Publications by authors named "Jennifer L Adolphe"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Glycemic, insulinemic and methylglyoxal postprandial responses to starches alone or in whole diets in dogs versus cats: Relating the concept of glycemic index to metabolic responses and gene expression.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jul 30;257:110973. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Toxicology Graduate Program, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3, Canada; Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada. Electronic address:

Species differences between domestic cats (Felis catus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) has led to differences in their ability to digest, absorb and metabolize carbohydrates through poorly characterized mechanisms. The current study aimed to first examine biopsied small intestine, pancreas, liver and skeletal muscle from laboratory beagles and domestic cats for mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in starch digestion (amylase), glucose transport (sodium-dependent SGLTs and -independent glucose transporters, GLUT) and glucose metabolism (hexokinase and glucokinase). Cats had lower mRNA expression of most genes examined in almost all tissues compared to dogs (p < 0.05). Next, postprandial glucose, insulin, methylglyoxal (a toxic glucose metabolite) and d-lactate (metabolite of methylglyoxal) after single feedings of different starch sources were tested in fasted dogs and cats. After feeding pure glucose, peak postprandial blood glucose and methylglyoxal were surprisingly similar between dogs and cats, except cats had a longer time to peak and a greater area under the curve consistent with lower glycolytic enzyme expression. After feeding starches or whole diets to dogs, postprandial glycemic response, glycemic index, insulin, methylglyoxal and d-lactate followed reported glycemic index trends in humans. In contrast, cats showed very low to negligible postprandial glycemic responses and low insulin after feeding different starch sources, but not whole diets, with no relationship to methylglyoxal or d-lactate. Thus, the concept of glycemic index appears valid in dogs, but not cats. Differences in amylase, glucose transporters, and glycolytic enzymes are consistent with species differences in starch and glucose handling between cats and dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2021.110973DOI Listing
July 2021

Glycemic response in nonracing sled dogs fed single starch ingredients and commercial extruded dog foods with different carbohydrate sources.

J Anim Sci 2020 Aug;98(8)

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

This study adapted the established glycemic index (GI) methodology used in human research to perform two studies in sled dogs in order to assess the blood glucose-raising potential of pulse-based dog foods. The first was a pilot study (n = 6 dogs) to determine the GI of single starch sources (white bread, cooked white rice, and cooked green lentils) using a glucose solution as control. Next, the effect on glycemic and insulinemic meal responses and GI of commercial extruded dog foods containing different categories of starch sources (traditional grain, whole grain, grain-free, and vegan) were investigated on 11 dogs using a glucose control. Results were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Consumption of 10 g of available carbohydrate (Av CHO) was insufficient to elicit a measurable response in blood glucose for GI determination, and as such, the amount was increased to 25 g for the second study. The GI (±SE) of the single starch sources and dog foods was: white bread: 47 ± 11, cooked white rice: 71 ± 14, cooked green lentils: 60 ± 20 (P = 0.569), traditional grain: 83 ± 17, whole grain: 56 ± 8, grain-free: 41 ± 6, and vegan: 65 ± 15 (P = 0.154). No statistical differences in glycemic response over time were observed between the single starch sources or the extruded diets tested (P = 0.1412; P = 0.2651). The insulinemic response elicited by the extruded diets was also not different (P = 0.079); however, the traditional grain diet did have the slowest time to peak for insulin (P = 0.0078). Among single starch sources and extruded dog foods, there were no differences in the glycemic indices measured in this study. The GI methodology has not been validated for use in canine species, and it is likely that our results were due to higher interindividual variation or inadequate study power. Regardless, this study will serve to better define future studies to investigate the potential physiological benefits of low GI foods for dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skaa241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455921PMC
August 2020

Motoric self-regulation by sled dogs and pet dogs and the acute effect of carbohydrate source in sled dogs.

Anim Cogn 2019 Nov 29;22(6):931-946. Epub 2019 Jun 29.

