Publications by authors named "Jennifer J Kurinczuk"

147 Publications

Authors' reply re: Intrapartum-related perinatal deaths in births planned in midwifery-led settings in Great Britain: findings and recommendations from the ESMiE confidential enquiry.

BJOG 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Policy Research Unit in Maternal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.16761DOI Listing
June 2021

Neonatal and infant mortality associated with spina bifida: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250098. Epub 2021 May 12.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit (NPEU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objectives: A systematic review was conducted in high-income country settings to analyse: (i) spina bifida neonatal and IMRs over time, and (ii) clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with mortality in the first year after birth in infants affected by spina bifida.

Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1st January, 1990 to 31st August, 2020 to review evidence.

Study Selection: Population-based studies that provided data for spina bifida infant mortality and case fatality according to clinical and socio-demographical characteristics were included. Studies were excluded if they were conducted solely in tertiary centres. Spina bifida occulta or syndromal spina bifida were excluded where possible.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Independent reviewers extracted data and assessed their quality using MOOSE guideline. Pooled mortality estimates were calculated using random-effects (+/- fixed effects) models meta-analyses. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q test and I2 statistics. Meta-regression was performed to examine the impact of year of birth cohort on spina bifida infant mortality.

Results: Twenty studies met the full inclusion criteria with a total study population of over 30 million liveborn infants and approximately 12,000 spina bifida-affected infants. Significant declines in spina bifida associated infant and neonatal mortality rates (e.g. 4.76% decrease in IMR per 100, 000 live births per year) and case fatality (e.g. 2.70% decrease in infant case fatality per year) were consistently observed over time. Preterm birth (RR 4.45; 2.30-8.60) and low birthweight (RR 4.77; 2.67-8.55) are the strongest risk factors associated with increased spina bifida infant case fatality.

Significance: Significant declines in spina bifida associated infant/neonatal mortality and case fatality were consistently observed, advances in treatment and mandatory folic acid food fortification both likely play an important role. Particular attention is warranted from clinicians caring for preterm and low birthweight babies affected by spina bifida.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250098PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115829PMC
May 2021

The incidence, characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalized with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK from March to September 2020: A national cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS).

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0251123. Epub 2021 May 5.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: There is a lack of population level data on risk factors, incidence and impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women and their babies. The primary aim of this study was to describe the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized pregnant women with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in the UK compared to pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2.

Methods And Findings: We conducted a national, prospective cohort study of all hospitalized pregnant women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 from 01/03/2020 to 31/08/2020 using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System. Incidence rates were estimated using national maternity data. Overall, 1148 hospitalized women had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy, 63% of which were symptomatic. The estimated incidence of hospitalization with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 was 2.0 per 1000 maternities (95% CI 1.9-2.2) and for asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 was 1.2 per 1000 maternities (95% CI 1.1-1.4). Compared to pregnant women without SARS-CoV-2, women hospitalized with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to be overweight or obese (adjusted OR 1.86, (95% CI 1.39-2.48) and aOR 2.07 (1.53-2.29)), to be of Black, Asian or Other minority ethnic group (aOR 6.24, (3.93-9.90), aOR 4.36, (3.19-5.95) and aOR 12.95, (4.93-34.01)), and to have a relevant medical comorbidity (aOR 1.83 (1.32-2.54)). Hospitalized pregnant women with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to be admitted to intensive care (aOR 57.67, (7.80-426.70)) but the absolute risk of poor outcomes was low. Cesarean births and neonatal unit admission were increased regardless of symptom status (symptomatic aOR 2.60, (1.97-3.42) and aOR 3.08, (1.99-4.77); asymptomatic aOR 2.02, (1.52-2.70) and aOR 1.84, (1.12-3.03)). The risks of stillbirth or neonatal death were not significantly increased, regardless of symptom status.

Conclusions: We have identified factors that increase the risk of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Clinicians can be reassured that the majority of women do not experience severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251123PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099130PMC
May 2021

Validated screening tools to identify common mental disorders in perinatal and postpartum women in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 04 20;21(1):200. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK.

Background: Perinatal common mental disorders are associated with significant adverse outcomes for women and their families, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. Early detection through screening with locally-validated tools can improve outcomes.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Global Health, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar for articles on the validation of screening tools for common mental disorders in perinatal women in India, with no language or date restrictions. Quality was assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. We used bivariate and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic models to calculate pooled summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity. Heterogeneity was assessed by visualising the distance of individual studies from the summary curve.

Results: Seven studies involving 1003 women were analysed. All studies assessed the validity of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in identifying perinatal depression. No validation studies of any other screening tools were identified. Using a common threshold of ≥13 the EPDS had a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 88·9% (95%CI 77·4-94·9) and 93·4 (95%CI 81·5-97·8), respectively. Using optimal thresholds (range ≥ 9 to ≥13) the EPDS had a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 94·4% (95%CI 81·7-98·4) and 90·8 (95%CI 83·7-95·0), respectively.

Conclusion: The EPDS is psychometrically valid in diverse Indian settings and its use in routine maternity care could improve detection of perinatal depression. Further research is required to validate screening tools for other perinatal common mental disorders in India.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03190-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056564PMC
April 2021

Parents' Active Role and ENgagement in The review of their Stillbirth/perinatal death 2 (PARENTS 2) study: a mixed-methods study of implementation.

BMJ Open 2021 03 16;11(3):e044563. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

University College London Institute for Women's Health, London, UK.

Objective: When a formal review of care takes places after the death of a baby, parents are largely unaware it takes place and are often not meaningfully involved in the review process. Parent engagement in the process is likely to be essential for a successful review and to improve patient safety. This study aimed to evaluate an intervention process of parental engagement in perinatal mortality review (PNMR) and to identify barriers and facilitators to its implementation.

Design: Mixed-methods study of parents' engagement in PNMR.

Setting: Single tertiary maternity unit in the UK.

Participants: Bereaved parents and healthcare professionals (HCPs).

Interventions: Parent engagement in the PNMR (intervention) was based on principles derived through national consensus and qualitative research with parents, HCPs and stakeholders in the UK.

Outcomes: Recruitment rates, bereaved parents and HCPs' perceptions.

