Publications by authors named "Jennifer E Thomas"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Defining the optimal cut-point of self-reported ART adherence to achieve viral suppression in the era of contemporary HIV therapy: a cross-sectional study.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 06 26;18(1):36. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

SHARC Center for Translational HIV Research, University of Florida, 2004 Mowry Road, Gainesville, 32610, USA.

Background: When considering adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV, many different cut-points are used. The primary goals of this study were to identify a level of self-reported medication adherence that best distinguished HIV viral suppression from non-suppression, and to compare the ability of a single-item and a 3-item adherence questionnaire to predict HIV viral suppression.

Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 380 persons with HIV (PWH) from the Florida Cohort study who completed a self-reported ART adherence measure within 30-days of having an HIV viral load test. We used Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analyses and ROCContrast to compare the ability of a single-item and a 3-item self-reported adherence measure to predict HIV viral suppression (defined as ≤ 200 copies/mL). We used the Youden index and chi square statistics to assess specific cut-points, and repeated the analysis with a different definition of HIV viral suppression (≤ 1000 copies/mL).

Results: The mean percent adherence was 92.4% using the single-item score and 90.4% using the 3-item score; 81.6% had viral suppression. The areas under the curve for the single-item and 3-item adherence measures were generally poor overall and not significantly different from each other (0.589 and 0.580, p = 0.67). The Youden index identified cut-points of 93% and 89% as maximizing the sensitivity and specificity for the single-item and 3-item measures, respectively, whereas a cut-point of 80% on the single-item measure was best able to discriminate those with viral suppression (58% vs. 84%, p < 0.001). Results were similar with viral suppression defined as ≤ 1000 copies/mL.

Conclusions: In this sample of PWH, a single question on medication adherence was as good as a 3-item questionnaire in predicting HIV viral suppression, although neither had good discriminatory ability. A cut-point close to 90% adherence maximized sensitivity and specificity, although viral suppression was very similar for nearly all measures above 80%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-021-00358-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234726PMC
June 2021

Corrigendum to "A probe-based droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assay for early detection of feline acute cytauxzoonosis" [Vet. Parasitol. 292 (2021) 109413].

Vet Parasitol 2021 May 17;293:109428. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, 250 McElroy Hall, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2021.109428DOI Listing
May 2021

Corrigendum to "A probe-based droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assay for early detection of feline acute cytauxzoonosis" [Vet. Parasitol. 292 (2021) 109413].

Vet Parasitol 2021 May 17;293:109428. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, 250 McElroy Hall, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2021.109428DOI Listing
May 2021

A probe-based droplet digital polymerase chain reaction assay for early detection of feline acute cytauxzoonosis.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Apr 15;292:109413. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, 250 McElroy Hall, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA. Electronic address:

Cytauxzoonosis is a tick-borne disease of domestic cats with high mortality and narrow therapeutic window, particularly in the southcentral and southeastern United States. The causative agent is the apicomplexan protozoal parasite Cytauxzoon felis and is primarily transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent cytauxzoonosis and treatment is often ineffective if not initiated early enough in the course of disease. Early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention are therefore crucial for the survival of infected cats. Several methods are available for diagnosis of cytauxzoonosis, with PCR being the most sensitive. However, current PCR assays, which employ double-stranded DNA intercalating dyes to detect C. felis infection, have inherent limitations such as the potential for false positive detection of non-specific amplification products and inability to provide absolute quantification of parasite load. The objective of this study was to develop a probe-based droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay capable of detection and quantification of C. felis load over time and during treatment. The C. felis ddPCR assay was able to (i) reliably detect and quantify C. felis DNA in clinical blood samples from cats with acute cytauxzoonosis and (ii) monitor clinical parasite load in response to anti-protozoal treatment through absolute quantification of C. felis DNA over time. When tested on blood samples from cats with experimental C. felis infection, the assay was able to detect infection in cats as early as 24 h prior to the development of clinical signs. In addition, we demonstrate that this probe-based design can be utilized in traditional real-time PCR systems, with similar detection capabilities as compared to ddPCR. The C. felis probe-based ddPCR was also able to detect infection in samples with lower parasite loads when compared to existing nested PCR assays, although these results were not significant due to small sample size. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported probe-based ddPCR assay to detect Cytauxzoon felis infection in domestic cats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2021.109413DOI Listing
April 2021

Nymphal engorgement weight predicts sex of adult Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor andersoni, Dermacentor variabilis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.

