Publications by authors named "Jennifer Johnson"

517 Publications

Qualitative Study of Long-Haul Truck Drivers' Health and Healthcare Experiences.

J Occup Environ Med 2021 Mar;63(3):230-237

Bayside Medical Centre, Penetanguishene (Dr Johnson); Centre for Studies in Family Medicine, Department of Family Medicine (Dr Vingilis, Dr Terry); Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics (Dr Vingilis, Dr Terry); Schulich Interfaculty Program in Public Health (Dr Terry), Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Long-haul truck drivers suffer increased health risk, but how they use healthcare is unknown. The objectives of this study were to explore the health experiences of these drivers, their healthcare experiences, and their relationship with their main medical provider.

Methods: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 Canadian long-haul truck drivers. The majority (85%) were men and recruited at a truck stop on a major transport corridor between Canada and the United States.

Results: Through phenomenological analysis of the transcribed interviews, themes of perseverance, isolation, dehumanization, and working in a hidden world emerged as major influences on the health experiences of these drivers. Barriers to their medical provider were also revealed.

Conclusions: Continuous exposure to a stressful work environment and inadequate access to primary care likely negatively affect the health of long-haul truck drivers. Given the experiences of this small group of drivers, improved healthcare and health resource availability might mitigate the risk of this occupational group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000002107DOI Listing
March 2021

Commentary: SWS Brain-Wave Music May Improve the Quality of Sleep: An EEG Study.

Front Neurosci 2021 1;15:609169. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Lincoln Sleep Research Centre, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.609169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882482PMC
February 2021

Examination of patient characteristics and hydroxychloroquine use based on the US Food and Drug Administration's recommendation: a cross-sectional analysis in New York.

BMJ Open 2021 02 8;11(2):e042965. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Northwell Health, Hempstead, New York, USA

Objective: To describe the pattern of hydroxychloroquine use and examine the association between hydroxychloroquine use and clinical outcomes arising from changes in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s recommendation during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Design: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

Setting And Participants: We included hospitalised adult patients at Northwell Health hospitals with confirmed COVID-19 infections between 1 March 2020 and 11 May 2020. We categorised changes in the FDA's recommendation as pre-FDA approval (1 March 2020-27 March 2020), FDA approval (28 March 2020-23 April 2020), and FDA warning (24 April 2020-11 May 2020). The hydroxychloroquine-treated group received at least one dose within 48 hours of hospital admission.

Primary Outcome: A composite of intubation and inpatient death.

Results: The percentages of patients who were treated with hydroxychloroquine were 192/2202 (8.7%) pre-FDA approval, 2902/6741 (43.0%) FDA approval, and 176/1066 (16.5%) FDA warning period (p<0.001). Using propensity score matching, there was a higher rate of the composite outcome among patients treated with hydroxychloroquine (49/192, 25.5%) compared with no hydroxychloroquine (66/384, 17.2%) in the pre-FDA approval period (p=0.03) but not in the FDA approval period (25.5% vs 22.6%, p=0.08) or the FDA warning (21.0% vs 15.1%, p=0.11) periods. Coincidently, there was an increase in number of patients with COVID-19 and disease severity during the FDA approval period (24.1% during FDA approval vs 21.4% during pre-FDA approval period had the composite outcome). Hydroxychloroquine use was associated with increased odds of the composite outcome during the pre-FDA approval period (OR=1.65 (95% CI 1.09 to 2.51)) but not during the FDA approval (OR=1.17 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.39)) and FDA warning (OR=1.50 (95% CI 0.94 to 2.39)) periods.

Conclusions: Hydroxychloroquine use was associated with adverse clinical outcomes only during the pre-FDA approval period but not during the FDA approval and warning periods, even after adjusting for concurrent changes in the percentage of patients with COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine and the number (and disease severity) of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871686PMC
February 2021

The slippery slope of social media and academic dishonesty: A case review and discussion.

Nurs Forum 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, North Carolina, USA.

Social media use and digital cheating are increasing. There is a gap in the literature regarding social media and acts of academic dishonesty among nursing students. Nursing faculty suspected cheating in a nursing class on a popular social media platform. There were no published policies that addressed academic dishonesty and social media. The case and actions taken by the nursing faculty are detailed. There is a need for research focused on academic dishonesty and social media in nursing students. Nurse educators must develop e-professionalism policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12554DOI Listing
February 2021