Results: Eighty-one per cent of bereaved parents approached (13/16) agreed to participate in the study. Two focus groups with bereaved parents (n=11) and HCP (n=7) were carried out postimplementation to investigate their perceptions of the process.Overarching findings were improved dialogue and continuity of care with parents, and improvements in the PNMR process and patient safety. Bereaved parents agreed that engagement in the PNMR process was invaluable and helped them in their grieving. HCP perceived that parent involvement improved the review process and lessons learnt from the deaths; information to understand the impact of aspects of care on the baby's death were often only found in the parents' recollections.

Conclusions: Parental engagement in the PNMR process is achievable and useful for parents and HCP alike, and critically can improve patient safety and future care for mothers and babies. To learn and prevent perinatal deaths effectively, all hospitals should give parents the option to engage with the review of their baby's death.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970278PMC
March 2021

Elevated serum IL-10 is associated with severity of neonatal encephalopathy and adverse early childhood outcomes.

Pediatr Res 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Institute for Women's Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) contributes substantially to child mortality and disability globally. We compared cytokine profiles in term Ugandan neonates with and without NE, with and without perinatal infection or inflammation and identified biomarkers predicting neonatal and early childhood outcomes.

Methods: In this exploratory biomarker study, serum IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα, and VEGF (<12 h) were compared between NE and non-NE infants with and without perinatal infection/inflammation. Neonatal (severity of NE, mortality) and early childhood (death or neurodevelopmental impairment to 2.5 years) outcomes were assessed. Predictors of outcomes were explored with multivariable linear and logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic analyses.

Results: Cytokine assays on 159 NE and 157 non-NE infants were performed; data on early childhood outcomes were available for 150 and 129, respectively. NE infants had higher IL-10 (p < 0.001), higher IL-6 (p < 0.017), and lower VEGF (p < 0.001) levels. Moderate and severe NE was associated with higher IL-10 levels compared to non-NE infants (p < 0.001). Elevated IL-1α was associated with perinatal infection/inflammation (p = 0.013). Among NE infants, IL-10 predicted neonatal mortality (p = 0.01) and adverse early childhood outcome (adjusted OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.35-3.86, p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Our findings support a potential role for IL-10 as a biomarker for adverse outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy.

Impact: Neonatal encephalopathy is a common cause of child death and disability globally. Inflammatory cytokines are potential biomarkers of encephalopathy severity and outcome. In this Ugandan health facility-based cohort, neonatal encephalopathy was associated with elevated serum IL-10 and IL-6, and reduced VEGF at birth. Elevated serum IL-10 within 12 h after birth predicted severity of neonatal encephalopathy, neonatal mortality, and adverse early childhood developmental outcomes, independent of perinatal infection or inflammation, and provides evidence to the contribution of the inflammatory processes. Our findings support a role for IL-10 as a biomarker for adverse outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy in a sub-Saharan African cohort.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01438-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Caesarean section and severe upper and lower respiratory tract infections during infancy: Evidence from two UK cohorts.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(2):e0246832. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Several studies have reported that birth by caesarean section is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections in the child, but it is unclear whether this applies to any caesarean section or specifically to planned caesareans. Furthermore, although infections of the upper respiratory tract are very common during childhood, there is a scarcity of studies examining whether caesarean is also a risk factor for this site of infection.

Methods: We obtained data from two UK cohorts: the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) and linked administrative datasets of the population of Wales through the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) databank. The study focused on term-born singleton infants and included 15,580 infants born 2000-2002 (MCS) and 392,145 infants born 2002-2016 (SAIL). We used information about mode of birth (vaginal delivery, assisted vaginal delivery, planned caesarean and emergency caesarean) from maternal report in the MCS and from hospital birth records in SAIL. Unplanned hospital admission for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) was ascertained from maternal report in the MCS and from hospital record ICD codes in SAIL. Information about admissions for upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was available from SAIL only. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for each outcome and cohort separately while accounting for a wide range of confounders. Gestational age at birth was further examined as a potential added, indirect risk of planned caesarean birth due to the early delivery.

Findings: The rate of hospital admission for LRTI was 4.6 per 100 child years in the MCS and 5.9 per 100 child years in SAIL. Emergency caesarean was not associated with LRTI admission during infancy in either cohort. In the MCS, planned caesarean was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.39 (95% CI 1.03, 1.87) which further increased to 1.65 (95% CI 1.24, 2.19) when gestational age was not adjusted for. In SAIL, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.15), which increased to 1.17 (95% CI 1.12, 1.22) when gestational age was not adjusted for. The rate of hospital admission for URTI was 5.9 per 100 child years in SAIL. Following adjustments, emergency caesarean was found to have a hazard ratio of 1.09 (95% CI 1.05, 1.14) for hospital admission for URTI. Planned caesarean was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% CI 1.06, 1.16) which increased to 1.17 (95% CI 1.12, 1.22) when gestational age was not adjusted for.

Conclusions: The risk of severe LRTIs during infancy is moderately elevated in infants born by planned caesarean compared to those born vaginally. Infants born by any type of caesarean may also be at a small increased risk of severe URTIs. The estimated effect sizes are stronger if including the indirect effect arising from planning the caesarean birth for an earlier gestation than would have occurred spontaneously. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246832PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886211PMC
February 2021

Planned mode of birth after previous caesarean section and women's use of psychotropic medication in the first year postpartum: a population-based record linkage cohort study.

Psychol Med 2021 Jan 28:1-12. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Policy in many high-income settings supports giving pregnant women with previous caesarean section a choice between an elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) or planning a vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC), provided they have no contraindications to VBAC. Despite the potential for this choice to influence women's mental health, evidence about the associated effect to counsel women and identify potential targets for intervention is limited. This study investigated the association between planned mode of birth after previous caesarean and women's subsequent use of psychotropic medications.

Methods: A population-based cohort study of 31 131 women with one or more previous caesarean sections who gave birth to a term singleton in Scotland between 2010 and 2015 with no prior psychotropic medications in the year before birth was conducted using linked Scottish national datasets. Cox regression was used to investigate the association between planned mode of birth and being dispensed psychotropic medications in the first year postpartum adjusted for socio-demographic, medical, pregnancy-related factors and breastfeeding.

Results: Planned VBAC (n = 10 220) compared to ERCS (n = 20 911) was associated with a reduced risk of the mother being dispensed any psychotropic medication [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.92], an antidepressant (aHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.90), and at least two consecutive antidepressants (aHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.91) in the first year postpartum.

