Publications by authors named "Jennifer L Becker"

7 Publications

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Posttreatment Imaging of the Wrist and Hand: Update 2022.

Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2022 Jun 2;26(3):295-313. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Common indications for surgical procedures of the wrist and hand include acute fractures or fracture-dislocations; nonunited fractures; posttraumatic, degenerative, and inflammatory arthritides and tendinopathies; injuries to tendons, ligaments, and the triangular fibrocartilage complex; and entrapment neuropathies. Soft tissue or osseous infections or masses may also need surgical treatment. Several of these procedures require surgical hardware placement, and most entail clinical follow-up with periodic imaging. Radiography should be the first imaging modality in the evaluation of the postoperative wrist and hand. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diagnostic ultrasonography, and occasionally nuclear medicine studies may be performed to diagnose or better characterize suspected postoperative complications. To provide adequate evaluation of postoperative imaging of the wrist and hand, the interpreting radiologist must be familiar with the basic principles of these surgical procedures and both the imaging appearance of normal postoperative findings as well as the potential complications.
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June 2022

Imaging markers of small vessel disease and brain frailty, and outcomes in acute stroke.

Neurology 2020 02 27;94(5):e439-e452. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

From the Stroke Trials Unit (J.P.A., L.J.W., N.S., P.M.B.) and Radiological Sciences Research Group (R.A.D.), Division of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Nottingham; Stroke (J.P.A., N.S., P.M.B.), Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, UK; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCSS Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria Hospital, Negrar, Verona, Italy; Department of Medical Imaging (J.L.B.), College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson; Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology (E.B.), Oslo University Hospital, Norway; School of Medicine (L.A.C.), University of Western Australia, Crawley; Department of Neuroradiology (A.M.C.), Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK; Stroke Unit (V.C.), Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, University of Perugia, Italy; Neurology (H.K.C.), Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Medicine (J.G.), Hawke's Bay District Health Board, Hastings, New Zealand; Department of Neuroradiology (P.K.), Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen's Medical Centre, UK; Department of Neurology (S.S.), Clinical County Emergency Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania; and Division of Neuroimaging Sciences (J.M.W.), Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Dementia Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, UK.

Objective: To assess the association of baseline imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) and brain frailty with clinical outcome after acute stroke in the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial.

Methods: ENOS randomized 4,011 patients with acute stroke (<48 hours of onset) to transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) or no GTN for 7 days. The primary outcome was functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score) at day 90. Cognition was assessed via telephone at day 90. Stroke syndrome was classified with the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification. Brain imaging was adjudicated masked to clinical information and treatment and assessed SVD (leukoaraiosis, old lacunar infarcts/lacunes, atrophy) and brain frailty (leukoaraiosis, atrophy, old vascular lesions/infarcts). Analyses used ordinal logistic regression adjusted for prognostic variables.

Results: In all participants and those with lacunar syndrome (LACS; 1,397, 34.8%), baseline CT imaging features of SVD and brain frailty were common and independently associated with unfavorable shifts in mRS score at day 90 (all participants: SVD score odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.24; brain frailty score OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17-1.34; those with LACS: SVD score OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.15-1.47, brain frailty score OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14-1.44). Brain frailty was associated with worse cognitive scores at 90 days in all participants and in those with LACS.

Conclusions: Baseline imaging features of SVD and brain frailty were common in lacunar stroke and all stroke, predicted worse prognosis after all acute stroke with a stronger effect in lacunar stroke, and may aid future clinical decision-making.

Identifier: ISRCTN99414122.
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February 2020

The role of diffusion tensor imaging in the diagnosis, prognosis, and assessment of recovery and treatment of spinal cord injury: a systematic review.

Neurosurg Focus 2019 03;46(3):E7

2Division of Neurosurgery.

OBJECTIVEDiffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an MRI tool that provides an objective, noninvasive, in vivo assessment of spinal cord injury (SCI). DTI is significantly better at visualizing microstructures than standard MRI sequences. In this imaging modality, the direction and amplitude of the diffusion of water molecules inside tissues is measured, and this diffusion can be measured using a variety of parameters. As a result, the potential clinical application of DTI has been studied in several spinal cord pathologies, including SCI. The aim of this study was to describe the current state of the potential clinical utility of DTI in patients with SCI and the challenges to its use as a tool in clinical practice.METHODSA search in the PubMed database was conducted for articles relating to the use of DTI in SCI. The citations of relevant articles were also searched for additional articles.RESULTSAmong the most common DTI metrics are fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. Changes in these metrics reflect changes in tissue integrity. Several DTI metrics and combinations thereof have demonstrated significant correlations with clinical function both in model species and in humans. Its applications encompass the full spectrum of the clinical assessment of SCI including diagnosis, prognosis, recovery, and efficacy of treatments in both the spinal cord and potentially the brain.CONCLUSIONSDTI and its metrics have great potential to become a powerful clinical tool in SCI. However, the current limitations of DTI preclude its use beyond research and into clinical practice. Further studies are needed to significantly improve and resolve these limitations as well as to determine reliable time-specific changes in multiple DTI metrics for this tool to be used accurately and reliably in the clinical setting.
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March 2019

Fractures of the posterolateral maxillary sinus: a masticator space blowout injury?

Emerg Radiol 2016 Oct 14;23(5):439-42. Epub 2016 Jun 14.

University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, PO Box 245067, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.

Background And Purpose: Segmental, depressed fractures of the posterolateral maxillary sinus may occur as a result of trauma to the masticator space, previously described in association with mandibular fractures. The authors hypothesize that the fracture is due to a transient increase in pressure in the masticator space (blow out) and therefore should be seen in association with other regional fractures.

Materials And Methods: Injuries of the masticator space were retrospectively identified by searching the imaging database from January 2014 to November 2014 for keywords that would identify regional trauma. The images were reviewed for segmental depressed fractures in the posterolateral aspect of the maxillary sinus accompanied by herniation of a variable amount of masticator space fat and/or muscle into the adjacent sinus. Three neuroradiologists reviewed the images and agreed by consensus on the presence or absence of a masticator space blowout fracture.

Results: Forty-three zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures, 89 mandibular fractures, and 49 isolated zygomatic arch fractures were identified. While all of the ZMC fractures had a maxillary component, 3 of 43 (7.0 %) additional fractures met our fracture definition. Five of 89 (5.6 %) of the mandibular fractures and 6 of 49 (12.2 %) zygomatic arch fractures had an associated posterolateral maxillary fracture.

Conclusions: Segmental depressed fracture of the posterolateral maxillary sinus is relatively common, occurring in conjunction with other regional injuries. The authors hypothesize that it is due to a transient increase in pressure in the masticator space and is a separate entity from other fractures of the region that may occur concurrently.
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October 2016

Continuing versus Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Therapy in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Subgroup Analysis of the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke Trial.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2016 May 4;25(5):1017-1026. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Stroke Trials Unit, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: More than 50% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are taking antihypertensive drugs before ictus. Although antihypertensive therapy should be given long term for secondary prevention, whether to continue or stop such treatment during the acute phase of ICH remains unclear, a question that was addressed in the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial.

Methods: ENOS was an international multicenter, prospective, randomized, blinded endpoint trial. Among 629 patients with ICH and systolic blood pressure between 140 and 220 mmHg, 246 patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs were assigned to continue (n = 119) or to stop (n = 127) taking drugs temporarily for 7 days. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Score at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included death, length of stay in hospital, discharge destination, activities of daily living, mood, cognition, and quality of life.

Results: Blood pressure level (baseline 171/92 mmHg) fell in both groups but was significantly lower at 7 days in those patients assigned to continue antihypertensive drugs (difference 9.4/3.5 mmHg, P < .01). At 90 days, the primary outcome did not differ between the groups; the adjusted common odds ratio (OR) for worse outcome with continue versus stop drugs was .92 (95% confidence interval, .45-1.89; P = .83). There was no difference between the treatment groups for any secondary outcome measure, or rates of death or serious adverse events.

Conclusions: Among patients with acute ICH, immediate continuation of antihypertensive drugs during the first week did not reduce death or major disability in comparison to stopping treatment temporarily.
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May 2016

Glyceryl Trinitrate for Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Results From the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) Trial, a Subgroup Analysis.