Ethanol modulation of cerebellar neuroinflammation in a postnatal mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, Biomedical Research Center II, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are alarmingly common, result in significant personal and societal loss, and there is no effective treatment for these disorders. Cerebellar neuropathology is common in FASD and causes aberrant cognitive and motor function. Ethanol-induced neuroinflammation is believed to contribute to neuropathological sequelae of FASD, and was previously demonstrated in the cerebellum in animal models of FASD. We now demonstrate neuroinflammation persists in the cerebellum several days following cessation of ethanol treatment in an early postnatal mouse model, with meaningful implications for timing of therapeutic intervention in FASD. We also demonstrate by Sholl analysis that ethanol decreases ramification of microglia cell processes in cells located near the Purkinje cell layer but not those near the external granule cell layer. Ethanol did not alter the expression of anti-inflammatory molecules or molecules that constitute NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes. Interestingly, ethanol decreased the expression of IL-23a (P19) and IL-12Rβ1 suggesting that ethanol may suppress IL-12 and IL-23 signaling. Fractalkine-fractalkine receptor (CX3CL1-CX3CR1) signaling is believed to suppress microglial activation and our demonstration that ethanol decreases CX3CL1 expression suggests that ethanol modulation of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling may contribute to cerebellar neuroinflammation and neuropathology. We demonstrate ethanol alters the expression of specific molecules in the cerebellum understudied in FASD, but crucial for immune responses. Ethanol increases the expression of NOX-2 and NGP and decreases the expression of RAG1, NOS1, CD59a, S1PR5, PTPN22, GPR37, and Serpinb1b. These molecules represent a new horizon as potential targets for development of FASD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24797DOI Listing
February 2021

Community-Based Participatory Qualitative Research for Women: Lessons from the Flint Women's Study.

Prog Community Health Partnersh 2020 ;14(2):207-213

Background: The Flint Women's Study is a large community-based participatory qualitative study designed to create and inform community initiatives to serve Flint-area women by exploring their needs, challenges, hopes, dreams, assets, and thoughts about solutions. This article describes the study goals, processes, and lessons learned.

Methods: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 100 Flint-area women or human service providers serving area women. Participants represented diverse professional backgrounds, life experiences, ages, races, and ethnicities. Community members participated in developing the qualitative interview guide, participant recruitment, qualitative coding, analysis, publication, and creation of initiatives based on results.

Lessons Learned: Partnering in discovery and in identifying solutions provides a strong foundation for building trust and mutual capacity. The coding experience helped community partners to hone marketable qualitative research skills, which can elevate community's voice in research.

Conclusions: Efforts to benefit women should ensure their representation in every step of the process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/cpr.2020.0017DOI Listing
January 2020

Loss of Expression Confers Poor Prognosis to Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2020 Dec 24;81(6):610-619. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

 Due to the diverse histopathologic features and variable survival rates seen in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC), it is likely that this diagnostic entity is comprised of a heterogonous group of morphologically undifferentiated tumors. As advancements in molecular testing have led to a better understanding of tumor biology, it has become increasingly evident that SNUC may actually encompass several tumor subtypes with different clinical behavior. As a result, it is also likely that all SNUC patients cannot be treated in the same fashion. Recent investigations have identified loss of the tumor suppressor (INI1) expression in a subset of undifferentiated sinonasal tumors and extrasinonasal tumors and, studies have suggested that this genetic aberration may be a poor prognostic marker. The objective of this study was to identify differential expression of in SNUC and to analyze and compare the survival outcomes in SNUC patients with and without expression.  All cases of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated neoplasms of the sinonasal tract treated between 2007 and 2018 at a single tertiary care institution were selected. All cases of SNUC were tested for status by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Clinical parameters were analyzed using Student's -test and Fischer's test. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival durations, while comparison between both the subgroups was done using the log-rank test. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of SPSS software, Version 25 (IBM, New York, NY, United States).  Fourteen cases of SNUC were identified. Approximately two-thirds (64%;  = 9) of patients were male and the majority (79%;  = 11) were between fifth to seventh decade. Skull base and orbital invasion were seen in 79% (  = 11) and 93% (  = 13) of cases, respectively. Fifty-seven percent of tumors (  = 8) retained expression by IHC (SR-SNUC), while the remaining 43% (  = 6) showed loss of expression and, thus, were considered as -deficient (SD-SNUC). Although clinicopathological features and treatment modalities were similar, SD-SNUC showed poorer (OS:  = 0.07; disease free survival [DFS]:  = 0.02) overall survival (OS) and DFS on Kaplan-Meier curves. Additionally, SD-SNUC showed higher recurrence (75 vs. 17%) and mortality (67 vs. 14%) (hazard rate = 8.562;  = 0.05) rates. Both OS (28.82 ± 31.15 vs. 53.24 ± 37.50) and DFS durations (10.62 ± 10.26 vs. 43.79 ± 40.97) were consistently worse for SD-SNUC. Five-year survival probabilities were lower for SD-SNUC (0.33 vs. 0.85).  SNUC represents a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated sinonasal malignancies. Based on the status of expression, the two subgroups SD-SNUC and SR-SNUC appear to represent distinct clinical entities, with loss of expression conferring an overall worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1693659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755502PMC
December 2020

Quality of Life Outcomes in Patients With Sinonasal Malignancy After Definitive Treatment.

Laryngoscope 2020 Dec 25. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: To describe multidimensional quality of life (QOL) outcomes in patients with sinonasal malignancies (SNM). To elucidate factors predicting worse QOL in this population.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review at tertiary institution.