Exp Appl Acarol 2019 Mar 13;77(3):401-410. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA.

The engorgement weights of laboratory-raised nymphs of five common ticks in the USA, Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor andersoni, Dermacentor variabilis, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus, experimentally fed to repletion on an adult sheep (Ovis aries) were evaluated to determine the sex of molted adult ticks. Length of feeding period of nymphs, molting success and durations, and sex ratios between tick species were also compared. Individual replete nymphs were weighed and allowed to molt to adults in a humidity chamber. Length of feeding duration was different by species (F = 1963.79; P < 0.0001); R. sanguineus nymphs became replete fastest, followed by A. americanum, D. variabilis, A. maculatum, and D. andersoni. Significant difference in molting success was not detected. The mean body weight of engorged nymphs of A. americanum (t = 32.3; df = 662), A. maculatum (t = - 9.70; df = 255), D. variabilis (t = 15.7; df = 751), and R. sanguineus (t = 5.17; df = 560; all P < 0.0001) molting into females was greater than that of nymphs molting into males, whereas heavier D. andersoni engorged nymphs became males (t = 8.71; df = 480; P < 0.0001). Amblyomma maculatum nymphs that molted to females fed to repletion faster (t = 3.33; df = 265; P ≤ 0.001) than nymphs that molted to males and a higher proportion (χ = 48.4; df = 1, P < 0.0001) of A. maculatum and D. andersoni (χ = 8.19; df = 1, P = 0.004) molted to females than males. Our study demonstrated biological and behavioral differences in and between engorging nymphs of five ixodid species. These findings may aid in studies evaluating the role of tick sex in transmission of tick-borne pathogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-019-00346-8DOI Listing
March 2019

Transmission of Cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats by Amblyomma americanum nymphs.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jan 11;12(1):28. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Oklahoma State University Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Stillwater, OK, 74078, USA.

Background: Successful Cytauxzoon felis transmission studies have occurred using Amblyomma americanum adults acquisition-fed as nymphs on an experimentally infected domestic cat or Dermacentor variabilis adults fed as nymphs on a splenectomized bobcat. Here, we evaluated A. americanum and D. variabilis nymphs acquisition-fed as larvae on a C. felis-infected carrier domestic cat for competence to transmit the protozoan parasite as nymphs to naïve, healthy domestic cats.

Methods: Amblyomma americanum and D. variabilis larvae were applied to a chronically infected, parasitemic C. felis donor cat (Felis catus) and allowed to feed to repletion. Engorged larvae were collected and held through ecdysis. Three cats were each infested with 66 A. americanum or 66 D. variabilis emerged nymphs. Cytauxzoon felis infections in principal cats were determined by clinical signs and detection of circulating parasite by blood smear and PCR evaluation.

Results: Clinical signs of cytauxzoonosis were observed in cats infested with A. americanum nymphs beginning 12-15 days post-infestation (dpi). The same cats were PCR positive on 12-14 dpi; piroplasms were evident in blood smears at 16 dpi, and macrophage schizonts were observed in stained spleen impression smears in two animals at necropsy. Cats infested with acquisition-fed D. variabilis nymphs remained clinically normal and did not develop detectable parasitemia over the course of the study as determined by blood smear and PCR.

Conclusions: Cytauxzoon felis was successfully transmitted to domestic cats by A. americanum nymphs acquisition-fed as larvae on the donor cat. However, we were not able to transmit C. felis to healthy domestic cats with D. variabilis nymphs that were simultaneously acquisition-fed on the same donor cat. Results from this study suggest that larval and nymphal A. americanum likely play important roles in natural transmission cycles of C. felis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3276-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6330474PMC
January 2019

Identification of antigens via protein microarray and assessment of expression library immunization against cytauxzoonosis.

Clin Proteomics 2018 29;15:44. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

1College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Research Building Room 464, 1060 William Moore Drive, Raleigh, NC 27607 USA.