Stroke 2016 Jan 8;47(1):44-52. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

From the Stroke Trials Unit, Division of Clinical Neuroscience (K.K., P.S., L.W., N.S., P.M.B.) and Radiological Sciences Research Group, Division of Clinical Neuroscience (R.A.D.), University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Stroke Centre, Ospedale Sacro Cuore, Verona, Italy (A.A.); Department of Medical Imaging, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson (J.L.B.); Department of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway (E.B.); School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia (L.A.C.); Division of Neuroimaging Sciences, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (A.M.C., J.M.W.); Stroke Unit, Santa Maria Hospital, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy (V.C.); Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore (C.C.); Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark (H.C.); Stroke Service, Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin, Ireland (R.C.); Department of Neurology, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland (A.C.); Department of Medicine, Hawke's Bay Hospital, Hastings, New Zealand (J.G.); Department of Neuroradiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, United Kingdom (P.K.); Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (K.R.L.); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N.); Department of Neurology, Selcuk University Medical Faculty, Konya, Turkey (S.O.); Division of Neurology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada (S.J. Phillips); Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom (S.J. Pocock); Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Ragama, Sri Lanka (A.d.S.); and Department of Neurology, Clinical County Emergency Hospital, Targu Mures, Romania (S.S.).

Background And Purpose: The Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial found that transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, a nitric oxide donor) lowered blood pressure but did not improve functional outcome in patients with acute stroke. However, GTN was associated with improved outcome if patients were randomized within 6 hours of stroke onset.

Methods: In this prespecified subgroup analysis, the effect of GTN (5 mg/d for 7 days) versus no GTN was studied in 629 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage presenting within 48 hours and with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg. The primary outcome was the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days.

Results: Mean blood pressure at baseline was 172/93 mm Hg and significantly lower (difference -7.5/-4.2 mm Hg; both P≤0.05) on day 1 in 310 patients allocated to GTN when compared with 319 randomized to no GTN. No difference in the modified Rankin Scale was observed between those receiving GTN versus no GTN (adjusted odds ratio for worse outcome with GTN, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.37; P=0.84). In the subgroup of 61 patients randomized within 6 hours, GTN improved functional outcome with a shift in the modified Rankin Scale (odds ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.07-0.69; P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the rates of serious adverse events between GTN and no GTN.

Conclusions: In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage within 48 hours of onset, GTN lowered blood pressure was safe but did not improve functional outcome. Very early treatment might be beneficial but needs assessment in further studies.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: Unique identifier: 99414122.
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January 2016

Performance characteristics of methods for quantifying spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: data from the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2015 Nov 9;86(11):1258-66. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

Division of Neuroimaging Sciences, Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Poor prognosis after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is related to haemorrhage characteristics. Along with developing therapeutic interventions, we sought to understand the performance of haemorrhage descriptors in large clinical trials.

Methods: Clinical and neuroimaging data were obtained for 548 participants with ICH from the Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke (ENOS) trial. Independent observers performed visual categorisation of the largest diameter, measured volume using ABC/2, modified ABC/2, semiautomated segmentation (SAS), fully automatic measurement methods; shape, density and intraventricular haemorrhage were also assessed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were determined for these measures.

Results: ICH volume was significantly different among standard ABC/2, modified ABC/2 and SAS: (mean) 12.8 (SD 16.3), 8.9 (9.2), 12.8 (13.1) cm(3), respectively (p<0.0001). There was excellent agreement for haemorrhage volume (n=193): ABC/2 intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.96-0.97, interobserver ICC 0.88; modified ABC/2 intraobserver ICC 0.95-0.97, interobserver ICC 0.91; SAS intraobserver ICC 0.95-0.99, interobserver ICC 0.93; largest diameter: (visual) interadjudicator ICC 0.82, (visual vs measured) adjudicator vs observer ICC 0.71; shape intraobserver ICC 0.88 interobserver ICC 0.75; density intraobserver ICC 0.86, interobserver ICC 0.73. Graeb score (mean 3.53) and modified Graeb (5.22) scores were highly correlated. Using modified ABC/2, ICH volume was underestimated in regular (by 2.2-2.5 cm(3), p<0.0001) and irregular-shaped haemorrhages (by 4.8-4.9 cm(3), p<0.0001). Fully automated measurement of haemorrhage volume was possible in only 5% of cases.

Conclusions: Formal measurement of haemorrhage characteristics and visual estimates are reproducible. The standard ABC/2 method is superior to the modified ABC/2 method for quantifying ICH volume.

Clinical Trial Registration: ISRCTN9941422.
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November 2015