Methods: A retrospective chart review on patients treated for SNM from 2006 to 2019 at a tertiary medical center was conducted. QOL outcomes were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy - Nasopharynx (FACT-NP) score. A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to assess factors predicting worse QOL.

Results: Eighty-one patients met inclusion criteria. Twelve (14.8%) patients had a subscale score >11 for anxiety (HADS-A) or depression (HADS-D) indicating significant anxiety or depression, at a median of 24 (8-68.5) months post treatment. The median FACT-NP total score was 136 (110-152). On multivariable analysis, advanced T classification, single status, and worse social support survey score were significant predictors of worse HADS score. Worse social support survey score was a significant predictor of worse total FACT-NP score.

Conclusion: After adjusting for confounders, at a median of 24 months after completion of definitive therapy for SNM, advanced T classification and single relationship status were found to be significant predictors of anxiety and depression (based on HADS). A worse social support survey score was associated with worse anxiety, depression, and QOL (based on HADS and FACT-NP). Identifying these factors early may help to guide treatment and psychiatric referral to at-risk individuals after the treatment of SNM.

Level Of Evidence: 3. Laryngoscope, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29339DOI Listing
December 2020

Post-natal diagnosis and catheter-based management of premature fetal ductal closure presenting as unilateral pulmonary artery thrombosis and right ventricular failure.

Cardiol Young 2020 Dec 21:1-3. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Heart Institute, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951120004564DOI Listing
December 2020

Discordant Responses Between Primary Head and Neck Tumors and Nodal Metastases Treated With Neoadjuvant Nivolumab: Correlation of Radiographic and Pathologic Treatment Effect.

Front Oncol 2020 2;10:566315. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

PD-1 blockade represents a promising treatment in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We analyzed results of a neoadjuvant randomized window-of-opportunity trial of nivolumab plus/minus tadalafil to investigate whether immunotherapy-mediated treatment effects vary by site of involvement (primary tumor, lymph nodes) and determine how radiographic tumor shrinkage correlates with pathologic treatment effect.

Patients And Methods: Forty-four patients enrolled in trial NCT03238365 were treated with nivolumab 240 mg intravenously on days 1 and 15 with or without oral tadalafil, as determined by random assignment, followed by surgery on day 31. Radiographic volumetric response (RVR) was defined as percent change in tumor volume from pretreatment to posttreatment CT scan. Responders were defined as those with a 10% reduction in the volume of the primary tumor or lymph nodes (LN). Pathologic treatment effect (PTE) was defined as the area showing fibrosis or lymphohistiocytic inflammation divided by total tumor area.

Results: Sixteen of 32 patients (50%) with pathologic evidence of LN involvement exhibited discordant PTE between primary sites and LN. In four patients with widely discordant adjacent LN, increased PTE was associated with increased infiltration of tumor CD8 T cells and CD163 macrophages, whereas stromal regulatory T cells were associated with low nodal PTE. RVR correlated with PTE at both primary tumor (slope = 0.55, < 0.001) and in LN (slope = 0.62, < 0.05). 89% (16/18) of radiographic non-responders with T1-T3 primary sites had no (n = 7) or minimal PTE (n = 9), whereas 15/17 (88%) of radiographic responders had moderate (n = 12) or complete (n = 3) PTE.

Conclusion: Nivolumab often induces discordant treatment effects between primary tumor sites and metastatic lymph nodes within subjects. This treatment discordance was also demonstrated in adjacent lymph nodes, which may correlate with local immune cell makeup. Finally, although these data were generated by a relatively small population size, our data support the use of early radiographic response to assess immunotherapy treatment effect in HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.566315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738605PMC
December 2020

Outcomes and outputs affiliated with Children's Advocacy Centers in the United States: A scoping review.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jan 15;111:104828. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

UH Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, USA; UH Rainbow Center for Child Health and Policy, Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The Children's Advocacy Center (CAC) model is the predominant multidisciplinary model that responds to child sexual abuse (CSA) in the United States (US). While the CAC model has made important contributions in case coordination and referrals for specialty services, little is known about child- or family-oriented outcomes.

Objective: Explore the trends and gaps involving outcome and output measures affiliated with CACs in the US.

Participants & Setting: A scoping review of the literature was conducted on English language articles published between 1985-2019 that involved CACs and children less than 18 years of age.

Methods: An electronic database search using the terms "Children's Advocacy Center(s)," "Child Advocacy Center(s)," and "CAC(s)" identified titles and abstracts. Data from articles selected for full text review were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team using a mixed methods approach.

Results: Measures of CAC impact frequently focus on service and programmatic outputs with person-centered outcomes left often reported. The most prevalent output measures related to case prosecution and forensic interviews. Person-centered outcomes most commonly emphasized child mental health and caregiver satisfaction. The majority of articles were limited by weak or unspecified study designs.

