Publications by authors named "Jenna P Tregarthen"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Eating-disorder psychopathology and driven exercise change models: A latent change score analysis.

Int J Eat Disord 2020 12 3;53(12):2013-2025. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Recovery Record, Inc, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Objective: Approximately 50% of people with eating disorders (EDs) engage in driven exercise to influence their weight or shape and/or to compensate for loss-of-control eating. When present, driven exercise is associated with a lower quality-of-life, longer hospital stays, and faster rates-of-relapse. Despite the seriousness of driven exercise, most treatments for EDs do not target maladaptive exercise behaviors directly. Given the large proportion of patients with an ED who engage in driven exercise and its effect on treatment outcomes, it is critical to understand what predicts change in driven exercise. The purpose of this study was to test whether ED symptoms prospectively predicted change in driven exercise and vice versa.

Method: Participants were Recovery Record (RR) users (N = 4,568; 86.8% female) seeking treatment for an ED. Participants completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (EPSI) monthly for 3 months.

Results: In the full sample, dynamic bivariate latent change score analyses indicated that high levels of dietary restraint and restricting prospectively predicted reductions in driven exercise. Among persons with anorexia nervosa (AN), high levels of binge eating predicted increased driven exercise. Among persons with bulimia nervosa (BN), high levels of body dissatisfaction predicted increased driven exercise. Among persons with binge-eating disorder (BED), high levels of binge eating, purging, and restricting predicted reductions in driven exercise.

Discussion: Results highlight changes that may predict increased or decreased driven exercise relative to other ED symptoms for AN, BN, and BED groups. These preliminary findings could inform future research on ED treatment efforts to manage driven exercise.
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December 2020

A network investigation of core symptoms and pathways across duration of illness using a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral model of eating-disorder symptoms.

Psychol Med 2021 04 7;51(5):815-824. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, United States of America.

Background: In the past decade, network analysis (NA) has been applied to psychopathology to quantify complex symptom relationships. This statistical technique has demonstrated much promise, as it provides researchers the ability to identify relationships across many symptoms in one model and can identify central symptoms that may predict important clinical outcomes. However, network models are highly influenced by node selection, which could limit the generalizability of findings. The current study (N = 6850) tests a comprehensive, cognitive-behavioral model of eating-disorder symptoms using items from two, widely used measures (Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory).

Methods: We used NA to identify central symptoms and compared networks across the duration of illness (DOI), as chronicity is one of the only known predictors of poor outcome in eating disorders (EDs).

Results: Our results suggest that eating when not hungry and feeling fat were the most central symptoms across groups. There were no significant differences in network structure across DOI, meaning the connections between symptoms remained relatively consistent. However, differences emerged in central symptoms, such that cognitive symptoms related to overvaluation of weight/shape were central in individuals with shorter DOI, and behavioral central symptoms emerged more in medium and long DOI.

Conclusions: Our results have important implications for the treatment of individuals with enduring EDs, as they may have a different core, maintaining symptoms. Additionally, our findings highlight the importance of using comprehensive, theoretically- or empirically-derived models for NA.
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April 2021

Eating disorder core symptoms and symptom pathways across developmental stages: A network analysis.

J Abnorm Psychol 2020 Feb 11;129(2):177-190. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

Eating disorders (EDs) often develop during adolescence and early adulthood but may persist, arise, or reemerge across the life span. Research and treatment efforts primarily focus on adolescent and young adult populations, leaving large knowledge gaps regarding ED symptoms across the entire developmental spectrum. The current study uses network analysis to compare central symptoms (i.e., symptoms that are highly connected to other symptoms) and symptom pathways (i.e., relations among symptoms) across five developmental stages (early adolescence, late adolescence, young adulthood, early-middle adulthood, middle-late adulthood) in a large sample of individuals with EDs ( = 29,902; = 32,219) in two network models. Several symptoms related to overeating, food avoidance, feeling full, and overvaluation of weight and shape emerged as central in most or all developmental stages, suggesting that some core symptoms remain central across development. Despite similarities in central symptoms, significant differences in network structure (i.e., how symptom pathways are connected) emerged across age groups. These differences suggest that symptom interconnectivity (but not symptom severity) might increase across development. Future research should continue to investigate developmental symptom differences in order to inform treatment for individuals with EDs of all ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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February 2020

Application of network analysis to investigate sex differences in interactive systems of eating-disorder psychopathology.

Int J Eat Disord 2019 12 14;52(12):1343-1352. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Recovery Record Inc., San Francisco, California.

Objective: Although men comprise 25% of persons with eating disorders (EDs), most research has focused on understanding EDs in women. The theoretical framework underlying common ED treatment has not been rigorously tested in men. The purpose of this study was to compare the interconnectivity among ED symptoms in men versus women.

Method: Participants (N = 1,348; 50% men) were individuals with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or other specified feeding or eating disorder who were users of Recovery Record, a smartphone app for monitoring ED symptoms. Participants were matched on age and duration of illness. Network analysis was used to create networks of symptoms for both sexes. Strength centrality, network stability, and bootstrapped centrality differences were tested. The network comparison test (NCT) was used to identify sex differences between networks. Key players analysis was used to compare fragmentation of each network.

Results: For both sexes, items related to binge eating and restricting emerged as highest in strength centrality. The NCT identified significant differences global strength (p = .03) but not network invariance (p = .06) suggesting that although the structure of the networks was not statistically different, the strength of the connections within the network was greater for women. Key players analysis indicated that both networks were similarly disrupted when important nodes within the network were removed.

Discussion: Findings suggested that there are more similarities than differences in networks of EDs in men and women. Results have important clinical implications by supporting theoretical underpinnings of cognitive-behavioral models of EDs in both men and women.
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December 2019

Development of a smartphone application for eating disorder self-monitoring.

Int J Eat Disord 2015 Nov 27;48(7):972-82. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Objective: This case report aims to (1) describe the development and refinement of a smartphone application for eating disorder self-monitoring; (2) characterize its users in terms of demographic and clinical characteristics; and (3) explore its feasibility and utilization as a self-monitoring tool.

Method: We developed a mobile phone application through which people with eating disorders can self-monitor meals, emotions, behaviors, and thoughts. The application also included positive reinforcement, coping skill suggestions, social support, and feedback components. The app was made available on two Internet app stores. Data include number of downloads and subsequent usage statistics, consumer ratings on app-stores are used as indicators of satisfaction, anonymous aggregate demographic data and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire scores from 57,940 individuals collected over a two-year period.

Results: The app demonstrated population-level utilization with over 100,000 users over a two-year period. Almost 50% percent of users stated that they are not currently receiving clinical treatment and 33% reported they had not told anyone about their eating disorder. A surprising number of people with severe problems are using the app.

Discussion: Smartphone apps have the capacity to reach and engage traditionally underserved individuals with eating disorders at a large scale. Additional work is indicated for the evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of applications for specific user groups and in clinical treatment contexts.
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November 2015