Publications by authors named "Jennifer Knudson"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cardiotrophin-1 maintains the undifferentiated state in skeletal myoblasts.

J Biol Chem 2009 Jul 12;284(29):19679-93. Epub 2009 May 12.

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada.

Skeletal myogenesis is potently regulated by the extracellular milieu of growth factors and cytokines. We observed that cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), a member of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines, is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation. The normal up-regulation of myogenic marker genes, myosin heavy chain (MyHC), myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), and myocyte enhancer factor 2s (MEF2s) were inhibited by CT-1 treatment. CT-1 also represses myogenin (MyoG) promoter activation. CT-1 activated two signaling pathways: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), a component of the extracellular signal-regulated MAPK (ERK) pathway. In view of the known connection between CT-1 and STAT3 activation, we surprisingly found that pharmacological blockade of STAT3 activity had no effect on the inhibition of myogenesis by CT-1 suggesting that STAT3 signaling is dispensable for myogenic repression. Conversely, MEK inhibition potently reversed the inhibition of myotube formation and attenuated the repression of MRF transcriptional activity mediated by CT-1. Taken together, these data indicate that CT-1 represses skeletal myogenesis through interference with MRF activity by activation of MEK/ERK signaling. In agreement with these in vitro observations, exogenous systemic expression of CT-1 mediated by adenoviral vector delivery increased the number of myonuclei in normal post-natal mouse skeletal muscle and also delayed skeletal muscle regeneration induced by cardiotoxin injection. The expression pattern of CT-1 in embryonic and post-natal skeletal muscle and in vivo effects of CT-1 on myogenesis implicate CT-1 in the maintenance of the undifferentiated state in muscle progenitor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.017319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2740593PMC
July 2009

Glucocorticoid treatment alleviates dystrophic myofiber pathology by activation of the calcineurin/NF-AT pathway.

FASEB J 2004 Dec 29;18(15):1937-9. Epub 2004 Sep 29.

Ottawa Health Research Institute, Molecular Medicine Program, Ottawa Hospital, General Campus, Ottawa, Canada.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive and ultimately fatal skeletal muscle disease. Currently, the most effective therapy is the administration of a subclass of glucocorticoids, most notably deflazacort. Although deflazacort treatment can attenuate DMD progression, extend ambulation, and maintain muscle strength, the mechanism of its action remains unknown. Prior observations have shown that activation of a JNK1-mediated signal transduction cascade contributes to the progression of the DMD phenotype, in part by phosphorylation and inhibition of a calcineurin sensitive NF-ATc1 transcription factor. Here, we observed that deflazacort treatment restored myocyte viability in muscle cells with constitutive activation of JNK1 and in dystrophic mdx mice. However, deflazacort treatment did not alter JNK1 activity itself, but rather led to an increase in the activity of the calcineurin phosphatase and an up-regulation of NF-ATc1-dependent gene expression. The prophylactic effect of deflazacort treatment was associated with increased expression of NF-ATc1 target genes such as the dystrophin homologue utrophin. Moreover, the muscle sparing effects of deflazacort were completely abolished when used in conjunction with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine. Collectively, these results show that deflazacort attenuates loss of dystrophic myofiber integrity by up-regulating the activity of the phosphatase calcineurin, which in turn negates JNK1 inhibition of NF-ATc1-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of NF-ATc1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.04-1859fjeDOI Listing
December 2004