Publications by authors named "Jennifer Goldsmith"

4 Publications

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Addressing the caste system in U.S. healthcare in the era of COVID-19.

Int J Equity Health 2020 10 19;19(1):184. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, USA.

In healthcare, we find an industry that typifies the unique blend of racism, classism, and other forms of structural discrimination that comprise the U.S. caste system-the artificially-constructed and legally-reinforced social hierarchy for assigning worth and determining opportunity for individuals based on race, class, and other factors. Despite myths of meritocracy, healthcare is actually a casteocracy; and conversations about racism in healthcare largely occupy an echo chamber among the privileged upper caste of hospital professionals. To address racism in healthcare, we must consider the history that brought us here and understand how we effectively perpetuate an employee caste system within our own walls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01298-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569192PMC
October 2020

Identification of Racial Inequities in Access to Specialized Inpatient Heart Failure Care at an Academic Medical Center.

Circ Heart Fail 2019 11 29;12(11):e006214. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Department of Medicine (E.F..L.), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Racial inequities for patients with heart failure (HF) have been widely documented. HF patients who receive cardiology care during a hospital admission have better outcomes. It is unknown whether there are differences in admission to a cardiology or general medicine service by race. This study examined the relationship between race and admission service, and its effect on 30-day readmission and mortality Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study from September 2008 to November 2017 at a single large urban academic referral center of all patients self-referred to the emergency department and admitted to either the cardiology or general medicine service with a principal diagnosis of HF, who self-identified as white, black, or Latinx. We used multivariable generalized estimating equation models to assess the relationship between race and admission to the cardiology service. We used Cox regression to assess the association between race, admission service, and 30-day readmission and mortality.

Results: Among 1967 unique patients (66.7% white, 23.6% black, and 9.7% Latinx), black and Latinx patients had lower rates of admission to the cardiology service than white patients (adjusted rate ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98, for black; adjusted rate ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97 for Latinx). Female sex and age >75 years were also independently associated with lower rates of admission to the cardiology service. Admission to the cardiology service was independently associated with decreased readmission within 30 days, independent of race.

Conclusions: Black and Latinx patients were less likely to be admitted to cardiology for HF care. This inequity may, in part, drive racial inequities in HF outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183732PMC
November 2019

Demographic and health surveys indicate limited impact of condoms and HIV testing in four African countries.

Afr J AIDS Res 2013 Mar 26;12(1):9-15. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

a Departments of Family and Community Medicine and of Epidemiology and Biostatistics , University of California , San Francisco, 500 Parnassus Avenue, MU-3 East, San Francisco, California 94143-0900 , USA.

Condom promotion and HIV testing for the general population have been major components of HIV prevention efforts in sub-Saharan Africa's high prevalence HIV epidemics, although little evidence documents their public health impact. Recent enhancements to the large, population-based demographic and health surveys (DHS) and AIDS information surveys (AIS) allow use of these data to assess the population-wide impact of these strategies. We analysed the latest DHS and AIS data from four sub-Saharan African countries with high prevalence, heterosexually transmitted HIV epidemics (Côte d'Ivoire, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zambia; N = 48 298) to answer two questions: 1) Are men and women who use condoms less likely to be HIV-infected than those who do not?; and 2) Are men and women who report knowing their HIV status more likely to use condoms than those who do not? Consistent condom use was associated with lower HIV infection rates for Swazi men but with higher HIV infection rates for women in Tanzania and Zambia; it made no significant difference in the other five sex/country subgroups analysed. Inconsistent condom use was not significantly associated with HIV status in any subgroup. Knowing one's HIV status was consistently associated with higher rates of condom use only among married people who were HIV-positive, even though condom use in this group remained relatively low. Effects of knowing one's HIV status among other subgroups varied. These results suggest that condoms have had little population-wide impact for HIV/AIDS prevention in these four countries. HIV testing appears to be associated with increased condom use mainly among people in stable partnerships who test positive. HIV testing and condom promotion may be more effective when targeted to specific groups where there is evidence of benefit rather than to general populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/16085906.2013.815406DOI Listing
March 2013