Conclusions: Women giving birth by ERCS were more likely than those having a planned VBAC to be dispensed psychotropic medication including antidepressants in the first year postpartum. Further research is needed to establish the reasons behind this new finding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720005322DOI Listing
January 2021

The ability of the neonatal immune response to handle SARS-CoV-2 infection - Authors' reply.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 03 21;5(3):e8. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

NIHR Policy Research Unit in Maternal and Neonatal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00004-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825901PMC
March 2021

Gestational age at birth and child special educational needs: a UK representative birth cohort study.

Arch Dis Child 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit (NPEU), Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: To examine the association between gestational age at birth across the entire gestational age spectrum and special educational needs (SENs) in UK children at 11 years of age.

Methods: The Millennium Cohort Study is a nationally representative longitudinal sample of children born in the UK during 2000-2002. Information about the child's birth, health and sociodemographic factors was collected when children were 9 months old. Information about presence and reasons for SEN was collected from parents at age 11. Adjusted relative risks (aRRs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression, accounting for confounders.

Results: The sample included 12 081 children with data at both time points. The overall prevalence of SEN was 11.2%, and it was inversely associated with gestational age. Among children born <32 weeks of gestation, the prevalence of SEN was 27.4%, three times higher than among those born at 40 weeks (aRR=2.89; 95% CI 2.02 to 4.13). Children born early term (37-38 weeks) were also at increased risk for SEN (aRR=1.33; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.59); this was the same when the analysis was restricted to births after labour with spontaneous onset. Birth before full term was more strongly associated with having a formal statement of SEN or SEN for multiple reasons.

Conclusion: Children born at earlier gestational ages are more likely to experience SEN, have more complex SEN and require support in multiple facets of learning. This association was observed even among children born early-term and when labour began spontaneously.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-320213DOI Listing
January 2021

A total blood volume or more transfused during pregnancy or after childbirth: Individual patient data from six international population-based observational studies.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(1):e0244933. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: This study aimed to compare incidence, management and outcomes of women transfused their blood volume or more within 24 hours during pregnancy or following childbirth.

Methods: Combined analysis of individual patient data, prospectively collected in six international population-based studies (France, United Kingdom, Italy, Australia, the Netherlands and Denmark). Massive transfusion in major obstetric haemorrhage was defined as transfusion of eight or more units of red blood cells within 24 hours in a pregnant or postpartum woman. Causes, management and outcomes of women with massive transfusion were compared across countries using descriptive statistics.

Findings: The incidence of massive transfusion was approximately 21 women per 100,000 maternities for the United Kingdom, Australia and Italy; by contrast Denmark, the Netherlands and France had incidences of 82, 66 and 69 per 100,000 maternities, respectively. There was large variation in obstetric and haematological management across countries. Fibrinogen products were used in 86% of women in Australia, while the Netherlands and Italy reported lower use at 35-37% of women. Tranexamic acid was used in 75% of women in the Netherlands, but in less than half of women in the UK, Australia and Italy. In all countries, women received large quantities of colloid/crystalloid fluids during resuscitation (>3·5 litres). There was large variation in the use of compression sutures, embolisation and hysterectomy across countries. There was no difference in maternal mortality; however, variable proportions of women had cardiac arrests, renal failure and thrombotic events from 0-16%.

Interpretation: There was considerable variation in the incidence of massive transfusion associated with major obstetric haemorrhage across six high-income countries. There were also large disparities in both transfusion and obstetric management between these countries. There is a requirement for detailed evaluation of evidence underlying current guidance. Furthermore, cross-country comparison may empower countries to reference their clinical care against that of other countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244933PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822517PMC
May 2021

Management of Gastroschisis: Results From the NETS2G Study, a Joint British, Irish, and Canadian Prospective Cohort Study of 1268 Infants.

Ann Surg 2021 Jun;273(6):1207-1214

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Oxford, UK.

Objective: In infants with gastroschisis, outcomes were compared between those where operative reduction and fascial closure were attempted ≤24 hours of age (PC), and those who underwent planned closure of their defect >24 hours of age following reduction with a pre-formed silo (SR).

Summary Of Background Data: Inadequate evidence exists to determine how best to treat infants with gastroschisis.

Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of data collected 2006-2008 using the British Association of Pediatric Surgeons Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System, and 2005-2016 using the Canadian Pediatric Surgery Network.28-day outcomes were compared between infants undergoing PC and SR. Primary outcome was number of gastrointestinal complications. Interactions were investigated between infant characteristics and treatment to determine whether intervention effect varied in sub-groups of infants.

Results: Data from 341 British and Irish infants (27%) and 927 Canadian infants (73%) were used. 671 infants (42%) underwent PC and 597 (37%) underwent SR. The effect of SR on outcome varied according to the presence/absence of intestinal perforation, intestinal matting and intestinal necrosis. In infants without these features, SR was associated with fewer gastrointestinal complications [aIRR 0.25 (95% CI 0.09-0.67, P = 0.006)], more operations [aIRR 1.40 (95% CI 1.22-1.60, P < 0.001)], more days PN [aIRR 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.13, P < 0.001)], and a higher infection risk [aOR 2.06 (95% CI 1.10-3.87, P = 0.025)]. In infants with these features, SR was associated with a greater number of operations [aIRR 1.30 (95% CI 1.17-1.45, P < 0.001)], and more days PN [aIRR 1.06 (95% CI 1.02-1.10, P = 0.003)].

Conclusions: In infants without intestinal perforation, matting, or necrosis, the benefits of SR outweigh its drawbacks. In infants with these features, the opposite is true. Treatment choice should be based upon these features.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004217DOI Listing
June 2021

Characteristics and outcomes of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK: a prospective national cohort study using active surveillance.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 02 9;5(2):113-121. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

NIHR Policy Research Unit in Maternal and Neonatal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Babies differ from older children with regard to their exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, data describing the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in this group are scarce, and guidance is variable. We aimed to describe the incidence, characteristics, transmission, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in neonates who received inpatient hospital care in the UK.

Methods: We carried out a prospective UK population-based cohort study of babies with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 28 days of life who received inpatient care between March 1 and April 30, 2020. Infected babies were identified through active national surveillance via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, with linkage to national testing, paediatric intensive care audit, and obstetric surveillance data. Outcomes included incidence (per 10 000 livebirths) of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease, proportions of babies with suspected vertically and nosocomially acquired infection, and clinical outcomes.

