Publications by authors named "Jennifer L Lofgren"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Contrasting serum biomarker profiles in two Colombian populations with different risks for progression of premalignant gastric lesions during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 08 21;67:101726. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Colombians in coastal Tumaco have a lower incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer compared to individuals from Tuquerres in the high Andes. This is despite nearly universal prevalence of H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis.

Methods: H. pylori infection was confirmed by Steiner stain and serology using African and European-origin strains. Gastric histology and serum inflammatory biomarkers in dyspeptic Tumaco or Tuquerres patients were evaluated to predict progression of gastric lesions.

Results: H. pylori infection was nearly universal by Steiner stain and serology. IgG response to European-origin H. pylori strains were greater than African-origin. High gastric cancer-risk Tuquerres patients, compared to low-risk Tumaco, had significant odds ratios for lesion progression associated with serum IL-5, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), and low pepsinogen I/II ratio. Sensitivity and specificity for these parameters was 63.8% and 67.9%, respectively, with correctly classifying patients at 66.7%. Most odds ratios for 26 other biomarkers were significant for the town of residency, indicating an environmental impact on Tumaco patients associated with decreased lesion progression.

Conclusion: An IL-5 association with progression of gastric lesions is novel and could be evaluated in addition to TFF3 and pepsinogen I/II ratio as a non-invasive prognostic screen. Results suggest Tumaco patients were exposed to infectious diseases beyond H. pylori such as the documented high incidence of helminthiasis and toxoplasmosis.

Impact: Results support a prior recommendation to evaluate TFF3 and pepsinogen I/II together to predict aggressive gastric histology. Our data indicate IL-5 should be further evaluated as prognostic parameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755565PMC
August 2020

Effects of Trio and Pair Breeding of Mice on Environmental Parameters and Nasal Pathology and Their Implications for Cage Change Frequency.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2020 05 28;59(3):288-297. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Refinement and Enrichment Advancements Laboratory (REAL), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan;, Email:

According to the , cage change frequencies must be considered when cage density requirements are exceeded. We monitored ammonia, carbon dioxide, cage wetness, health status, and breeding parameters of trio and pair breeding cages containing CD1 mice in ventilated and static microisolation caging (4 cages per condition) daily for approximately 6 wk. Minimum cage change frequencies for each condition were determined on the basis of performance data. At 3 d after cage change, static trio and pair cages had average ammonia levels of 74 and 38 ppm. Ventilated cages remained below the 25ppm threshold reported to be potentially deleterious for mice until at least day 7 after cage change. By 7 d after cage change, ammonia levels had risen to an average of 100 ppm and 64 ppm in static trio and pair cages and to 34 ppm and 20 ppm in ventilated trio and pair cages, respectively. Ammonia levels in ventilated cages continued to rise slowly through day 14 after cage change. CO₂ levels exceeded 5000 ppm in all groups at 2 d after cage change. Pair breeders in ventilated cages took the longest-10 to 14 d-to reach cage wetness threshold scores. On day 7, pups in trio static cages were noted to have decreased and squinted eyes, whereas in ventilated cages containing trios and pairs, these clinical signs were rare to absent. Histologically, there was an increasing incidence and severity of nasal lesions in weanlings with increasing housing density and decreasing ventilation, consistent with nasal epithelial toxicity. Given these parameters, we concluded that under the current husbandry conditions, it may be necessary to change breeders in static cages more frequently than every 7 d. Additional studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of more frequent cage changes on reproductive parameters, given that cage changing is stressful for mice and affects breeding results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-19-000074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7210739PMC
May 2020

Enrichment Preferences of Singly Housed Zebrafish ().