Conclusion: The current literature on CACs suggests that while they are successful in coordinating services and facilitating referrals, little is known about how engagement with CACs impacts short- and long-term outcomes for children and families. Further research beyond cross sectional or quasi-experimental designs is necessary to better understand how variability in CAC structure, function, and resources can be optimized to meet the needs of the diverse communities that they serve. This is especially salient given the national dissemination of the CAC model. Without such additional studies, knowledge will remain limited regarding the enduring impacts of CACs on the lives of those impacted by CSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104828DOI Listing
January 2021

Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Density, Prognostic Characteristics, and Recurrence in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2020 27;10:565306. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Introduction: The progression and clinical course of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) relies on complex interactions between cancer and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Among the most abundant of these stromal cells are cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). While their contribution to tumor progression is widely acknowledged, and various CAF-targeted treatments are under development, the relationship between CAF density and the clinicopathologic course of HNSCC has not been clearly defined. Here we examine the published evidence investigating the relationship of cancer-associated fibroblasts to local recurrence and indicators of prognostic significance in HNSCC.

Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of existing publications that compare the relationship between CAF density, local recurrence, and clinically significant pathologic criteria of disease development (T stage, nodal positivity, clinical stage, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, Ki67 expression, and differentiation). Thirteen studies met the selection criteria, providing a total study population of 926 patients. Forest plots and risk ratios were generated to illustrate overall relationships.

Results: Higher CAF density within the tumor microenvironment is associated with advanced T stage, nodal infiltration, clinical stage, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, Ki67 expression, and differentiation (p <0.05). High CAF density is also associated with increased rates of local recurrence (p <0.001).

Conclusions: Across multiple studies, increased CAF density is correlated with histopathological criteria of poor prognosis in HNSCC. These findings highlight that CAFs may play a pivotal role in HNSCC development and progression. Staining for CAFs may represent a valuable addition to current pathologic analysis and help to guide prognosis and treatment. Understanding the mechanisms by which CAFs reciprocally interact with cancer cells will be crucial for optimization of TME-focused treatment of HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.565306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729160PMC
November 2020

Super-Resolution Microscopy and Particle-Tracking Approaches for the Study of Vesicular Trafficking in Primary Neutrophils.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2233:193-202

Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Neutrophils are short-lived cells after isolation. The analysis of neutrophil vesicular trafficking requires rapid and gentle handling. Recently developed super-resolution microscopy technologies have generated unparalleled opportunities to help understand the molecular mechanisms regulating neutrophil vesicular trafficking, exocytosis, and associated functions at the molecular level. Here, we describe super-resolution and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy approaches for the analysis of vesicular trafficking and associated functions of primary neutrophils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1044-2_13DOI Listing
January 2021

Quantification of microbubble-induced sonothrombolysis in an ex vivo non-human primate model.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Feb 23;19(2):502-512. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Knight Cardiovascular Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: In vitro studies with ultrasound (US) and microbubbles (MB) have reported that sono-thrombolysis can be achieved at high peak rarefactional acoustic pressure amplitudes (PRAPAs) using 0.25 and 1.05 MHz US frequencies.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine if these parameters work on an ex vivo physiological model of thrombosis.

Methods: A thrombogenic device was placed in an ex vivo chronic arteriovenous shunt in juvenile baboons. Platelet accumulation was measured by dynamic imaging of the device and the 10 cm thrombus tail with In-labeled platelets. After 15 minutes of thrombus formation, treatment with either low-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) or low-dose rtPA + MB+US was performed for 20 minutes. Four US settings at 0.25% duty cycle were used: 0.25 MHz at PRAPAs of 1.20 and 2.20 MPa, and 1.05 MHz at 1.75 and 4.75 MPa.

Results: Platelet accumulation was not inhibited by low-dose rtPA or MB with US alone. Platelet accumulation was significantly reduced with 0.25 MHz US at 2.20 PRAPA (P < .001) and with 1.05 MHz at 1.75 MPa and 4.75 MPa (P < .05) when used with MB and low-dose rtPA. Although this approach prevented platelet accumulation it did not cause thrombolysis on the device.

Conclusions: rtPA + MB + US (0.25 and 1.05 MHz) resulted in inhibition of platelet accumulation on the thrombogenic device when moderately high PRAPAs (≥1.75 MPa) were used. These results taken in context with lytic effects of US on myocardial microthrombi and direct effect on myocardial blood flow and function provide direction for the use of therapeutic US in acute coronary syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15180DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of home environment on academic achievement in child protective service-involved children: Results from the second national survey of child and adolescent well-being study.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Jan 13;111:104806. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Section, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd, MS #76, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, USA; Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1975 Zonal Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Children involved with Child Protective Services (CPS) have been shown to have lower academic achievement. It is unclear whether certain qualities of the home environment can optimize academic achievement in this vulnerable population.

Objective: This study sought to determine whether home environments with higher levels of emotional support and cognitive stimulation predict later academic achievement and whether this relationship is moderated by placement type (i.e. biological/adoptive parent care, kinship care, or non-kinship foster care).

Participants And Setting: This study included 1,206 children from the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-II) who were involved with CPS between 2-7 years of age.

