Publications by authors named "Jennifer I Chapman"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Empowering High School Students to Address Racial Disparities During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Pediatrics 2022 01;149(1)

Division of Emergency Medicine and Trauma Services, Department of Pediatrics, Children's National Hospital.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2021-050483DOI Listing
January 2022

Chikungunya in Children: A Clinical Review.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Jul;34(7):510-515

Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Chapman), Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Children's National Health System, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington DC.

Chikungunya (CHIKV) is an emerging arboviral infection with recent spikes in transmission in the Americas. Chikungunya is most commonly transmitted by mosquitos, specifically Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are found throughout many parts of the United States. The classic tetrad of symptoms for CHIKV is fever, symmetric polyarthralgia, maculopapular rash, and nonpurulent conjunctivitis. Although the majority (3 of 4) of infected people will be symptomatic, the viral illness generally runs a benign course. Nevertheless, when compared with infected adults, children more commonly have neurological and dermatological symptoms and are less likely to have arthralgia. The key differential diagnosis to consider is dengue, which has greater immediate morbidity and which can cause coinfection. Local health departments facilitate diagnostic testing, using either RNA polymerase chain reaction or antibody screening based on the timing of presentation. Management is supportive. The purpose of this review article is to provide readers basic knowledge regarding the microbiology, epidemiology, risk factors for transmission, and typical clinical presentation of CHIKV. A practical approach to diagnosis and management of infected children is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001529DOI Listing
July 2018

A Global Health Research Checklist for clinicians.

Int J Emerg Med 2018 Apr 19;11(1):25. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans St, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Global health research has become a priority in most international medical projects. However, it is a difficult endeavor, especially for a busy clinician. Navigating the ethics, methods, and local partnerships is essential yet daunting.To date, there are no guidelines published to help clinicians initiate and complete successful global health research projects. This Global Health Research Checklist was developed to be used by clinicians or other health professionals for developing, implementing, and completing a successful research project in an international and often low-resource setting. It consists of five sections: Objective, Methodology, Institutional Review Board and Ethics, Culture and partnerships, and Logistics. We used individual experiences and published literature to develop and emphasize the key concepts. The checklist was trialed in two workshops and adjusted based on participants' feedback.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12245-018-0176-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5908775PMC
April 2018

Bedside ultrasound education in pediatric emergency medicine fellowship programs in the United States.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2012 Sep;28(9):845-50

Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Objectives: As the use of bedside ultrasound becomes more prevalent in pediatric emergency departments, the need for a national curriculum for fellows' training in pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) has increased. The objectives of this study were to describe the current state of bedside ultrasound education among existing PEM fellowship programs and to explore the interest in a national curriculum.

Methods: A 20-question survey was sent to all 57 PEM fellowship directors in the United States in February 2011. Weekly reminders were sent for 4 weeks.

Results: The response rate was 58% (33/57). Although 91% of respondents reported having an ultrasound machine available, only 16% reported an ultrasound curriculum designed specifically for PEM. Another 25% reported no curriculum, and 28% use a curriculum designed for general emergency medicine physicians. Most (>83%) directors thought an ultrasound curriculum for PEM fellows should include the focused assessment with sonography for trauma, bladder size assessment, soft tissue foreign body localization, skin and soft tissue infection evaluation, guidance for central and peripheral line insertion, and arthrocentesis. Some directors (40%-68%) thought that cardiac ultrasound, thoracic ultrasound, abdominal ultrasound, lumbar puncture guidance, fracture reduction, nerve blocks, and testicular ultrasounds should also be included. Forty-two percent plan to create a bedside ultrasound curriculum in the next 5 years, and 40% reported the lack of a national curriculum as a barrier to creating a curriculum.

Conclusions: Bedside ultrasound use in pediatric emergency departments is very common, and PEM fellowship directors would welcome the development of a standard curriculum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0b013e318267a771DOI Listing
September 2012

Serious neurologic sequelae in cases of meningitis arising from infection by conjugate vaccine-related and nonvaccine-related serogroups of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2008 Sep;27(9):771-5

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

Background: Introduction of the heptavalent conjugate vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae (PCV7) has led to a dramatic decline in meningitis by PCV7 serotypes, raising the possibility of similar trends by PCV7-related serogroups through cross-protection. A present concern, however, is of serotype replacement by pneumococci not related to PCV7 serogroups. If this occurs, there are currently few data to predict whether clinical outcomes will change substantially.

Methods: To address these questions, we analyzed medical records of 86 cases of pneumococcal meningitis treated at Nationwide Children's Hospital (1993-2004). Adverse neurologic sequelae and death were compared between cases with cerebrospinal fluid isolates characterized as vaccine-related serogroups-serotypes belonging to PCV7 or related to PCV7 serogroups, and those designated nonvaccine serogroups-serotypes neither belonging to PCV7 nor related to PCV7 serogroups. Serotype 19A, because of recent reports of increased incidence, was subanalyzed separately.

Results: Thirty-six of 86 (42%) subjects had serious complications, including 6 who died. All 6 deaths occurred in patients with vaccine-related serogroups. Deafness was the most common complication, occurring in 26 (32.5%) survivors. There was no difference in the frequency of total complications between PCV7-related and non-PCV7 groups: 5 of 12 (42%) for non-PCV7 serogroups versus 31 of 74 (42%) for PCV-related serogroups (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.2-4.0). Serious outcomes occurred in 3 of 4 cases due to serogroup 19A. Non-PCV7 serogroups increased slightly at the end of the study period.

Conclusions: In children with pneumococcal meningitis, infections with non-PCV7 serogroups seem less likely to result in death. Among survivors, there is preliminary evidence of parity in neurologic sequelae between PCV7 and non-PCV7 serogroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3181710976DOI Listing
September 2008

The utility of screening laboratory studies in pediatric patients with sickle cell pain episodes.

Am J Emerg Med 2004 Jul;22(4):258-63

Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital of Columbus, 700 Children's Avenue, Columbus, OH 43025, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether blood counts discriminate between sickle cell pain episodes that lead to successful discharge from the emergency department (ED) and those that result in complications. This retrospective review compared the hemoglobin, reticulocyte count, and white blood cell count with differential during complicated and uncomplicated ED visits. Complicated visits were pain episodes followed by admission, by readmission within 48 hours, by acute chest syndrome, by an aplastic crisis, or by the administration of blood or antibiotics. There were 2 statistically important differences between complicated and uncomplicated pain episodes. Children successfully discharged were younger than those experiencing a complicated visit (8.9 v 11.2, P = 0.04). At a difference of 0.4 g/dL, the change in hemoglobin from baseline among children with complicated versus uncomplicated pain crises was not clinically useful. Routinely performed blood counts do not reliably identify the course of sickle cell pain crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2004.04.014DOI Listing
July 2004
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