Background: Cytauxzoonosis is a disease of felids in North America caused by the tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasite . Cytauxzoonosis is particularly virulent for domestic cats, but no vaccine currently exists. The parasite cannot be cultivated in vitro, presenting a significant limitation for vaccine development.

Methods: Recent sequencing of the genome has identified over 4300 putative protein-encoding genes. From this pool we constructed a protein microarray containing 673 putative proteins. This microarray was probed with sera from -infected and naïve cats to identify differentially reactive antigens which were incorporated into two expression library vaccines, one polyvalent and one monovalent. We assessed the efficacy of these vaccines to prevent of infection and/or disease in a tick-challenge model.

Results: Probing of the protein microarray resulted in identification of 30 differentially reactive antigens that were incorporated into the two expression library vaccines. However, expression library immunization failed to prevent infection or disease in cats challenged with .

Conclusions: Protein microarray facilitated high-throughput identification of novel antigens, substantially increasing the pool of characterized antigens. These antigens should be considered for development of vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12014-018-9218-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310948PMC
December 2018

Efficacy of a topical formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner against induced infestations of Amblyomma americanum on cats and prevention of Cytauxzoon felis transmission.

Vet Parasitol 2019 Jun 11;270 Suppl 1:S31-S37. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Zoetis, Veterinary Medicine Research and Development, Kalamazoo, MI 49007, USA.

Cytauxzoonosis, caused by infection with Cytauxzoon felis, is the most severe tick-borne disease of cats. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of selamectin (6.0 mg/kg) plus sarolaner (1.0 mg/kg) formulated in combination (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold Plus, Zoetis) applied topically once a month on cats for three months against induced infestations of Amblyomma americanum adults and to evaluate the effectiveness of the product in preventing the transmission of C. felis. This study was conducted in two phases. Sixteen cats were dosed with selamectin/sarolaner or a placebo (vehicle control) on Days 0, 28, and 56. In phase 1, each cat was infested with 50 (±5) unfed adult A. americanum on Day 4 and tick counts were conducted on Day 6 (48 h post infestation) and Day 7 (72 h post infestation) to evaluate acaricidal efficacy. In phase 2, to confirm acaricidal efficacy and evaluate prevention of C. felis transmission, each cat was infested on Day 60 with 50 (±5) adult A. americanum acquisition fed as nymphs on two C. felis-infected donor cats. Tick counts were conducted on Day 62 (48 h post infestation) and Day 63 (72 h post infestation). Blood samples were collected on Days -9, 60, 70, 76, and 90 and tested for infection with C. felis. Placebo cats were adequately infested on all count days, with least squares (geometric) mean live tick counts ranging from 34.0 (28.8) to 46.1 (46.0). Treatment reduced the least squares (geometric) mean counts compared to placebo by 27.1 (32.1)% and 90.4 (96.8)% on Days 6 and 7, respectively. The corresponding percent reductions were 56.4 (60.6)% and 94.7 (97.3)% on Days 62 and 63, respectively. Least squares mean counts were significantly lower in the treated group compared with the placebo group on all count days (P ≤ 0.0286). All cats were negative for C. felis by PCR prior to study start. In phase 2, seven cats in the control group and no cats in the selamectin/sarolaner group became infected with C. felis (P = 0.0017). Topical treatment with selamectin/sarolaner was >90% effective in reducing A. americanum tick counts 72 h after infestation and prevented the transmission of C. felis from infected ticks following the third of three monthly treatments. Revolution Plus / Stronghold Plus offers an option for the control of A. americanum infestations on cats and for preventing the transmission of C. felis to cats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2018.10.018DOI Listing
June 2019

Association Between Cognitive Tests and Antiretroviral Medication Adherence in Older Adults With HIV.

Ann Pharmacother 2019 02 3;53(2):151-158. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

2 Nova Southeastern University, Ft Lauderdale, FL, USA.

Background: One of the fastest growing populations living with HIV is older adults especially those 65 years of age or older. Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) has prolonged life expectancy of persons with HIV. However, for therapy to be effective, patients need to be adherent. Over time, older persons with HIV may experience HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders or other factors that could affect ART adherence. The use of expedient cognitive tests that help measure medication adherence may be useful for the optimal care of these patients.