Findings: We identified 66 babies with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence 5·6 [95% CI 4·3-7·1] per 10 000 livebirths), of whom 28 (42%) had severe neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence 2·4 [1·6-3·4] per 10 000 livebirths). 16 (24%) of these babies were born preterm. 36 (55%) babies were from white ethnic groups (SARS-CoV-2 infection incidence 4·6 [3·2-6·4] per 10 000 livebirths), 14 (21%) were from Asian ethnic groups (15·2 [8·3-25·5] per 10 000 livebirths), eight (12%) were from Black ethnic groups (18·0 [7·8-35·5] per 10 000 livebirths), and seven (11%) were from mixed or other ethnic groups (5·6 [2·2-11·5] per 10 000 livebirths). 17 (26%) babies with confirmed infection were born to mothers with known perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection, two (3%) were considered to have possible vertically acquired infection (SARS-CoV-2-positive sample within 12 h of birth where the mother was also positive). Eight (12%) babies had suspected nosocomially acquired infection. As of July 28, 2020, 58 (88%) babies had been discharged home, seven (11%) were still admitted, and one (2%) had died of a cause unrelated to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Interpretation: Neonatal SARS-CoV-2 infection is uncommon in babies admitted to hospital. Infection with neonatal admission following birth to a mother with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection was unlikely, and possible vertical transmission rare, supporting international guidance to avoid separation of mother and baby. The high proportion of babies from Black, Asian, or minority ethnic groups requires investigation.

Funding: UK National Institute for Health Research Policy Research Programme.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30342-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818530PMC
February 2021

Outcomes at five to eight years of age for children with Hirschsprung's disease.

Arch Dis Child 2020 Nov 2. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK.

Objective: This study describes core outcomes of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) in a UK-wide cohort of primary school-aged children.

Design: A prospective cohort study conducted from 1 October 2010 to 30 September 2012. Outcomes data were collected from parents and clinicians when children were 5-8 years of age, and combined with data collected at birth, and 28 days and 1 year post diagnosis.

Setting: All 28 UK and Irish paediatric surgical centres.

Participants: Children with histologically proven HD diagnosed at <6 months of age.

Main Outcome Measures: NETS core outcomes.

Results: Data were returned for 239 (78%) of 305 children. Twelve children (5%) died prior to 5 years of age.Of the 227 surviving children, 30 (13%) had a stoma and 21 (9%) were incontinent of urine. Of the 197 children without a stoma, 155 (79%) maintained bowel movements without enemas/washouts, while 124 (63%) reported faecal incontinence. Of the 214 surviving children who had undergone a pull-through operation, 95 (44%) underwent ≥1 unplanned reoperation. 89 unplanned reoperations (27%) were major/complex.Of the 83 children with returned PedsQL scores, 37 (49%) had quality of life scores, and 31 (42%) had psychological well-being scores, that were ≥1 SD lower than the reference population mean for children without HD.

Conclusion: This study gives a realistic picture of population outcomes of HD in primary school-aged children in the UK/Ireland. The high rates of faecal incontinence, unplanned procedures and low quality of life scores are sobering. Ensuring clinicians address the bladder, bowel and psychological problems experienced by children should be a priority.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-320310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070639PMC
November 2020

Neonatal admission and mortality in babies born in UK alongside midwifery units: a national population-based case-control study using the UK Midwifery Study System (UKMidSS).

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2021 Mar 30;106(2):194-203. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for neonatal unit admission, intrapartum stillbirth or neonatal death without admission, and describe outcomes, in babies born in an alongside midwifery unit (AMU).

Design: National population-based case-control study.

Method: We used the UK Midwifery Study System to identify and collect data about 1041 women who gave birth in AMUs, March 2017 to February 2018, whose babies were admitted to a neonatal unit or died (cases) and 1984 controls from the same AMUs. We used multivariable logistic regression, generating adjusted OR (aOR) with 95% CIs, to investigate maternal and intrapartum factors associated with neonatal admission or mortality.

Results: The incidence of neonatal admission or mortality following birth in an AMU was 1.2%, comprising neonatal admission (1.2%) and mortality (0.01%). White 'other' ethnicity (aOR=1.28; 95% CI=1.01 to 1.63); nulliparity (aOR=2.09; 95% CI=1.78 to 2.45); ≥2 previous pregnancies ≥24 weeks' gestation (aOR=1.38; 95% CI=1.10 to 1.74); male sex (aOR=1.46; 95% CI=1.23 to 1.75); maternal pregnancy problem (aOR=1.40; 95% CI=1.03 to 1.90); prolonged (aOR=1.42; 95% CI=1.01 to 2.01) or unrecorded (aOR=1.38; 95% CI=1.05 to 1.81) second stage duration; opiate use (aOR=1.31; 95% CI=1.02 to 1.68); shoulder dystocia (aOR=5.06; 95% CI=3.00 to 8.52); birth weight <2500 g (aOR=4.12; 95% CI=1.97 to 8.60), 4000-4999 g (aOR=1.64; 95% CI=1.25 to 2.14) and ≥4500 g (aOR=2.10; 95% CI=1.17 to 3.76), were independently associated with neonatal admission or mortality. Among babies admitted (n=1038), 18% received intensive care. Nine babies died, six following neonatal admission. Sepsis (52%) and respiratory distress (42%) were the most common discharge diagnoses.

Conclusions: The results of this study are in line with other evidence on risk factors for neonatal admission, and reassuring in terms of the quality and safety of care in AMUs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-319099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907574PMC
March 2021

Systematic review and meta-analysis of prolactin and iron deficiency in peripartum cardiomyopathy.

Open Heart 2020 10;7(2)

Nuffield Department of Population Health: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Oxford University, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that compared levels of molecular biomarkers in women with peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) to those in healthy pregnant and postpartum women to: (1) assess the evidence for prolactin (PRL) metabolism in PPCM, (2) ascertain the evidence for biomarkers of iron deficiency in PPCM, (3) identify other biomarkers associated with PPCM.

Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, Cumulated Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and the Global Health Library from inception without language restriction for studies that compared biomarkers levels in PPCM cases to healthy controls. Pooled standardised mean difference (SMD) was generated using a random effects model for the difference in levels of biomarkers.

