study confirm that the flanged attachment on the local exhaust ventilation system served to decrease exposure potential.  Given the available toxicological data of the metals evaluated, caution is warranted. One should always keep in mind that occupational exposure levels were not developed specifically for nanoscale particles. With data suggesting that certain nanoparticles may be more toxic than the larger counterparts of the same material; employers should attempt to control emissions of these particles at the source, to limit the potential for exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2017.1326699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5655802PMC
September 2017

Airborne exposure patterns from a passenger source in aircraft cabins.

HVAC&R Res 2013 22;19(8):962-73. Epub 2013 Nov 22.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS R5, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA.

Airflow is a critical factor that influences air quality, airborne contaminant distribution, and disease transmission in commercial airliner cabins. The general aircraft-cabin air-contaminant transport effect model seeks to build exposure-spatial relationships between contaminant sources and receptors, quantify the uncertainty, and provide a platform for incorporation of data from a variety of studies. Knowledge of infection risk to flight crews and passengers is needed to form a coherent response to an unfolding epidemic, and infection risk may have an airborne pathogen exposure component. The general aircraf-tcabin air-contaminant transport effect model was applied to datasets from the University of Illinois and Kansas State University and also to case study information from a flight with probable severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission. Data were fit to regression curves, where the dependent variable was contaminant concentration (normalized for source strength and ventilation rate), and the independent variable was distance between source and measurement locations. The data-driven model showed exposure to viable small droplets and post-evaporation nuclei at a source distance of several rows in a mock-up of a twin-aisle airliner with seven seats per row. Similar behavior was observed in tracer gas, particle experiments, and flight infection data for severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study supports the airborne pathway as part of the matrix of possible disease transmission modes in aircraft cabins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10789669.2013.838990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4626449PMC
November 2015

Development of evaluation procedures for local exhaust ventilation for United States postal service mail-processing equipment.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2004 Jul;1(7):423-9

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Engineering and Physical Hazards Branch, Division of Applied Research and Technology, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA.

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted several evaluations of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for the United States Postal Service (USPS) since autumn 2001 when (a) terrorist(s) employed the mail system for acts of bioterrorism. As a part of the USPS 2002 Emergency Preparedness Plan, the development and installation of LEV onto USPS mail-processing equipment can reduce future exposures to operators from potentially hazardous contaminants, such as anthrax, which might be emitted during the processing of mail. This article describes how NIOSH field testing led to the development of recommended testing procedures for evaluations of LEV capture efficiency for mail-processing equipment, including tracer gas measurements, smoke release observations, air velocity measurements, and decay-rate testing under access hoods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459620490458486DOI Listing
July 2004
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