Objective: To investigate the association between cognitive tests and ART adherence.

Methods: This was a prospective study evaluating patients 65 years of age or older with HIV. Cognitive tests used included the Executive Clock-Drawing Task (CLOX) 1 and 2, Trail Making Test parts A and B, and Grooved Pegboard Test (GPB). The medication event monitoring system cap over 1 month was used as the primary measure for adherence.

Results: CLOX 1 and GPB were significantly related to adherence ( P < 0.05). Comparison of the magnitude of each measure's relation to adherence suggests that the GPB is a better indicator of ability to adhere ( R = 0.514 vs R = 0.381). Conclusion and Relevance: CLOX 1 and GPB demonstrated an association with adherence in patients 65 years of age or older with HIV. Although the use of these tests to measure adherence in older persons with HIV seems promising, more research is needed to ascertain their ultimate utility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028018798327DOI Listing
February 2019

Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy of Ivermectin and Fenbendazole for Treating Captive-Born Olive Baboons () Coinfected with and .

J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2017 Jan;56(1):52-56

Comparative Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of combined treatment with ivermectin and fenbendazole (IVM-FBZ) for treating captive olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Strongyloides fülleborni and Trichuris trichiura, 2 common nematode parasites of these NHP. Infected baboons were treated for a total of 9 wk with ivermectin (400 μg/kg IM twice weekly) and fenbendazole (50 mg/kg PO once daily for 3 d; 3 rounds of treatment, 21 d apart). Five baboons naturally infected with both S. fülleborni and T. trichiura (n = 4) or S. fülleborni alone (n = 1) received the combination therapy; an additional baboon infected with both parasites served as a nontreated control. The efficacy of IVM-FBZ was measured as the reduction in fecal egg counts of S. fülleborni and T. trichiura as determined by quantitative fecal flotation examination after treatment of baboons with IVM-FBZ. All baboons treated with IVM-FBZ stopped shedding S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs by 8 d after treatment and remained negative for at least 161 d. The nontreated control baboon shed S. fülleborni and T. trichiura eggs throughout the study period. Our results indicate that the IVM-FBZ regimen was efficacious for treating olive baboons infected with S. fülleborni and T. trichiura.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5250495PMC
January 2017

Immunologic detection of Giardia duodenalis in a specific pathogen-free captive olive baboon ( Papio cynocephalus anubis) colony.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Nov 28;29(6):916-919. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (Saleh, Zajac).

Several commercial Giardia immunoassays were evaluated in baboons for sensitivity and specificity as well as ease of use in a large specific pathogen-free (SPF) colony. An additional objective was to identify the assemblage(s) of Giardia duodenalis present in this baboon colony. A direct immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used as the reference test. Tests evaluated were a patient-side rapid test for dogs and cats, a human rapid test, and a well-plate ELISA designed for use with humans. Test sensitivities and specificities were compared using the McNemar paired t-test and were further evaluated for agreement using an unweighted Cohen kappa statistic. When compared to the IFAT reference, both human tests were more sensitive than the veterinary test. Based on PCR and sequencing of the G. duodenalis small-subunit ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase loci, assemblage AI was present in this baboon colony. We found that 10 of the 110 (9%) baboons in this SPF colony were infected with a zoonotic strain of G. duodenalis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638717721580DOI Listing
November 2017

Minimum transmission time of Cytauxzoon felis by Amblyomma americanum to domestic cats in relation to duration of infestation, and investigation of ingestion of infected ticks as a potential route of transmission.