Results: Two studies assessed the association of PRL with PPCM, and reported that PPCM cases have higher levels of total PRL. No studies investigated iron metabolism in PPCM. Other biomarkers associated with PPCM included serum levels of natriuretic peptides (SMD=3.77, 95% CI 0.71 to 6.82), albumin (SMD=-0.67, 95% CI -1.01 to -0.32), C-reactive protein (SMD=1.67, 95% CI 0.22 to 3.12), selenium (SMD=-0.73, 95% CI -1.58 to 0.12), cardiac troponins (SMD=1.06, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.80), creatinine (SMD=0.51, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.69), white bloodcells (SMD=0.44, 95 % CI 0.07 to 0.82), haemoglobin (SMD=-0.45, 95% CI -0.64 to-0.26).

Conclusions: More robust molecular studies are needed to explore the association between prolactin and PPCM in human subjects and to determine the extent to which iron deficiency (with or without anaemia) contributes to the risk of PPCM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2020-001430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566429PMC
October 2020

National active surveillance to understand and inform neonatal care in COVID-19.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2020 07 14;105(4):346-347. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

NIHR Policy Research Unit in Maternal and Neonatal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2020-319372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7363791PMC
July 2020

Characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK: national population based cohort study.

BMJ 2020 06 8;369:m2107. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.

Objectives: To describe a national cohort of pregnant women admitted to hospital with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the UK, identify factors associated with infection, and describe outcomes, including transmission of infection, for mothers and infants.

Design: Prospective national population based cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS).

Setting: All 194 obstetric units in the UK.

Participants: 427 pregnant women admitted to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between 1 March 2020 and 14 April 2020.

Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of maternal hospital admission and infant infection. Rates of maternal death, level 3 critical care unit admission, fetal loss, caesarean birth, preterm birth, stillbirth, early neonatal death, and neonatal unit admission.

Results: The estimated incidence of admission to hospital with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was 4.9 (95% confidence interval 4.5 to 5.4) per 1000 maternities. 233 (56%) pregnant women admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy were from black or other ethnic minority groups, 281 (69%) were overweight or obese, 175 (41%) were aged 35 or over, and 145 (34%) had pre-existing comorbidities. 266 (62%) women gave birth or had a pregnancy loss; 196 (73%) gave birth at term. Forty one (10%) women admitted to hospital needed respiratory support, and five (1%) women died. Twelve (5%) of 265 infants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, six of them within the first 12 hours after birth.

Conclusions: Most pregnant women admitted to hospital with SARS-CoV-2 infection were in the late second or third trimester, supporting guidance for continued social distancing measures in later pregnancy. Most had good outcomes, and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to infants was uncommon. The high proportion of women from black or minority ethnic groups admitted with infection needs urgent investigation and explanation.

Study Registration: ISRCTN 40092247.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277610PMC
June 2020

Multilevel analyses of related public health indicators: The European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) Public Health Indicators.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2020 03;34(2):122-129

INSERM U1153 (Obstetrical, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Research Team, Center for Biostatistics and Epidemiology), Maternité Port Royal, Paris, France.

Background: Public health organisations use public health indicators to guide health policy. Joint analysis of multiple public health indicators can provide a more comprehensive understanding of what they are intended to evaluate.

Objective: To analyse variaitons in the prevalence of congenital anomaly-related perinatal mortality attributable to termination of pregnancy for foetal anomaly (TOPFA) and prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomaly prevalence.

Methods: We included 55 363 cases of congenital anomalies notified to 18 EUROCAT registers in 10 countries during 2008-12. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) representing the risk of congenital anomaly-related perinatal mortality according to TOPFA and prenatal diagnosis prevalence were estimated using multilevel Poisson regression with country as a random effect. Between-country variation in congenital anomaly-related perinatal mortality was measured using random effects and compared between the null and adjusted models to estimate the percentage of variation in congenital anomaly-related perinatal mortality accounted for by TOPFA and prenatal diagnosis.

Results: The risk of congenital anomaly-related perinatal mortality decreased as TOPFA and prenatal diagnosis prevalence increased (IRR 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72, 0.86; and IRR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79, 0.97). Modelling TOPFA and prenatal diagnosis together, the association between congenital anomaly-related perinatal mortality and TOPFA prevalence became stronger (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.61, 0.81). The prevalence of TOPFA and prenatal diagnosis accounted for 75.5% and 37.7% of the between-country variation in perinatal mortality, respectively.

Conclusion: We demonstrated an approach for analysing inter-linked public health indicators. In this example, as TOPFA and prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomaly prevalence decreased, the risk of congenital anomaly-related perinatal mortality increased. Much of the between-country variation in congenital anomaly-related perinatal mortality was accounted for by TOPFA, with a smaller proportion accounted for by prenatal diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064886PMC
March 2020

A national population-based cohort study to investigate inequalities in maternal mortality in the United Kingdom, 2009-17.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2020 07 3;34(4):392-398. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Disparities have been documented in maternal mortality rates between women from different ethnic, age and socio-economic groups in the UK. It is unclear whether there are differential changes in these rates amongst women from different groups over time. The objectives of this analysis were to describe UK maternal mortality rates in different age, ethnic and socio-economic groups between 2009 and 2017, and to identify whether there were changes in the observed inequalities, or different trends amongst population subgroups.

Methods: Maternal mortality rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in specific age, deprivation and ethnic groups were calculated using numbers of maternal deaths as numerator and total maternities as denominator. Relative risks (RR) with 95% CI were calculated and compared using ratios of relative risk. Change over time was investigated using non-parametric tests for trend across ordered groups.

Results: Women from black and Asian groups had a higher mortality rate than white women in most time periods, as did women aged 35 and over and women from the most deprived quintile areas of residence. There was evidence of an increasing trend in maternal mortality amongst black women and a decrease in mortality amongst women from the least deprived areas, but no trends over time in any of the other ethnic, age or IMD groups were seen. There was a widening of the disparity between black and white women (RR 2.59 in 2009-11 compared with 5.27 in 2015-17, ratio of the relative risks 2.03, 95% CI 1.11, 3.72).

Conclusions: The clear differences in the patterns of maternal mortality amongst different ethnic, age and socio-economic groups emphasise the importance of research and policies focussed specifically on women from black and minority ethnic groups, together with other disadvantaged groups, to begin to reduce maternal mortality in the UK.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7383891PMC
July 2020

Variations in neonatal mortality, infant mortality, preterm birth and birth weight in England and Wales according to ethnicity and maternal country or region of birth: an analysis of linked national data from 2006 to 2012.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2020 04 21;74(4):336-345. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

NIHR Policy Research Unit in Maternal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Risks of adverse birth outcomes in England and Wales are relatively low but vary across ethnic groups. We aimed to explore the role of mother's country of birth on birth outcomes across ethnic groups using a large population-based linked data set.