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2020 03 5;59(2):148-155. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Refinement Enrichment Advancements Laboratory, Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Despite the increasing popularity of zebrafish () as an animal model, the environmental enrichment preferences of this species have been largely unexplored. We sought to determine the preferences of mature female zebrafish that were singly housed with or without access to one of 10 inanimate forms of enrichment. As a marker of preference, in-tank fish location was observed by video recording. All subjects showed a preference for the front of the tank when caretakers entered the room, demonstrating an effect of human presence on tank location. Among the 10 enrichment items tested, subjects showed the strongest preference for mirrored paper on the side of the tank when compared with the barren half of the tank. Fish also were observed interacting with PVC pipe, marbles, and tulle. Given the preference for enrichment imitating social interaction, we conducted a second study to assess the value of visual exposure of conspecifics in adjacent tanks. The experimental zebrafish were then provided one of 3 conditions-a singly housed neighbor fish, group-housed neighbor fish, or no neighbor fish. All zebrafish housed next to neighboring fish showed a preference to be on the side of the tank nearer to the other fish. Overall, our data indicate that singly housed zebrafish prefer enrichment items that resemble or promote social behaviors. Therefore items such as mirrored paper or housing next to conspecifics should be strongly considered as enrichment strategies for singly housed zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-19-000078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073398PMC
March 2020

Assessment of Mouse Handling Techniques During Cage Changing.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2019 11 23;58(6):767-773. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Refinement Enrichment Advancements Laboratory, Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Mouse handling during cage changing and health evaluation has traditionally been performed by using forceps. This method was adopted as a biosecurity measure but can adversely affect employee ergonomics and rodent behavior. In this study, we evaluated alternative methods of rodent handling and their potential implications for efficiency, biosecurity, and animal welfare. Study groups included plastic cups, gloved hands, 2 methods of tunnel handling, and forceps. Evaluations included speed of cage change, ATP-based assessment of sanitization, and retrospective analysis of colony health and breeding data. The time to change 14 cages was significantly faster at each time point for the gloved hands and forceps groups as compared with the other methods. Overall speed did not increase significantly with each subsequent study week for any group. ATP levels after sanitization with hydrogen peroxide-peracetic acid mixture differed significantly between gloves and forceps. When ATP level was evaluated on a per-cm² basis, no significant difference between gloves and forceps was detected. Although tunnel and cup handling both increased the time for cage-changing, the tunnel served as both an indirect handling method and a shelter when left within the cage. Retrospective analysis revealed that breeding performance and colony health were similar among groups. Although efficiency is a concern for large-scale implementation of novel handling methods, the tunnel method may prove beneficial for sensitive strains or studies requiring indirect handling. In addition, using gloved hands to directly handle mice during cage changing is efficient and avoids the ergonomic strain associated with forceps. Precautions should be taken when handling mice with gloves, given that the increased contact area carries an increased load of organic debris. Changing gloves between rack sides or before proceeding to the animals belonging to a different investigator minimizes the potential for cross-contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-19-000015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6926398PMC
November 2019

Analgesic Efficacy and Hematologic Effects of Robenacoxib in Mice.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 05;57(3):258-267

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, Department of Surgery, Vascular Surgery, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

NSAID analgesics may confound models that require inflammation to mimic disease development in humans. This effect presents a challenge for veterinary staff and investigators, because surgery is often necessary to create mouse models of disease and NSAID are first-line analgesics used to treat postoperative pain. We evaluated robenacoxib, a NSAID highly selective for cyclooxygenase 2, in a carrageenan paw edema (CPE) assay and surgical model of venous thrombosis (VT). We generated a mouse-specific dose-response curve by using the CPE assay for robenacoxib doses of 3.2, 10, 32 and 100 mg/kg SC. Electronic von Frey assay, calipers, and novel software for measuring open-field activity revealed that all robenacoxib doses provided, identified effective analgesia at 3 and 6 h, compared with saline. In addition, the 100-mg/kg dose had measurable antiinflammatory effects but yielded adverse clinical side effects. Because the 32-mg/kg dose was the highest analgesic dose that did not decrease paw swelling, we evaluated it further by using the same nociceptive and behavioral assays in addition to a novel nest-consolidation test, and assessment of blood clotting and hematologic parameters in the surgical VT model. A single preemptive dose of either 32 mg/kg SC robenacoxib or 5 mg/kg SC carprofen protected against secondary hyperalgesia at 24 and 48 h. Neither drug altered clot formation or hematology values in the VT model. The open-field activity software and our novel nest consolidation test both identified significant postoperative discomfort but did not differentiate between saline and analgesia groups. In light of these data, a single preemptive subcutaneous dose of 32 mg/kg of robenacoxib or 5 mg/kg of carprofen did not impede this VT mode but also failed to provide sufficient postoperative analgesia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966233PMC
May 2018