J Feline Med Surg 2018 02 2;20(2):67-72. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

1 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Objectives The objectives of the present study were to determine the duration of infestation by Amblyomma americanum necessary for transmission of Cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats and to determine if ingestion of C felis-infected A americanum by cats is a route of transmission. Methods Forty-nine cats were assigned to one of seven groups, with seven cats per group. Cats were infested with A americanum adults, acquisition fed as nymphs on a cytauxzoonosis survivor cat, for 12 h (group 1), 18 h (group 2), 24 h (group 3), 36 h (group 4), 48 h (group 5) and to repletion (group 7; control). Cats in group 6 were fed C felis-infected ticks. Thumb counts were performed at the end of the duration of infestation for groups 1-5 and at 48 h for the control group. For group 6, 50 live C felis-infected adult A americanum were mixed with food and fed to each of the cats. Transmission of C felis was determined by examining blood of cats by DNA extraction followed by PCR. Results Of 50 ticks placed on each cat (groups 1-5 and 7), the arithmetic mean attachment ± SEM ranged from 46.9 ± 1.9 in group 3 to 49.3 ± 0.3 in group 1. In group 6, the average number ± SEM of ticks ingested was 46.5 ± 2.3. One cat in group 5 that had been infested for 48 h became infected with C felis. None of the cats in group 6 (ingestion) became infected with C felis. Six of 7 (85.7%) cats in group 7, the control group, became infected with C felis. Conclusions and relevance Our results indicate that transmission of C felis to domestic cats can happen as quickly as >36 h but ⩽48 h of exposure to A americanum infected with C felis and that ingestion of C felis-infected A americanum is not a likely route of transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X17691172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788073PMC
February 2018

Increased detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in cats after heat pretreatment of samples.

J Feline Med Surg 2017 Oct 30;19(10):1013-1016. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

1 Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Objectives To determine whether pretreating diagnostic samples with heat increases the detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in adult cats, we evaluated feline serum and plasma samples collected in heartworm-endemic areas of the southern United States. Methods Commercial microtiter well assays for detection of D immitis antigen were used to evaluate serum or plasma samples from 385 shelter and free-roaming cats from the southcentral and southeastern United States before and after heat treatment; commercial antibody tests were performed on a subset of samples. Results Prior to sample heat treatment, 1/220 (0.5%) shelter cats and 4/165 (2.4%) free-roaming cats had detectable D immitis antigen. After heat pretreatment, the detection rate increased to 13/220 (5.9%) and 13/165 (7.9%), respectively. Antibody reactive to D immitis was significantly more common ( P <0.001) in the serum of cats that were antigen positive after heat treatment (10/13; 76.9%) than serum from cats that remained antigen negative after heat treatment (22/163; 13.5%). Conclusions and relevance Heat pretreatment of feline samples increased antigen detection by commercial assays for D immitis and improved overall concordance of antigen and antibody test results in antigen-positive samples in this population. Although further work to investigate the specificity of D immitis antigen assays when using pre-treated samples is warranted, this approach may be useful in the diagnosis of heartworm infection in individual cats and may increase the accuracy of surveys based on antigen detection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X16670562DOI Listing
October 2017

Ectoparasites of free-roaming domestic cats in the central United States.

Vet Parasitol 2016 Sep 31;228:17-22. Epub 2016 Jul 31.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, 250 McElroy Hall Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. Electronic address:

Free-roaming domestic cat (Felis catus) populations serve as a valuable resource for studying ectoparasite prevalence. While they share a similar environment as owned cats, free-roaming cats do not receive routine veterinary care or ectoparasiticide application, giving insight into parasite risks for owned animals. We examined up to 673 infested cats presented to a trap-neuter-return (TNR) clinic in the central United States. Ectoparasite prevalences on cats were as follows: fleas (71.6%), ticks (18.7%), Felicola subrostratus (1.0%), Cheyletiella blakei (0.9%), and Otodectes cynotis (19.3%). Fleas, ticks, and O. cynotis were found in all months sampled. A total of 1117 fleas were recovered from 322 infested cats. The predominate flea recovered from cats was Ctenocephalides felis (97.2%) followed by Pulex spp. (2.8%), Cediopsylla simplex (0.6%), and Nosopsyllus fasciatus (0.6%). A total of 373 ticks were recovered from 126 infested cats. The predominate tick species was Amblyomma americanum (65.9%) followed by Ixodes scapularis (32.5%), Dermacentor variabilis (10.3%), and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.8%). Immature tick stages accounted for 54.7% of all ticks found, highlighting an under-appreciated source of tick burden on domestic cats. The results of this study emphasize the importance of year-round use of ectoparasiticides with both insecticidal and acaricidal activity on domestic cats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.07.034DOI Listing
September 2016

Factors to assess depression in homebound older adults.