Methods: We used a cohort of 4.6 million singleton live births in England and Wales to estimate relative risks of neonatal mortality, infant mortality and preterm birth, and differences in birth weight, comparing infants of UK-born mothers to infants whose mothers were born in their countries or regions of ethnic origin, or elsewhere.

Results: The crude neonatal and infant death risks were 2.1 and 3.2 per 1000, respectively, the crude preterm birth risk was 5.6% and the crude mean birth weight was 3.36 kg. Pooling across all ethnic groups, infants of mothers born in their countries or regions of ethnic origin had lower adjusted risks of death and preterm birth, and higher gestational age-adjusted mean birth weights than those of UK-born mothers. White British infants of non-UK-born mothers had slightly lower gestational age-adjusted mean birth weights than White British infants of UK-born mothers (mean difference -3 g, 95% CI -5 g to -0.3 g). Pakistani infants of Pakistan-born mothers had lower adjusted risks of neonatal death (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98), infant death (aRR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.94) and preterm birth (aRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88) than Pakistani infants of UK-born Pakistani mothers. Indian infants of India-born mothers had lower adjusted preterm birth risk (aRR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.96) than Indian infants of UK-born Indian mothers. There was no evidence of a difference by mother's country of birth in risk of birth outcomes among Black infants, except Black Caribbean infants of mothers born in neither the UK nor their region of origin, who had higher neonatal death risks (aRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.76).

Conclusion: This study highlights evidence of better birth outcomes among UK-born infants of non-UK-born minority ethnic group mothers, and could inform the design of future interventions to reduce the risks of adverse birth outcomes through improved targeting of at-risk groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2019-213093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079191PMC
April 2020

Ethnic differences in singleton preterm birth in England and Wales, 2006-12: Analysis of national routinely collected data.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2019 11 22;33(6):449-458. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Policy Research Unit in Maternal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Data recorded at birth and death registration in England and Wales have been routinely linked with data recorded at birth notification since 2006. These provide scope for detailed analyses on ethnic differences in preterm birth (PTB).

Objectives: We aimed to investigate ethnic differences in PTB and degree of prematurity in England and Wales, taking into account maternal sociodemographic characteristics and to further explore the contribution of mother's country of birth to these ethnic differences in PTB.

Methods: We analysed PTB and degree of prematurity by ethnic group, using routinely collected and linked data for all singleton live births in England and Wales, 2006-2012. Logistic regression was used to adjust for mother's age, marital status/registration type, area deprivation and mother's country of birth.

Results: In the 4 634 932 births analysed, all minority ethnic groups except 'Other White' had significantly higher odds of PTB compared with White British babies (ORs between 1.04-1.25); highest odds were in Black Caribbean, Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani groups. Ethnic differences in PTB tended to be greater at earlier gestational ages. In all ethnic groups, odds of PTB were lower for babies whose mothers were born outside the UK.

Conclusions: In England and Wales, Black Caribbean, Indian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Black African babies all have significantly increased odds of being born preterm compared with White British babies. Bangladeshis apart, these groups are particularly at risk of extremely PTB. In all ethnic groups, the odds of PTB are lower for babies whose mothers were born outside the UK. These ethnic differences do not appear to be wholly explained by area deprivation or other sociodemographic characteristics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900067PMC
November 2019

Planned mode of delivery after previous cesarean section and short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes: A population-based record linkage cohort study in Scotland.

PLoS Med 2019 09 24;16(9):e1002913. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Policy consensus in high-income countries supports offering pregnant women with previous cesarean section a choice between planning an elective repeat cesarean section (ERCS) or attempting a vaginal birth, known as a planned vaginal birth after previous cesarean (VBAC), provided they do not have contraindications to planned VBAC. However, robust comprehensive information on the associated outcomes to counsel eligible women about this choice is lacking. This study investigated the short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with planned mode of delivery after previous cesarean section among women delivering a term singleton and considered eligible to have a planned VBAC.

Methods And Findings: A population-based cohort of 74,043 term singleton births in Scotland between 2002 and 2015 to women with one or more previous cesarean sections was conducted using linked Scottish national datasets. Logistic or modified Poisson regression, as appropriate, was used to estimate the effect of planned mode of delivery on maternal and perinatal outcomes adjusted for sociodemographic, maternal medical, and obstetric-related characteristics. A total of 45,579 women gave birth by ERCS, and 28,464 had a planned VBAC, 28.4% of whom went on to have an in-labor nonelective repeat cesarean section. Compared to women delivering by ERCS, those who had a planned VBAC were significantly more likely to have uterine rupture (0.24%, n = 69 versus 0.04%, n = 17, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.9-13.9, p < 0.001), a blood transfusion (1.14%, n = 324 versus 0.50%, n = 226, aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.9-2.8, p < 0.001), puerperal sepsis (0.27%, n = 76 versus 0.17%, n = 78, aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.7, p = 0.002), and surgical injury (0.17% versus 0.09%, n = 40, aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8-4.8, p < 0.001) and experience adverse perinatal outcomes including perinatal death, admission to a neonatal unit, resuscitation requiring drugs and/or intubation, and an Apgar score < 7 at 5 minutes (7.99%, n = 2,049 versus 6.37%, n = 2,570, aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5-1.7, p < 0.001). However, women who had a planned VBAC were more likely than those delivering by ERCS to breastfeed at birth or hospital discharge (63.6%, n = 14,906 versus 54.5%, n = 21,403, adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.2, p < 0.001) and were more likely to breastfeed at 6-8 weeks postpartum (43.6%, n = 10,496 versus 34.5%, n = 13,556, aRR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3, p < 0.001). The effect of planned mode of delivery on the mother's risk of having a postnatal stay greater than 5 days, an overnight readmission to hospital within 42 days of birth, and other puerperal infection varied according to whether she had any prior vaginal deliveries and, in the case of length of postnatal stay, also varied according to the number of prior cesarean sections. The study is mainly limited by the potential for residual confounding and misclassification bias.