Methods: Multivariate analyses were completed to examine the effect of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) score on later Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-ACH) scores. Moderation analyses were conducted to determine the effect of placement type on this relationship.

Results: Although these relationships between HOME scores and WJ-ACH scores were significant in bivariate analyses, they were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses, primarily due to the variable of household income. Although children placed primarily in non-kinship foster care demonstrated higher WJ-ACH scores for Passage Comprehension and Letter-Word Identification subscales, placement type did not appear to moderate the relationship between HOME scores and academic achievement.

Conclusion: Child- and caregiver-level factors, as well as financial resources available in the environment, may account for the relationship between home environment and academic achievement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104806DOI Listing
January 2021

Ultrasound-guided trigger point injection for piriformis syndrome in the emergency department.

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open 2020 Oct 24;1(5):876-879. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Emergency Medicine The Brooklyn Hospital Center Brooklyn New York USA.

Piriformis syndrome, a myofascial pain disorder characterized by deep gluteal pain that radiates to the ipsilateral lower back and/or posterior thigh, is an underreported cause of low back pain frequently misdiagnosed in the emergency department (ED). Often refractory to oral pain medications, this syndrome can be debilitating. Ultrasound-guided trigger point injection of the piriformis muscle can treat piriformis syndrome, but no previous reports exist in the emergency medicine literature. This case series describes 2 patients who presented to our emergency department with low back pain and were diagnosed with piriformis syndrome. Both patients received an ultrasound-guided trigger point injection of the affected piriformis muscle with a significant reduction of pain at 15 minutes and 48 hours after the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/emp2.12153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593435PMC
October 2020

Risk Factors for Self-stigma among Incarcerated Women with Alcohol Use Disorder.

Stigma Health 2020 May 25;5(2):158-167. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Michigan State University, Division of Public Health, College of Human Medicine, 200 East 1st St., Flint, MI 48502.

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly stigmatized condition, often associated with negative stereotypes such as being morally weak, incompetent, unpredictable, and aggressive. People with AUD are at risk of experiencing self-stigma, a social-cognitive experience in which people think others hold negative stereotypes about them, expect to be treated unfairly, and/or believe that negative stereotypes are personally accurate. Women in the criminal justice system with AUD in particular are at risk of experiencing self-stigma due to intersecting sources of disadvantage. Given that self-stigma can lead to treatment avoidance and dropout, it is important to understand risk factors for self-stigma to inform prevention and intervention efforts in the justice system. Incarcerated women with AUD (=185) completed measures of alcohol self-stigma as well as a variety of theoretically relevant risk factors including sociodemographics, baseline levels of stress and depression, and alcohol-related factors (i.e., length of drinking history, frequency/amount of use, consequences of use, physician advice to stop, belief that legal involvement is related to alcohol use, alcohol-related charges, self-efficacy to quit, readiness for treatment, pressures to enter treatment, factors that influence treatment) and other stigmatized conditions (drug use, exchanging sex, and homelessness). Results showed that experiencing more consequences of alcohol use, pressures to enter treatment, and perceived stress were associated with internalized stigma and anticipated/enacted stigma. This study begins to identify which incarcerated women with AUD are most at risk of experiencing self-stigma that may interfere with alcohol treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/sah0000182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7583578PMC
May 2020

Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma Secondary to Vitreous Hemorrhage Diagnosed with the Aid of Point-of-Care Ultrasound.

J Emerg Med 2020 Dec 29;59(6):e235-e237. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, New York.

Background: Acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) caused by vitreous hemorrhage is a rare complication of intravitreal injection that often leads to permanent vision loss without prompt treatment.

Case Report: This is a case of vitreous hemorrhage with secondary AACG in an 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department (ED) with pain and vision loss in his left eye after undergoing intravitreal injection to treat exudative macular degeneration. The diagnosis was made with the use of point-of-care ultrasound after intraocular pressure (IOP) was found to be significantly elevated in the left eye. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians should have a high level of suspicion for AACG in patients who are diagnosed with a vitreous hemorrhage after intravitreal injection and should immediately measure IOP for elevation upon presentation to the ED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2020.08.015DOI Listing
December 2020

Feasibility and Safety of Outpatient Parenteral Antimicrobial Therapy in Conjunction With Addiction Treatment for People Who Inject Drugs.

J Infect Dis 2020 Sep;222(Supplement_5):S494-S498

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Research is limited on combining outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) with addiction treatment for people who inject drugs (PWID) with serious infections.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of PWID (n = 68) requiring intravenous antibiotics evaluated for suitability for our OPAT program with concurrent addiction treatment.

Results: Most common infections were bacteremia and/or endocarditis (73.5%), bone and/or joint infections (32.4%), and epidural abscess (22.1%). Of the 20 patients (29.4%) who qualified, 100.0% completed the course of antibiotics, 30.0% experienced a 30-day readmission, and 15.0% relapsed. No overdoses, deaths, or peripherally inserted central catheter-line complications were reported.