Ment Health Clin 2016 Sep 31;6(5):236-241. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Executive Director, Broward Meals on Wheels, Plantation, Florida.

Introduction: The number of homebound older adults is expected to increase as the elderly population grows. Many homebound older persons may be at high risk for depression, which has been associated with adverse health outcomes. The objective of this study was to identify selected factors that may predict depression in the homebound older population.

Methods: Data from 340 homebound adults, aged 65 and older who were enrolled in Broward Meals on Wheels and who participated in a telephone survey were analyzed. Participants were asked to report demographic information, health status, medication-taking behaviors, mental health, and life satisfaction. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of depressed mood in this sample of older adults.

Results: The majority of the sample (aged 65-95 years; mean, 77 years) were female (76.5%), white (77.1%), and living alone (52.6%). Multivariate modeling indicated that difficulty remembering the number of prescribed medications to be taken, feeling after taking certain medications, poor self-reported health status, taking anxiety medications, and less satisfaction with life explained 34% (adjusted ) of the variance in predicting depressed mood ( = 33.1, = 5, < .001).

Discussion: Multiple factors related to medication use were identified that may contribute to higher levels of depressed mood in homebound older adults. These factors found in our study may be used to create a screening model to be used by pharmacists to identify homebound older adults who would benefit from further assessment for depression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.9740/mhc.2016.09.236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6007589PMC
September 2016

Role of Residency Interview Preparatory Activities as a Determinant on Pharmacy Residency Match Rates.

J Pharm Pract 2017 Apr 9;30(2):219-222. Epub 2016 Jul 9.

1 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Nova Southeastern University, College of Pharmacy, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.

Purpose: Different strategies have been implemented to assist students in securing residency positions. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of student participation in residency preparation activities on match rates.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted to explore the effect of participation in residency preparation activities and grade point average (GPA) on residency match rate. Match rates for students participating in the Residency Interview Preparation Seminar (RIPS) or mock interviews (ie, intervention group) were compared with students who participated in neither activity (ie, control group).

Results: A total of 118 individuals were included in the comparison. Forty-eight students participated in RIPS (n = 29) or mock interviews (n = 19), while 70 students were in the control group. The intervention group had a statistically larger proportion of students securing residency than the control group (81% vs 57%; P = .009). Match rates between students enrolled in RIPS versus those in the mock interview group were not significant. No statistically significant differences were observed based on GPA.

Conclusion: Students receiving additional preparation prior to interviews when seeking postdoctoral training were significantly more likely to obtain a residency position. In academic settings with limited resources, mock interviews may be preferred over comprehensive preparatory courses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0897190016632127DOI Listing
April 2017

The Incidence of Akathisia in the Treatment of Schizophrenia with Aripiprazole, Asenapine and Lurasidone: A Meta-Analysis.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2015 ;13(5):681-91

Nova Southeastern University, College of Pharmacy, 3200 South University Drive, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33328, USA.

Akathisia is a troubling side effect that leads to non-adherence with antipsychotic regimens. Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) tend to cause less akathisia than older agents but the risk still exists and rates vary between agents. Little is known about the incidence of akathisia among the newer SGAs. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis of akathisia incidence rates for three of the newer SGAs: aripiprazole, asenapine, and lurasidone. Data were drawn from published and unpublished clinical trials comparing the drug of interest to either placebo or another SGA in adults with schizophrenia. Twenty-four studies (11 aripiprazole, 5 asenapine, and 8 lurasidone) provided incidence rates for akathisia and related nervous system events. Data showed that the relative risk (RR) of akathisia was double that of controls, with lurasidone having the highest individual RR at 2.7 [CI: 2-3.6]. Sensitivity analysis changed the RR of akathisia to less than 10%. The RR of akathisia was still elevated (1.75 [1.4-2.1]) when these drugs were compared only to actives (older SGAs). Agitation and anxiety RRs were also higher with the newer SGAs as compared to the older SGAs. Previous theory suggests antagonism of serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors may decrease akathisia risk. Expectations were that aripiprazole, asenapine and lurasidone would have a low incidence of akathisia, as all display strong antagonism at 5-HT2A. However, in this study all three had a significantly higher risk of akathisia compared to placebo or other SGAs. This suggests the pathophysiology of akathisia involves other receptors and is multifactorial.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4761637PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159x13666150115220221DOI Listing
July 2016

Moxidectin steady state prior to inoculation protects cats from subsequent, repeated infection with Dirofilaria immitis.