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road E., Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Inhibitory control is a term used to envelop a collection of processes that allow an organism to refrain from engaging in an inappropriate prepotent or responsive behavior. Studies have examined the propensity of inhibitory control by nonhuman animals, from the cognitively complex processes involved in self-control to potentially less cognitively taxing processes such as motoric self-regulation. Focusing on canines, research has suggested that the domestication process as well as experiences during ontogeny contribute to inhibitory control. Diet may also play an important role in an individual's ability to self-regulate. This study examined this possibility by investigating motoric self-regulation in sled dogs, using three well-established tasks (i.e., A-not-B Bucket, Cylinder, and A-not-B Barrier tasks), performed after consumption of one of three dietary treatments with different glycemic index values. We also compared the performance of sled dogs during these tasks with results previously obtained from pet dogs. Overall, the results show many similarities in the performance of sled dogs and pet dogs on the motoric self-regulation tasks, with the notable exception that sled dogs may have a stronger spatial perseveration during the A-not-B Bucket task. Previous research findings reporting a lack of correlation among these tasks are also supported. Finally, during the early postprandial phase (period after consumption), dietary treatments with different glycemic index values did not influence self-regulatory performance for sled dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-019-01285-yDOI Listing
November 2019

Plant-based (vegan) diets for pets: A survey of pet owner attitudes and feeding practices.

PLoS One 2019 15;14(1):e0210806. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

People who avoid eating animals tend to share their homes with animal companions, and moral dilemma may arise when they are faced with feeding animal products to their omnivorous dogs and carnivorous cats. One option to alleviate this conflict is to feed pets a diet devoid of animal ingredients-a 'plant-based' or 'vegan' diet. The number of pet owners who avoid animal products, either in their own or in their pets' diet, is not currently known. The objective of this study was to estimate the number of meat-avoiding pet owners, identify concerns regarding conventional animal- and plant-based pet food, and estimate the number of pets fed a plant-based diet. A questionnaire was disseminated online to English-speaking pet owners (n = 3,673) to collect data regarding pet owner demographics, diet, pet type, pet diet, and concerns regarding pet foods. Results found that pet owners were more likely to be vegetarian (6.2%; 229/3,673) or vegan (5.8%; 212/3,673) than previously reported for members of the general population. With the exception of one dog owned by a vegetarian, vegans were the only pet owners who fed plant-based diets to their pets (1.6%; 59/3,673). Of the pet owners who did not currently feed plant-based diets but expressed interest in doing so, a large proportion (45%; 269/599) desired more information demonstrating the nutritional adequacy of plant-based diets. Amongst all pet owners, the concern most commonly reported regarding meat-based pet foods was for the welfare of farm animals (39%; 1,275/3,231). The most common concern regarding strictly plant-based pet foods was regarding the nutritional completeness of the diet (74%; 2,439/3,318). Amongst vegans, factors which predicted the feeding of plant-based diets to their pets were concern regarding the cost of plant-based diets, a lack of concern regarding plant-based diets being unnatural, and reporting no concern at all regarding plant-based diets for pets. Given these findings, further research is warranted to investigate plant-based nutrition for domestic dogs and cats.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210806PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333351PMC
October 2019

Plant-based diets for dogs.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2018 Dec;253(11):1425-1432

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.253.11.1425DOI Listing
December 2018

Short-term obesity results in detrimental metabolic and cardiovascular changes that may not be reversed with weight loss in an obese dog model.

Br J Nutr 2014 Aug 30;112(4):647-56. Epub 2014 May 30.

Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan,52 Campus Drive,Saskatoon,SK,CanadaS7N 5B4.