Conclusions: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy with addiction treatment may be feasible and safe for PWID with serious infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566637PMC
September 2020

Perceived Substance Use Norms Among Jailed Women with Alcohol Use Disorders.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 09 2;44(9):1834-1841. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Behavioral Medicine and Addictions Research (YCS, BA, MS), Butler Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Background: Social norms regarding substance use predict substance use behaviors. In a sample of jailed women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), we compared (i) jailed women's perceptions of the US women population's rates of substance use, with US women's actual rates of substance use; (ii) jailed women's perceived rates of substance use by US women, with their perceptions of use by their own friends; and (iii) US women's actual rates of substance use, with observed sample substance use rates.

Methods: Participants were 205 jailed women who met criteria for an AUD. We used the 1-sample or dependent-samples t-test to make the comparisons.

Results: Participants overestimated US women's rates of substance use and incarceration rates. They perceived their friends' substance use as less common than US women's. The jailed women reported higher rates of their own substance use than actual rates by US women. In addition, jailed women self-reported less cannabis use, but more alcohol and cocaine use and cigarette smoking, than they perceived their friends to have used. The more women perceived their friends as drinking, the less they had a goal to drink less or abstain from drinking postincarceration; in contrast, perceptions of US women's drinking were not related to personal goals for drinking.

Conclusions: Interventions that correct misperceptions about substance use norms may have utility for jailed women with AUDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722182PMC
September 2020

Development of Anti-CD32b Antibodies with Enhanced Fc Function for the Treatment of B and Plasma Cell Malignancies.

Mol Cancer Ther 2020 10 26;19(10):2089-2104. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

The sole inhibitory Fcγ receptor CD32b (FcγRIIb) is expressed throughout B and plasma cell development and on their malignant counterparts. CD32b expression on malignant B cells is known to provide a mechanism of resistance to rituximab that can be ameliorated with a CD32b-blocking antibody. CD32b, therefore, represents an attractive tumor antigen for targeting with a monoclonal antibody (mAb). To this end, two anti-CD32b mAbs, NVS32b1 and NVS32b2, were developed. Their complementarity-determining regions (CDR) bind the CD32b Fc binding domain with high specificity and affinity while the Fc region is afucosylated to enhance activation of FcγRIIIa on immune effector cells. The NVS32b mAbs selectively target CD32b malignant cells and healthy B cells but not myeloid cells. They mediate potent killing of opsonized CD32b cells via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and phagocytosis (ADCC and ADCP) as well as complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In addition, NVS32b CDRs block the CD32b Fc-binding domain, thereby minimizing CD32b-mediated resistance to therapeutic mAbs including rituximab, obinutuzumab, and daratumumab. NVS32b mAbs demonstrate robust antitumor activity against CD32b xenografts and immunomodulatory activity including recruitment of macrophages to the tumor and enhancement of dendritic cell maturation in response to immune complexes. Finally, the activity of NVS32b mAbs on CD32b primary malignant B and plasma cells was confirmed using samples from patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma. The findings indicate the promising potential of NVS32b mAbs as a single agent or in combination with other mAb therapeutics for patients with CD32b malignant cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-19-0003DOI Listing
October 2020

Peer navigation for individuals with serious mental illness leaving jail: a pilot randomized trial study protocol.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2020 17;6:114. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI USA.

Background: Serious mental illness (SMI) is a prevalent public health problem affecting 25% of individuals in jail. Re-entry to the community following incarceration is a vulnerable time for justice-involved individuals with SMI. SMI requires prompt and ongoing access to mental health and other healthcare services.

Methods: The study will (1) develop a Mentoring And Peer Support (MAPS) intervention for post-release mental health and other service connection among jailed individuals with SMI and (2) pilot test the MAPS intervention to determine its feasibility and acceptability. The primary outcomes will be to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the proposed recruitment methods and research design, of the intervention training methods, and of delivering the enhanced peer-navigator and control interventions. Study samples include focus groups (n=36), open trial (n=15), and a randomized pilot trial in a sample of 40 individuals with SMI re-entering the community after jail release. Secondary outcomes will include post-release enrollment in mental health, medical care, and substance use services. We will also evaluate reduction in psychiatric symptoms, improvements in functioning, adherence to psychiatric medications, fewer substance using days, fewer hospitalizations and suicide attempts, nights unstably housed, and time until rearrest.