Parasit Vectors 2015 Feb 18;8:107. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

Background: Infection of cats with Dirofilaria immitis causes seroconversion on antibody tests and pulmonary pathology, often without subsequent development of adult heartworms. Consistent administration of topical 10% imidacloprid-1% moxidectin has been shown to result in sustained plasma levels of moxidectin in cats after three to five treatments, a pharmacokinetic behavior known as "steady state".

Methods: To evaluate the ability of moxidectin at "steady state" to protect cats from subsequent infection with D. immitis, cats (n = 10) were treated with the labeled dose of topical 10% imidacloprid-1% moxidectin for four monthly treatments. Each cat was inoculated with 25 third-stage larvae of D. immitis 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after the last treatment; non-treated cats (n = 9) were inoculated on the same days, serving as infection controls. Blood samples were collected from each cat from 1 month prior to treatment until 7 months after the final inoculation and tested for antibody to, and antigen and microfilaria of, D. immitis.

Results: Measurement of serum levels of moxidectin confirmed steady state in treated cats. Cats treated with topical 10% imidacloprid-1% moxidectin prior to trickle inoculation of D. immitis L3 larvae throughout the 28 day post-treatment period remained negative on antibody and antigen tests throughout the study and did not develop gross or histologic lesions characteristic of heartworm infection. A majority of non-treated cats tested antibody positive by 3-4 months post infection (6/9) and, after heat treatment, tested antigen positive by 6-7 months post-infection (5/9). Histologic lesions characteristic of D. immitis infection, including intimal and medial thickening of the pulmonary artery, were present in every cat with D. immitis antibodies (6/6), although adult D. immitis were confirmed in only 5/6 antibody-positive cats at necropsy. Microfilariae were not detected at any time.

Conclusions: Taken together, these data indicate that prior treatment with 10% imidacloprid-1% moxidectin protected cats from subsequent infection with D. immitis for 28 days, preventing both formation of a detectable antibody response and development of pulmonary lesions by either immature stages of D. immitis or young adult heartworms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0710-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4340871PMC
February 2015

High prevalence of Trichinella pseudospiralis in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi).

Parasit Vectors 2015 Feb 4;8:67. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immunomediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, viale Regina Elena 299, Rome, 00161, Italy.

Background: Parasites of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic nematodes common in carnivores throughout the world. We determined the prevalence and species of Trichinella infections in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi).

Methods: Tongues from Florida panthers were collected at necropsy and examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion for infection with Trichinella spp. DNA was extracted from larvae and multiplex PCR using Trichinella species-specific primers was used to genotype the worms.

Results: Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 24 of 112 (21.4%; 14.6%-30.3%) panthers. Sixteen of the panthers (14.3%) were infected with T. pseudospiralis, 1 (0.9%) was infected with T. spiralis, and 2 (1.8%) had mixed infections of T. pseudospiralis and T. spiralis. Trichinella spp. larvae from 5 panthers were not identified at the species level due to degraded DNA.

Conclusions: This is the highest prevalence of T. pseudospiralis detected in North America up to now and suggests the Florida panther is a key mammalian reservoir of this parasite in southern Florida. Trichinella pseudospiralis can infect both mammals and birds indicating the source of infection for Florida panthers could be broader than believed; however, birds represent a small percentage (0.01%) of the cat's diet. Since wild pigs (Sus scrofa) can be parasitized by both T. pseudospiralis and T. spiralis and these swine can comprise a large portion (~40%) of a panther's diet in Florida, we believe that Florida panthers acquired these zoonotic parasites from feeding on wild pigs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0674-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4324651PMC
February 2015

Heat treatment prior to testing allows detection of antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in feline serum.