The time course of metabolic and cardiovascular changes with weight gain and subsequent weight loss has not been elucidated. The goal of the present study was to determine how weight gain, weight loss and altered body fat distribution affected metabolic and cardiovascular changes in an obese dog model. Testing was performed when the dogs were lean (scores 4-5 on a nine-point scale), after ad libitum feeding for 12 and 32 weeks to promote obesity (>5 score), and after weight loss. Measurements included serum glucose and insulin, plasma leptin, adiponectin and C-reactive protein, echocardiography, flow-mediated dilation and blood pressure. Body fat distribution was assessed by computed tomography. Fasting serum glucose concentrations increased significantly with obesity (P< 0·05). Heart rate increased by 22 (SE 5) bpm after 12 weeks of obesity (P= 0·003). Systolic left ventricular free wall thickness increased after 12 weeks of obesity (P= 0·002), but decreased after weight loss compared with that observed in the lean phase (P= 0·03). Ventricular free wall thickness was more strongly correlated with visceral fat (r 0·6, P= 0·001) than with total body fat (r 0·4, P= 0·03) and was not significantly correlated with subcutaneous body fat (r 0·3, P= 0·1). The present study provides evidence that metabolic and cardiovascular alterations occur within only 12 weeks of obesity in an obese dog model and are strongly predicted by visceral fat. These results emphasise the importance of obesity prevention, as weight loss did not result in the return of all metabolic indicators to their normal levels. Moreover, systolic cardiac muscle thickness was reduced after weight loss compared with the pre-obesity levels, suggesting possible acute adverse cardiovascular effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114514001214DOI Listing
August 2014

Postprandial impairment of flow-mediated dilation and elevated methylglyoxal after simple but not complex carbohydrate consumption in dogs.

Nutr Res 2012 Apr 30;32(4):278-84. Epub 2012 Apr 30.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5B4.

Hyperglycemia produces oxidative stress, which may impair endothelial function. Methylglyoxal, a reactive intermediate metabolite of glucose, is known to cause oxidative stress and is produced when excess carbohydrate is consumed in diabetic patients, but postprandial responses in healthy patients are unknown. We hypothesize that methylglyoxal levels will cause impaired endothelial function via increased oxidative stress after consuming a high glycemic index meal in healthy animals. Normal-weight laboratory beagles (n = 6) were used in a crossover study that tested postprandial responses of 4 complex carbohydrate sources (barley, corn, peas, rice) vs a simple carbohydrate (glucose). Blood samples were taken prefeeding and at timed intervals after feeding to measure serum glucose, insulin, nitrotyrosine, and methylglyoxal. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), cardiac function (echocardiography), and blood pressure measurements were determined before and 60 minutes after feeding. The mean (±SEM) glycemic indices of the complex carbohydrate sources were 29 ± 5 for peas, 47 ± 10 for corn, 51 ± 7 for barley, and 55 ± 6 for rice. Postprandial FMD was lowest in the glucose group and significantly different from both the corn group and the FMD value for all complex carbohydrates combined. Methylglyoxal was significantly elevated at 60 minutes postprandial after glucose compared with the other carbohydrate sources. No significant effects of carbohydrate source were observed for blood pressure, nitrotyrosine, or echocardiographic variables. The novel finding of this study was that methylglyoxal levels increased after a single feeding of simple carbohydrate and may be linked to the observed postprandial decrease in endothelial function. Thus, consuming low-glycemic-index foods may protect the cardiovascular system by reducing oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2012.03.002DOI Listing
April 2012

Socio-economic status and vitamin/ mineral supplement use in Canada.

Health Rep 2010 Dec;21(4):19-25

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9.

Background: The link between diet quality and socio-economic status (SES) may extend to the use of vitamin/ mineral supplements. This article examines factors related to Canadians' use of such supplements, with emphasis on associations with household income and education.

Data And Methods: The data are from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition (n = 35,107). The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplement consumption during the previous month was recorded. Supplement use at the national level was estimated by age/sex groups, SES and chronic conditions. Logistic regression was used to determine significant associations between socio-economic factors and vitamin/mineral supplement use. Estimates of usual calcium intake from food and from food plus supplements were obtained using SIDE-IML.

Results: The prevalence of supplement use was significantly higher in females than in males in all age groups 14 or older. Age, being female, high household income and education, and being food-secure were positively associated with supplement use. Supplement use substantially increased the percentage of the population, particularly older adults, meeting the Adequate Intake level for calcium.