Discussion: This pilot study will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a peer navigation intervention for individuals with serious mental illness leaving jails. The study will serve as a formative work for a larger randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of peer navigator intervention for (include the primary outcome) in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-020-00659-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429745PMC
August 2020

The origin of the elements: a century of progress.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2020 Sep 17;378(2180):20190301. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

This review assesses the current state of knowledge of how the elements were produced in the Big Bang, in stellar lives and deaths, and by interactions in interstellar gas. We begin with statements of fact and discuss the evidence that convinced astronomers that the Sun is fusing hydrogen, that low-mass stars produce heavy elements through neutron capture, that massive stars can explode as supernovae and that supernovae of all types produce new elements. Nucleosynthesis in the Big Bang, through cosmic ray spallation, and in exploding white dwarfs is only ranked below the above facts in certainty because the evidence, while overwhelming, is so far circumstantial. Next, we highlight the flaws in our current understanding of the predictions for lithium production in the Big Bang and/or its destruction in stars and for the production of the elements with atomic number [Formula: see text]. While the theory that neutron star mergers produce elements through neutron-capture has powerful circumstantial evidence, we are unconvinced that they produce all of the elements past nickel. Also in dispute is the exact mechanism or mechanisms that cause the white dwarfs to explode. It is difficult to determine the origin of rare isotopes because signatures of their production are weak. We are uncertain about the production sites of some lithium and nitrogen isotopes and proton-rich heavy nuclei. Finally, Betelgeuse is probably not the next star to become a supernovae in the Milky Way, in part because Betelgeuse may collapse directly to a black hole instead. The accumulated evidence in this review shows that we understand the major production sites for the elements, but islands of uncertainty in the periodic table exist. Resolving these uncertainties requires in particular understanding explosive events with compact objects and understanding the nature of the first stars and is therefore primed for new discoveries in the next decades. This article is part of the theme issue 'Mendeleev and the periodic table'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2019.0301DOI Listing
September 2020

Addendum - Coronavirus Disease 2019: What Could Be the Effects on Road Safety?

Accid Anal Prev 2021 01 6;149:105712. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409794PMC
January 2021

miR760 regulates ATXN1 levels via interaction with its 5' untranslated region.

Genes Dev 2020 Sep 6;34(17-18):1147-1160. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Program in Integrative Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Identifying modifiers of dosage-sensitive genes involved in neurodegenerative disorders is imperative to discover novel genetic risk factors and potential therapeutic entry points. In this study, we focus on Ataxin-1 (), a dosage-sensitive gene involved in the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). While the precise maintenance of ATXN1 levels is essential to prevent disease, the mechanisms that regulate expression remain largely unknown. We demonstrate that 's unusually long 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) negatively regulates its expression via posttranscriptional mechanisms. Based on recent reports that microRNAs (miRNAs) can interact with both 3' and 5' UTRs to regulate their target genes, we identify miR760 as a negative regulator that binds to a conserved site in 's 5' UTR to induce RNA degradation and translational inhibition. We found that delivery of Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-expressing miR760 in the cerebellum reduces ATXN1 levels in vivo and mitigates motor coordination deficits in a mouse model of SCA1. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of ATXN1 levels, present additional evidence for miRNA-mediated gene regulation via 5' UTR binding, and raise the possibility that noncoding mutations in the locus may act as risk factors for yet to be discovered progressive ataxias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.339317.120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462065PMC
September 2020

Preventing Perinatal Depression Now: A Call to Action.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2020 Sep 30;29(9):1143-1147. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Center for Health Equity Transformation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

In the United States, perinatal depression (PD) affects an estimated 11.5% of pregnant and postpartum individuals annually and is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and the postpartum period. Alarmingly, up to 51% of people with PD are undiagnosed. Despite the availability of tools to screen for PD, there is no consensus on which tool is most accurate, nor is there a universal policy on when and how to best screen patients with PD. Screening to identify PD is essential, but prevention of depression is even more critical, yet traditionally not well addressed until recently with the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation in 2019. When the USPSTF recommended implementing programs to prevent PD in at-risk individuals, the recommendation cited two evidence-based PD prevention programs by name. One of these, ROSE (Reach Out, Stay Strong, Essentials for mothers of newborns), is a four-session class taught in prenatal settings. The second program mentioned is the Mothers and Babies program, which has been shown to be effective in using a cognitive behavioral therapy approach to prevent PD. Although scientists develop effective mental health interventions to prevent PD, community-based advocacy groups are engaged in grassroots efforts to provide support and encouragement to racially and ethnically diverse pregnant and postpartum women. To increase the number of pregnant and postpartum women who are screened and supported so that they do not develop PD, research supports three key strategies: (1) Establish a standard combination of multicultural PD screening tools with evidence-based timepoints for screening administration. (2) Introduce an evidence-based definition of PD that accurately captures the prevalence and incidence of this mental health condition. (3) Improve our understanding of PD by incorporating the psychosocial context in which mental health complications occur into routine clinical practice for pregnant and postpartum women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2020.8646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520910PMC
September 2020

Feasibility and Preliminary Effects of Implementing Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Inpatients With Psychotic-Spectrum Disorders in a Clinical Psychiatric Intensive Care Setting.

J Cogn Psychother 2020 01;34(1):80-96

Alpert Medical School of Brown University.