Using Cageside Measures to Evaluate Analgesic Efficacy in Mice () after Surgery.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2018 03;57(2):186-201

Refinement Enrichment Advancements Laboratory, Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan;, Email:

Recent studies have revealed some of the most frequently used analgesics in mice are not effectively treating postoperative pain. Our laboratory sought to compare and assess the validity and reliability of 2 cageside pain assessments that we recently developed for use in mice-nesting consolidation and grooming transfer tests. We then applied these tests to compare the efficacy of commonly used analgesics-buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg SC every 12 h for 48 h) and carprofen (30 mg/kg in drinking water for 72 h)-alone and in multimodal combination as a refinement for treating postoperative pain in mice. Briefly, C57BL/6 and CD1 male and female mice underwent assessment under conditions of baseline, anesthesia-analgesia, and laparotomy. Results showed that multimodal analgesia displayed the greatest analgesic coverage over the postoperative period, whereas buprenorphine showed slightly less coverage, and carprofen and saline groups displayed signs of pain at most postoperative time points. After anesthesia-analgesia, buprenorphine and multimodal mice lost significant body weight in the absence of a painful stimulus and displayed other significant drug-related changes. Animals treated with carprofen showed few drug-related changes after anesthesia-analgesia but also demonstrated minimal benefit from postsurgical analgesia. Overall, multimodal analgesia was more effective for treating postsurgical pain in mice than the single-analgesic protocols we tested; however, effects on weight loss need to be considered during analgesic selection. Nesting consolidation and grooming transfer tests were valid and highly reliable over time, in inbred and outbred mice, in male and female mice, under different housing conditions. In addition, the nesting consolidation test had excellent reliability between observers. These findings can be used in refining the detection and treatment of postoperative pain in mice.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5868385PMC
March 2018

Evaluation of Pain Assessment Techniques and Analgesia Efficacy in a Female Guinea Pig () Model of Surgical Pain.

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2017 Jul;56(4):425-435

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan;, Email:

Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are a frequently used species in research, often involving potentially painful procedures. Therefore, evidence-based recommendations regarding analgesia are critically needed to optimize their wellbeing. Our laboratory examined the efficacy of carprofen and extended-release (ER) buprenorphine, alone and as a multimodal combination, for relieving postsurgical pain in guinea pigs. Animals were assessed by using evoked (mechanical hypersensitivity), nonevoked (video ethogram, cageside ethogram, time-to-consumption test), and clinical (weight loss) measurements for 96 h during baseline, anesthesia-analgesia, and hysterectomy conditions. In addition, ER buprenorphine was evaluated pharmacologically. Guinea pigs treated with a single analgesic showed increased mechanical sensitivity for at least 96 h and indices of pain according to the video ethogram for as long as 8 h, compared with levels recorded during anesthesia-analgesia. In contrast, animals given both analgesics demonstrated increased mechanical sensitivity and behavioral evidence of pain for only 2 h after surgery compared with anesthesia-analgesia. The cageside ethogram and time-to-consumption tests failed to identify differences between conditions or treatment groups, highlighting the difficulty of identifying pain in guinea pigs without remote observation. Guinea pigs treated with multimodal analgesia or ER buprenorphine lost at least 10% of their baseline weights, whereas weight loss in carprofen animals was significantly lower (3%). Plasma levels for ER buprenorphine exceeded 0.9 ng/mL from 8 to 96 h after injection. Of the 3 analgesia regimens evaluated, multimodal analgesia provided the most effective pain control in guinea pigs. However the weight loss in the ER buprenorphine-treated animals may need to be considered during analgesia selection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5517332PMC
July 2017

Validation of a Behavioral Ethogram for Assessing Postoperative Pain in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2016 Jan;55(1):29-34

Refinement and Enrichment Advancements Laboratory (REAL), Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine (ULAM), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan;, Email:

Although guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) have been used in research for more than a century and remain the most prevalent USDA-covered species, little has been elucidated regarding the recognition of clinical pain or analgesic efficacy in this species. We sought to assess pain in guinea pigs by using newer, clinically relevant methods that have been validated in other rodent species: the behavioral ethogram and cageside proxy indicator. In this study, 10 male guinea pigs underwent electronic von Frey testing of nociception, remote videorecording of behavior, and cageside assessment by using time-to-consumption (TTC) of a preferred treat test. These assessments were performed across 2 conditions (anesthesia only and castration surgery under anesthesia) at 3 time points (2, 8, and 24 h after the event). The anesthesia only condition served to control for the nonpainful but potentially distressing components of the surgical experience. Compared with those after anesthesia only conditions, subtle body movements were increased and nociceptive thresholds were decreased at 2 and 8 h after surgery. At 24 h, neither subtle body movement behaviors nor nociceptive thresholds differed between the 2 conditions. In contrast, TTC scores did not differ between the anesthesia only and surgery conditions at any time point, underscoring the challenge of identifying pain in this species through cageside evaluation. By comparing ethogram scores with measures of nociception, we validated select behaviors as pain-specific. Therefore, our novel ethogram allowed us to assess postoperative pain and may further serve as a platform for future analgesia efficacy studies in guinea pigs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747008PMC
January 2016

Gastric colonisation with a restricted commensal microbiota replicates the promotion of neoplastic lesions by diverse intestinal microbiota in the Helicobacter pylori INS-GAS mouse model of gastric carcinogenesis.

Gut 2014 Jan 28;63(1):54-63. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, , Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: Gastric colonisation with intestinal flora (IF) has been shown to promote Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-associated gastric cancer. However, it is unknown if the mechanism involves colonisation with specific or diverse microbiota secondary to gastric atrophy.

Design: Gastric colonisation with Altered Schaedler's flora (ASF) and Hp were correlated with pathology, immune responses and mRNA expression for proinflammatory and cancer-related genes in germ-free (GF), Hp monoassociated (mHp), restricted ASF (rASF; 3 species), and specific pathogen-free (complex IF), hypergastrinemic INS-GAS mice 7 months postinfection.

Results: Male mice cocolonised with rASFHp or IFHp developed the most severe pathology. IFHp males had the highest inflammatory responses, and 40% developed invasive gastrointestinal intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN). Notably, rASFHp colonisation was highest in males and 23% developed invasive GIN with elevated expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Lesions were less severe in females and none developed GIN. Gastritis in male rASFHp mice was accompanied by decreased Clostridum species ASF356 and Bacteroides species ASF519 colonisation and an overgrowth of Lactobacillus murinus ASF361, supporting that inflammation-driven atrophy alters the gastric niche for GI commensals. Hp colonisation also elevated expression of IL-11 and cancer-related genes, Ptger4 and Tgf-β, further supporting that Hp infection accelerates gastric cancer development in INS-GAS mice.

Conclusions: rASFHp colonisation was sufficient for GIN development in males, and lower GIN incidence in females was associated with lower inflammatory responses and gastric commensal and Hp colonisation. Colonisation efficiency of commensals appears more important than microbial diversity and lessens the probability that specific gastrointestinal pathogens are contributing to cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023484PMC
January 2014

Castration eliminates conspecific aggression in group-housed CD1 male surveillance mice (Mus musculus).