Conclusions: Among women considered eligible to have a planned VBAC, planned VBAC compared to ERCS is associated with an increased risk of the mother having serious birth-related maternal and perinatal complications. Conversely, planned VBAC is associated with an increased likelihood of breastfeeding, whereas the effect on other maternal outcomes differs according to whether a woman has any prior vaginal deliveries and the number of prior cesarean sections she has had. However, the absolute risk of adverse outcomes is small for either delivery approach. This information can be used to counsel and manage the increasing number of women with previous cesarean section, but more research is needed on longer-term outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759152PMC
September 2019

Joint contribution of socioeconomic circumstances and ethnic group to variations in preterm birth, neonatal mortality and infant mortality in England and Wales: a population-based retrospective cohort study using routine data from 2006 to 2012.

BMJ Open 2019 07 31;9(7):e028227. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Policy Research Unit in Maternal Health and Care, National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: This study aimed to describe the variation in risks of adverse birth outcomes across ethnic groups and socioeconomic circumstances, and to explore the evidence of mediation by socioeconomic circumstances of the effect of ethnicity on birth outcomes.

Setting: England and Wales.

Participants: The data came from the 4.6 million singleton live births between 2006 and 2012.

Exposure: The main exposure was ethnic group. Socioeconomic circumstances, the hypothesised mediator, were measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), an area-level measure of deprivation, based on the mother's place of residence.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: The primary outcomes were birth outcomes, namely: neonatal death, infant death and preterm birth. We estimated the slope and relative indices of inequality to describe differences in birth outcomes across IMD, and the proportion of the variance in birth outcomes across ethnic groups attributable to IMD. We investigated mediation by IMD on birth outcomes across ethnic groups using structural equation modelling.

Results: Neonatal mortality, infant mortality and preterm birth risks were 2.1 per 1000, 3.2 per 1000 and 5.6%, respectively. Babies in the most deprived areas had 47%-129% greater risk of adverse birth outcomes than those in the least deprived areas. Minority ethnic babies had 48%-138% greater risk of adverse birth outcomes compared with white British babies. Up to a third of the variance in birth outcomes across ethnic groups was attributable to differences in IMD, and there was strong statistical evidence of an indirect effect through IMD in the effect of ethnicity on birth outcomes.

Conclusion: There is evidence that socioeconomic circumstances could be contributing to the differences in birth outcomes across ethnic groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677942PMC
July 2019

Epidemiology of Dandy-Walker Malformation in Europe: A EUROCAT Population-Based Registry Study.

Neuroepidemiology 2019 12;53(3-4):169-179. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Congenital Anomaly Register and Information Service for Wales (CARIS), Public Health Wales, Swansea, United Kingdom.

Background: Dandy-Walker (DW) malformation is a rare and severe congenital anomaly of the posterior fossa affecting the development of the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of DW malformation, using data from the European population-based registries of congenital anomalies in the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies network.

Methods: Anonymous individual data on cases of DW malformation diagnosed in 2002-2015 from 28 registries in 17 countries were included. Prevalence, prenatal detection rate, proportions and types of associated anomalies were estimated. Cases of DW variant were considered and analysed separately.

Results: Out of 8,028,454 surveyed births we identified a total of 734 cases, including 562 DW malformation cases and 172 DW variant cases. The overall prevalence of DW malformation was 6.79 per 100,000 births (95% CI 5.79-7.96) with 39.2% livebirths, 4.3% foetal deaths from 20 weeks gestational age, and 56.5% terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of foetal anomaly at any gestation (TOPFA). The livebirth prevalence was 2.74 per 100,000 births (95% CI 2.08-3.61). The prenatal detection rate was 87.6%. Two-hundred and seventy-three cases (48.6%) had an isolated cerebral anomaly and 24.2, 19.2 and 5.5% cases were associated with other structural non-cerebral anomalies, chromosomal anomalies and genetic syndromes respectively. The prevalence of DW variant was 2.08 per 100,000 (95% CI 1.39-3.13).

Conclusions: This European population-based study provides the epidemiological profile of DW malformation. All birth outcomes were analysed and TOPFA represented more than half of the cases. About 50% of the cases of DW malformation were associated with other non-cerebral anomalies. Large populations and all birth outcomes are essential in epidemiological studies of rare and severe congenital anomalies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000501238DOI Listing
June 2020

Epidemiology of achondroplasia: A population-based study in Europe.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 09 11;179(9):1791-1798. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Wessex Clinical Genetics Service, University Hospitals Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disorder resulting in short-limb skeletal dysplasia. We present the largest European population-based epidemiological study to date using data provided by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) network. All cases of achondroplasia notified to 28 EUROCAT registries (1991-2015) were included in the study. Prevalence, birth outcomes, prenatal diagnosis, associated anomalies, and the impact of paternal and maternal age on de novo achondroplasia were presented. The study population consisted of 434 achondroplasia cases with a prevalence of 3.72 per 100,000 births (95%CIs: 3.14-4.39). There were 350 live births, 82 terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis, and two fetal deaths. The prenatal detection rate was significantly higher in recent years (71% in 2011-2015 vs. 36% in 1991-1995). Major associated congenital anomalies were present in 10% of cases. About 20% of cases were familial. After adjusting for maternal age, fathers >34 years had a significantly higher risk of having infants with de novo achondroplasia than younger fathers. Prevalence was stable over time, but regional differences were observed. All pregnancy outcomes were included in the prevalence estimate with 80.6% being live born. The study confirmed the increased risk for older fathers of having infants with de novo achondroplasia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61289DOI Listing
September 2019

Epidemiology of congenital cerebral anomalies in Europe: a multicentre, population-based EUROCAT study.

Arch Dis Child 2019 12 26;104(12):1181-1187. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and geographical differences in prevalence of congenital cerebral anomalies in Europe.

Design And Setting: Congenital cerebral anomalies (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision code Q04) recorded in 29 population-based EUROCAT registries conducting surveillance of 1.7 million births per annum (29% of all European births).

Participants: All birth outcomes (live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy after prenatal diagnosis of a fetal anomaly (TOPFA)) from 2005 to 2014.

Main Outcome Measures: Prevalence, proportion of associated non-cerebral anomalies, prenatal detection rate.