Parasit Vectors 2014 Jan 13;7. Epub 2014 Jan 13.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Background: Diagnosis of Dirofilaria immitis infection in cats is complicated by the difficulty associated with reliable detection of antigen in feline blood and serum samples.

Methods: To determine if antigen-antibody complex formation may interfere with detection of antigen in feline samples, we evaluated the performance of four different commercially available heartworm tests using serum samples from six cats experimentally infected with D. immitis and confirmed to harbor a low number of adult worms (mean = 2.0). Sera collected 168 (n = 6), 196 (n = 6), and 224 (n = 6) days post infection were tested both directly and following heat treatment.

Results: Antigen was detected in serum samples from 0 or 1 of 6 infected cats using the assays according to manufacturer's directions, but after heat treatment of serum samples, as many as 5 of 6 cats had detectable antigen 6-8 months post infection. Antibodies to D. immitis were detected in all six infected cats by commercial in-clinic assay and at a reference laboratory.

Conclusions: These results indicate that heat treatment of samples prior to testing can improve the sensitivity of antigen assays in feline patients, supporting more accurate diagnosis of this infection in cats. Surveys conducted by antigen testing without prior heat treatment of samples likely underestimate the true prevalence of infection in cats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3895812PMC
January 2014

Efficacy of an imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collar (Seresto®, Bayer) for preventing the transmission of Cytauxzoon felis to domestic cats by Amblyomma americanum.

Parasitol Res 2013 Aug;112 Suppl 1:11-20

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.

Infection of Cytauxzoon felis in domestic cats produces a severe disease characterised by fever, lethargy, inappetence, anorexia, depression, dehydration, icterus and often death. Transmission of C. felis to cats is dependent on being fed upon by infected Amblyomma americanum (lone star ticks). The purpose of the present study was to determine if application of a 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer) on cats prevents transmission of C. felis by repelling ticks. Twenty cats were randomised to either a treated (n = 10) or non-treated control group (n = 10) based on their susceptibility to ticks. Cats of high, medium and low tick susceptibility were represented in both groups. Treated cats were fitted with 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collars on study day 0 and both groups were then infested with C. felis-infected A. americanum on study day 30. Tick thumb counts were performed at 24 and 48 hours post infestation. Transmission of C. felis was determined by examining blood of cats by DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification with piroplasm-specific primers. Ticks did not attach to any of the 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin- treated cats. However, ticks attached and fed on all the non-treated control cats. The geometric mean number of ticks attached to the non-treated control cats at 24 and 48 hours was 15.3 and 14.2, respectively. Cytauxzoon felis was transmitted to 9 of 10 (90 %) non-treated control cats; C. felis was not transmitted to any of the treated cats. Transmission of C. felis to the non-treated cats was first detected between 8 and 16 days post infestation. Our results indicate that application of the 10 % imidacloprid/4.5 % flumethrin collar to cats prevented ticks from attaching, feeding and transmitting C. felis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-013-3277-7DOI Listing
August 2013

Having a personal health care provider and receipt of colorectal cancer testing.

Ann Fam Med 2009 Jan-Feb;7(1):5-10

University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, Primary Care Research Institute, Fort Worth, Texas 76107, USA.

Purpose: We wanted to assess the relationship between having a personal health care provider and receiving colorectal cancer testing.

Methods: Self-reported data were obtained from the United States 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Men and women aged 50 years and older were included, and associations of having a personal health care provider, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, and health insurance status with colorectal cancer testing were examined. Multiple logistic regression was performed on a final sample of 120,221 individuals.

Results: Having at least 1 personal health care provider significantly predicted up-to-date colorectal cancer testing in both the univariate (odds ratio [OR]=3.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.56-4.41) and multiple regression models (OR = 2.91; 95% CI 2.58-3.28). Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, and health insurance were also significantly associated with up-to-date colorectal cancer testing.

Conclusions: Having a personal health care provider was associated with up-to-date colorectal cancer testing. Efforts to increase and support the primary care workforce are needed to improve up-to-date colorectal cancer screening rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1370/afm.904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2625828PMC
May 2009
-->