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2012 ;51(5):594-9

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Microbiologic surveillance is essential for murine health maintenance. At our institution, female progeny of inhouse-bred CD1 mice are used in both the transgenic facility and health-surveillance program. To reduce overall animal use, the male progeny, otherwise slated for euthanasia due to a lack of utility, also were enrolled as sentinels. However, veterinary technicians noted excessive fighting among cohoused male surveillance mice that was not resolved by environmental enrichment. After review of factors known to influence aggression in male mice, early castration was selected as the most likely approach to eliminate aggressive behavior among cohoused male mice. Male mice were castrated before 1 mo of age and then placed into the surveillance program. Each week, veterinary technicians recorded all incidences of fighting in cages of castrated and noncastrated male surveillance mice to determine differences between groups. Over a 3-mo period, the overall prevalence of fighting in cages of intact male mice was 64% (14 of 22 cages); although all intact male mice were used preferentially for complete necropsy surveillance time points, one of these cages required separation and 4 cages housed mice that incurred severe fight wounds requiring both separation and euthanasia. In comparison, a 0% (0 of 16 cages) prevalence of fighting was observed among castrated male mice. Castration eradicated pain and distress associated with fighting, thereby constituting a refinement, and allowed the use of male mice from the breeding colony for surveillance, thereby reducing the total number of mice bred for surveillance. In conclusion, castration is a minimally invasive, safe, humane, rapid method to eliminate conspecific aggression among male CD1 surveillance mice.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3447448PMC
November 2013

Lack of commensal flora in Helicobacter pylori-infected INS-GAS mice reduces gastritis and delays intraepithelial neoplasia.

Gastroenterology 2011 Jan 13;140(1):210-20. Epub 2010 Oct 13.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Background & Aims: Transgenic FVB/N insulin-gastrin (INS-GAS) mice have high circulating gastrin levels, and develop spontaneous atrophic gastritis and gastrointestinal intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN) with 80% prevalence 6 months after Helicobacter pylori infection. GIN is associated with gastric atrophy and achlorhydria, predisposing mice to nonhelicobacter microbiota overgrowth. We determined if germfree INS-GAS mice spontaneously develop GIN and if H pylori accelerates GIN in gnotobiotic INS-GAS mice.

Methods: We compared gastric lesions, levels of messenger RNA, serum inflammatory mediators, antibodies, and gastrin among germfree and H pylori-monoinfected INS-GAS mice. Microbiota composition of specific pathogen-free (SPF) INS-GAS mice was quantified by pyrosequencing.

Results: Germfree INS-GAS mice had mild hypergastrinemia but did not develop significant gastric lesions until 9 months old and did not develop GIN through 13 months. H pylori monoassociation caused progressive gastritis, epithelial defects, oxyntic atrophy, marked foveolar hyperplasia, dysplasia, and robust serum and tissue proinflammatory immune responses (particularly males) between 5 and 11 months postinfection (P<0.05, compared with germfree controls). Only 2 of 26 female, whereas 8 of 18 male, H pylori-infected INS-GAS mice developed low to high-grade GIN by 11 months postinfection. Stomachs of H pylori-infected SPF male mice had significant reductions in Bacteroidetes and significant increases in Firmicutes.

Conclusions: Gastric lesions take 13 months longer to develop in germfree INS-GAS mice than male SPF INS-GAS mice. H pylori monoassociation accelerated gastritis and GIN but caused less severe gastric lesions and delayed onset of GIN compared with H pylori-infected INS-GAS mice with complex gastric microbiota. Changes in gastric microbiota composition might promote GIN in achlorhydric stomachs of SPF mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2010.09.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3006487PMC
January 2011

Cystic renal disease in the domestic ferret.

Comp Med 2008 Apr;58(2):161-7

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Cystic renal diseases in domestic ferrets are a common anecdotal finding but have received scant systematic assessment. We performed a 17-y, case-control retrospective analysis of the medical records of 97 ferrets housed at our institution between 1987 and 2004, to determine the prevalence and morphotypes of cystic renal diseases in this species. Histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, or periodic acid-Schiff were evaluated by a comparative pathologist, and statistical analysis of hematologic and serum chemistry values was correlated with morphologic diagnosis. Of the 97 available records, 43 were eliminated due to lack of accompanying tissues. Of the 54 remaining cases, 37 (69% prevalence) had documented renal cysts, and 14 of the 54 ferrets (26%) had primary polycystic disease consisting of either polycystic kidney disease affecting renal tubules or, more commonly, glomerulocystic kidney disease. Secondary polycystic lesions were identified in 11 ferrets (20%), and 12 ferrets (22%) exhibited focal or isolated tubular cysts only as an incidental necropsy finding. Ferrets with secondary renal cysts associated with other developmental anomalies, mesangial glomerulopathy, or end-stage kidney disease had hyperphosphatemia and elevated BUN in comparison with those with primary cystic disease and elevated BUN compared with those without renal lesions. Although reflecting institutional bias, these results implicate primary and secondary cystic renal diseases as highly prevalent and underreported in the domestic ferret. In addition to the clinical implications for ferrets as research subjects and pets, these findings suggest a potential value for ferrets as a model of human cystic renal diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2703171PMC
April 2008

Association of expiratory airway dysfunction with marked obesity in healthy adult dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2007 Jun;68(6):670-5

Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of obesity on pulmonary function in healthy adult dogs.