The aim of this study was to adapt Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Inpatients (ACT-IN) for implementation in a typical hospital setting to prepare for a larger clinical trial. The sample consisted of 26 inpatients diagnosed with psychotic-spectrum disorders. Using an open trial design, patients received individual and group ACT-IN sessions during their stay. We assessed the feasibility/acceptability of ACT-IN and preliminary changes on patient outcomes at baseline, discharge, and 4-month follow-up. We successfully recruited and retained participants as planned. Patients reported satisfaction with treatment, and routine hospital staff showed adoption and fidelity to the intervention. Relative to baseline, patients demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms and functioning across the 4-month follow-up. The current study shows that ACT-IN may be feasible and acceptable for inpatients with psychotic disorders in a psychiatric intensive care setting and should be tested in a future effectiveness-implementation trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.34.1.80DOI Listing
January 2020

Coronavirus disease 2019: What could be the effects on Road safety?

Accid Anal Prev 2020 Sep 16;144:105687. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario Canada.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a world-wide pandemic. Countries introduced public health measures to contain and reduce its spread. These measures included closures of educational institutions, non-essential businesses, events and activities, as well as working from and staying at home requirements. These measures have led to an economic downturn of unprecedented proportions. Generally, as economic activity declines, travel decreases and drivers are exposed to a lower risk of collisions. However, research on previous economic downturns suggests economic downturns differentially affect driver behaviours and situations. COVID-19 pandemic effects on road safety are currently unknown. However, preliminary information on factors such as the increased stress and anxiety brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic, more "free" (idle) time, increased consumption of alcohol and drugs, and greater opportunities for speeding and stunt driving, might well have the opposite effect on road safety. Using an interactionist model we identify research questions for researchers to consider on potential person and situation factors associated with COVID-19 that could affect road safety during and after the pandemic. Collaborative efforts by researchers, and public and private sectors will be needed to gather data and develop road safety strategies in relation to the new reality of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2020.105687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364169PMC
September 2020

Enhancing vocational training in corrections: A type 1 hybrid randomized controlled trial protocol for evaluating virtual reality job interview training among returning citizens preparing for community re-entry.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2020 Sep 29;19:100604. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Wayne State University School of Social Work, Detroit, MI, USA.

The Michigan Department of Corrections operates the Vocational Villages, which are skilled trades training programs set within prisons that include an immersive educational community using virtual reality, robotics, and other technologies to develop employable trades. An enhancement to the Vocational Villages could be an evidence-based job interview training component. Recently, we conducted a series of randomized controlled trials funded by the National Institute of Mental Health to evaluate the efficacy of virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT). The results suggested that the use of VR-JIT was associated with improved job interview skills and a greater likelihood of receiving job offers within 6 months. The primary goal of this study is to report on the protocol we developed to evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT at improving interview skills, increasing job offers, and reducing recidivism when delivered within two Vocational Villages via a randomized controlled trial and process evaluation. Our aims are to: (1) evaluate whether services-as-usual in combination with VR-JIT, compared to services-as-usual alone, enhances employment outcomes and reduces recidivism among returning citizens enrolled in the Vocational Villages; (2) evaluate mechanisms of employment outcomes and explore mechanisms of recidivism; and (3) conduct a multilevel, mixed-method process evaluation of VR-JIT implementation to assess the adoptability, acceptability, scalability, feasibility, and implementation costs of VR-JIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2020.100604DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339026PMC
September 2020

Sensitization to storage proteins in peanut and hazelnut is associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers in asthma.

Clin Mol Allergy 2020 23;18:11. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Sensitization to peanuts and hazelnuts is common among young asthmatics and can be primary or a result of cross-reactivity. Sensitization as a result of cross-reactivity to birch pollen is typically associated to tolerance or mild and local symptoms upon intake of peanut or hazelnut.

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between IgE antibody responses against peanut and hazelnut components, airway and systemic inflammation markers, lung function parameters and reported food hypersensitivity in a cohort of asthmatic children and young adults.

Methods: A population of 408 asthmatic individuals aged 10-35 years were investigated. Information on hypersensitivity symptoms upon intake of peanut or hazelnut were recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), blood eosinophil count (B-Eos), spirometry, methacholine challenge outcome and IgE antibodies to peanut and hazelnut allergens were measured by standard clinical and laboratory methods.

Results: Subjects sensitized to any of the peanut (Ara h 1, 2 or 3) or hazelnut (Cor a 9 or 14) storage proteins were significantly younger (17.6 vs 21.2 years), had higher levels of FeNO (23.2 vs 16.7 ppb) and B-Eos (340 vs 170 cells/mcl) than those displaying only pollen-related cross-reactive sensitization. Levels of FeNO correlated with levels of IgE to storage proteins in children, but not in adults. Levels of B-Eos correlated with levels of IgE to all allergen components investigated in children, but only to levels of IgE to storage proteins in adults. Anaphylaxis and skin reactions upon intake of peanuts or hazelnuts were more often reported among subjects sensitized to the respective storage proteins than among those with only pollen-related cross-reactive sensitization. As compared to peanut, hazelnut was more often reported to cause gastrointestinal symptoms and less often oral cavity symptoms.

Conclusions: Sensitization to peanut and hazelnut storage proteins was associated with higher levels of inflammation markers and food hypersensitivity symptoms in this population of subjects with asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12948-020-00126-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310284PMC
June 2020