Interpretation: The reported use of vitamin/mineral supplements varies by age, sex and SES. The relatively low prevalence of use among Canadians of low SES is similar to findings from American studies. These individuals, already at risk for inadequate intake from food, do not make up the difference with vitamin/ mineral supplements.
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December 2010

Barriers to healthful eating and supplement use in lower-income adults.

Can J Diet Pract Res 2010 ;71(2):70-6

College of Pharmacy & Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Purpose: We investigated barriers to healthful eating and vitamin/mineral supplement use among groups at risk for low nutrient intakes, particularly those with low income.

Methods: Twelve focus groups (73 participants) and 11 key informant interviews were conducted in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Focus group participants represented a diverse population. Key informants included health professionals and personnel from community-based organizations who worked in a low-income area. Focus group meetings and key informant interviews were audiotaped and transcribed; thematic coding was used to identify key concepts.

Results: The focus groups and interviews revealed five themes on barriers to healthful eating and to the use of vitamin/mineral supplements: knowledge, income, accessibility, health, and preferences. Key informants were aware of the barriers, and were able to see not only individual and family reasons but also societal influences.

Conclusions: The study results provide valuable information for focusing efforts on reducing barriers to healthful eating and to appropriate vitamin/mineral supplement use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3148/71.2.2010.70DOI Listing
October 2011

Health effects with consumption of the flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.

Br J Nutr 2010 Apr 15;103(7):929-38. Epub 2009 Dec 15.

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5C9.

Flaxseed is the richest source of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). After ingestion, SDG is converted to secoisolariciresinol, which is further metabolised to the mammalian lignans enterodiol and enterolactone. A growing body of evidence suggests that SDG metabolites may provide health benefits due to their weak oestrogenic or anti-oestrogenic effects, antioxidant activity, ability to induce phase 2 proteins and/or inhibit the activity of certain enzymes, or by mechanisms yet unidentified. Human and animal studies identify the benefits of SDG consumption. SDG metabolites may protect against CVD and the metabolic syndrome by reducing lipid and glucose concentrations, lowering blood pressure, and decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation. Flax lignans may also reduce cancer risk by preventing pre-cancerous cellular changes and by reducing angiogenesis and metastasis. Thus, dietary SDG has the potential to decrease the incidence of several chronic diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in industrialised countries. The available literature, though, makes it difficult to clearly identify SDG health effects because of the wide variability in study methods. However, the current evidence suggests that a dose of at least 500 mg SDG/d for approximately 8 weeks is needed to observe positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors in human patients. Flaxseed and its lignan extracts appear to be safe for most adult populations, though animal studies suggest that pregnant women should limit their exposure. The present review discusses the potential health benefits of SDG in humans, with supporting evidence from animal studies, and offers suggestions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114509992753DOI Listing
April 2010

Vitamin fortification of puréed foods for long-term care residents.

Can J Diet Pract Res 2009 ;70(3):143-50

College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Purpose: Elderly people are at risk for malnutrition, and those who consume a puréed diet may be particularly at risk. A fortification procedure was developed at a long-term care (LTC) facility, and nutrient intakes and serum vitamin levels were assessed to determine whether they subsequently increased.

Methods: Fortification levels were determined using a combination of two techniques: the Dietary Reference Intakes planning formula and Health Canada's defined nutrient contribution method. For six puréed foods, triangle sensory tests were performed to determine whether fortification changed the flavour of the foods. Four fortified foods were incorporated into the daily puréed menu at an LTC facility. Nutrient intakes of 10 residents and serum vitamin B12, folate, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels of 11 residents were analyzed at baseline and eight weeks after the intervention.

Results: Nutrient intakes increased after the intervention for all nutrients in the fortification mix (p0.01). 25-hydroxyvitamin D and folate levels increased after the intervention (p0.01), but serum vitamin B12 levels did not change (p>0.05).

Conclusions: The development of acceptable vitamin-fortified puréed foods is feasible and is an effective way to increase the micronutrient status of LTC residents. Mineral fortification requires further work to minimize flavour changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3148/70.3.2009.143DOI Listing
October 2009