Animals: 36 Retrievers without cardiopulmonary disease.

Procedures: Dogs were assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of body condition score (1 through 9): nonobese (score, 4.5 to 5.5), moderately obese (score, 6.0 to 6.5), and markedly obese (score, 7.0 to 9.0). Pulmonary function tests performed in conscious dogs included spirometry and measurement of inspiratory and expiratory airway resistance (R(aw)) and specific R(aw) (sR(aw)) during normal breathing and during hyperpnea via head-out whole-body plethysmography. Functional residual capacity (FRC; measured by use of helium dilution), diffusion capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and arterial blood gas variables (PaO(2), PaCO(2), and alveolar-arterial gradient) were assessed.

Results: During normal breathing, body condition score did not influence airway function, DLCO, or arterial blood gas variables. During hyperpnea, expiratory sR(aw) was significantly greater in markedly obese dogs than nonobese dogs and R(aw) was significantly greater in markedly obese dogs, compared with nonobese and moderately obese dogs. Although not significantly different, markedly obese dogs had a somewhat lower FRC, compared with other dogs.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: In dogs, obesity appeared to cause airflow limitation during the expiratory phase of breathing, but this was only evident during hyperpnea. This suggests that flow limitation is dynamic and likely occurs in the distal (rather than proximal) portions of the airways. Further studies are warranted to localize the flow-limited segment and understand whether obesity is linked to exercise intolerance via airway dysfunction in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.68.6.670DOI Listing
June 2007

Restrained whole body plethysmography for measure of strain-specific and allergen-induced airway responsiveness in conscious mice.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2006 Nov 20;101(5):1495-505. Epub 2006 Jul 20.

Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.

The mouse is the most extensively studied animal species in respiratory research, yet the technologies available to assess airway function in conscious mice are not universally accepted. We hypothesized that whole body plethysmography employing noninvasive restraint (RWBP) could be used to quantify specific airway resistance (sRaw-RWBP) and airway responsiveness in conscious mice. Methacholine responses were compared using sRaw-RWBP vs. airway resistance by the forced oscillation technique (Raw-FOT) in groups of C57, A/J, and BALB/c mice. sRaw-RWBP was also compared with sRaw derived from double chamber plethysmography (sRaw-DCP) in BALB/c. Finally, airway responsiveness following allergen challenge in BALB/c was measured using RWBP. sRaw-RWBP in C57, A/J, and BALB/c mice was 0.51 +/- 0.03, 0.68 +/- 0.03, and 0.63 +/- 0.05 cm/s, respectively. sRaw derived from Raw-FOT and functional residual capacity (Raw*functional residual capacity) was 0.095 cm/s, approximately one-fifth of sRaw-RWBP in C57 mice. The intra- and interanimal coefficients of variations were similar between sRaw-RWBP (6.8 and 20.1%) and Raw-FOT (3.4 and 20.1%, respectively). The order of airway responsiveness employing sRaw-RWBP was AJ > BALBc > C57 and for Raw-FOT was AJ > BALB/c = C57. There was no difference between the airway responsiveness assessed by RWBP vs. DCP; however, baseline sRaw-RWBP was significantly lower than sRaw-DCP. Allergen challenge caused a progressive decrease in the provocative concentration of methacholine that increased sRaw to 175% postsaline values based on sRaw-RWBP. In conclusion, the technique of RWBP was rapid, reproducible, and easy to perform. Airway responsiveness measured using RWBP, DCP, and FOT was equivalent. Allergen responses could be followed longitudinally, which may provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of chronic airway disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00464.2006DOI Listing
November 2006