Results: 4927 cases with congenital cerebral anomalies were identified; a prevalence (adjusted for under-reporting) of 9.8 (95% CI: 8.5 to 11.2) per 10 000 births. There was a sixfold difference in prevalence across the registries. Registries with higher proportions of prenatal diagnoses had higher prevalence. Overall, 55% of all cases were liveborn, 3% were fetal deaths and 41% resulted in TOPFA. Forty-eight per cent of all cases were an isolated cerebral anomaly, 25% had associated non-cerebral anomalies and 27% were chromosomal or part of a syndrome (genetic or teratogenic). The prevalence excluding genetic or chromosomal conditions increased by 2.4% per annum (95% CI: 1.3% to 3.5%), with the increases occurring only for congenital malformations of the corpus callosum (3.0% per annum) and 'other reduction deformities of the brain' (2.8% per annum).

Conclusions: Only half of the cases were isolated cerebral anomalies. Improved prenatal and postnatal diagnosis may account for the increase in prevalence of congenital cerebral anomalies from 2005 to 2014. However, major differences in prevalence remain between regions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316733DOI Listing
December 2019

Risk of congenital anomalies near municipal waste incinerators in England and Scotland: Retrospective population-based cohort study.

Environ Int 2020 01 20;134:104845. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit (NIHR HPRU) in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, UK; MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Few studies have investigated congenital anomalies in relation to municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) and results are inconclusive.

Objectives: To conduct a national investigation into the risk of congenital anomalies in babies born to mothers living within 10 km of an MWI associated with: i) modelled concentrations of PM as a proxy for MWI emissions more generally and; ii) proximity of residential postcode to nearest MWI, in areas in England and Scotland that are covered by a congenital anomaly register.

Methods: Retrospective population-based cohort study within 10 km of 10 MWIs in England and Scotland operating between 2003 and 2010. Exposure was proximity to MWI and log of daily mean modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 μm diameter (PM) concentrations.

Results: Analysis included 219,486 births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly of which 5154 were cases of congenital anomalies. Fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) per doubling in PM was: 1·00 (95% CI 0·98-1·02) for all congenital anomalies; 0·99 (0·97-1·01) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies. For every 1 km closer to an MWI adjusted OR was: 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies combined; 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies; and, for specific anomaly groups, 1·04 (1·01-1·08) for congenital heart defect sand 1·07 (1·02-1·12) for genital anomalies.

Discussion: We found no increased risk of congenital anomalies in relation to modelled PM emissions, but there were small excess risks associated with congenital heart defects and genital anomalies in proximity to MWIs. These latter findings may well reflect incomplete control for confounding, but a possible causal effect cannot be excluded.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.05.039DOI Listing
January 2020

Study protocol: E-freeze - freezing of embryos in assisted conception: a randomised controlled trial evaluating the clinical and cost effectiveness of a policy of freezing embryos followed by thawed frozen embryo transfer compared with a policy of fresh embryo transfer, in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation.

Reprod Health 2019 Jun 13;16(1):81. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Reproductive Health, Manchester, UK.

Background: Infertility affects one in seven couples; many of these need in vitro fertilisation (IVF). IVF involves external hormones to stimulate a woman's ovaries to produce eggs which are harvested surgically. Embryos, created in the laboratory by mixing eggs with sperm, are grown in culture for a few days before being replaced within the uterus (fresh embryo transfer). Spare embryos are usually frozen with a view to transfer at a later point in time - especially if the initial fresh transfer does not result in a pregnancy. Despite improvements in technology, IVF success rates remain low with an overall live birth rate of 25-30% per treatment. Additionally, there are concerns about health outcomes for mothers and babies conceived through IVF, particularly after fresh embryo transfer, including maternal ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and preterm delivery. It is believed that high levels of hormones during ovarian stimulation could create a relatively hostile environment for embryo implantation whilst increasing the risk of OHSS. It has been suggested that freezing all embryos with the intention of thawing and replacing them within the uterus at a later stage (thawed frozen embryo transfer) instead of fresh embryo transfer, may lead to improved pregnancy rates and fewer complications. We aim to compare the clinical and cost effectiveness of fresh and thawed frozen embryo transfer, with the primary aim of identifying any difference in the chance of having a healthy baby.

Methods: E-Freeze is a pragmatic, multicentre two-arm parallel group randomised controlled trial where women aged ≥18 and < 42 years, with at least three good quality embryos are randomly allocated to receive either a fresh or thawed frozen embryo transfer. The primary outcome is a healthy baby, defined as a term, singleton, live birth with appropriate weight for gestation. Cost effectiveness will be calculated from a healthcare and societal perspective.

Discussion: E-Freeze will determine the relative benefits of fresh and thawed frozen embryo transfer in terms of improving the chance of having a healthy baby. The results of this pragmatic study have the potential to be directly transferred to clinical practice.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN registry: ISRCTN61225414 . Date assigned 29/12/2015.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-019-0737-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567605PMC
June 2019

One-year outcomes of infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a national population cohort study.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2019 Nov 1;104(6):F643-F647. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Institute of Child Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Objective: To report outcomes to 1 year, in infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), explore factors associated with infant mortality and examine the relationship between surgical techniques and postoperative morbidity.

Design: Prospective national population cohort study.

Setting: Paediatric surgical centres in the UK and Ireland.

Method: Data were collected to 1 year for infants with CDH live-born between 1 April 2009 to 30 September 2010. Factors associated with infant mortality are explored using logistic regression. Postoperative morbidity following patch versus primary closure, minimally invasive versus open surgery and biological versus synthetic patch material is described. Data are presented as n (%) and median (IQR).

Results: Overall known survival to 1 year was 75%, 95% CI 68% to 81% (138/184) and postoperative survival 93%, 95% CI 88% to 97% (138/148). Female sex, antenatal diagnosis, use of vasodilators or inotropes, being small for gestational age, patch repair and use of surfactant were all associated with infant death. Infants undergoing patch repair had a high incidence of postoperative chylothorax (11/54 vs 2/96 in infants undergoing primary closure) and a long length of hospital stay (41 days, IQR 24-68 vs 16 days, IQR 10-25 in primary closure group). Infants managed with synthetic patch material had a high incidence of chylothorax (11/34 vs 0/19 with biological patch).

Conclusion: The majority of infant deaths in babies born with CDH occur before surgical correction. Female sex, being born small for gestational age, surfactant use, patch repair and receipt of cardiovascular support were associated with a higher risk of death. The optimum surgical approach, timing of operation and choice of patch material to achieve lowest morbidity warrants further evaluation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2018-316396DOI Listing
November 2019