Publications by authors named "Jeni Green"

8 Publications

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A qualitative investigation of a prenatal yoga intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain: A thematic analysis of interviews.

Complement Ther Clin Pract 2021 May 6;44:101414. Epub 2021 May 6.

Arizona State University, College of Health Solutions, 500 N 3rd St., Mail Code 3020, Phoenix, AZ, 85004, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To describe pregnant women's experiences and perceived facilitators/barriers of a prenatal yoga intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG).

Methods: Pregnant women (N = 13) were interviewed after participation in a 12-week prenatal yoga intervention to prevent EGWG. Interviews were summarized using thematic analysis.

Results: Twelve themes were identified and organized into four categories: 1) experiences of prenatal yoga (positive experience/enjoyment, pain relief, connecting to body), 2) prenatal yoga and weight (increased mindfulness/self-awareness, increased physical activity, weight management), 3) barriers to prenatal yoga (physical body, commute/traffic, schedule), and 4) facilitators of prenatal yoga (healthy pregnancy, support from other pregnant women, the feeling from prenatal yoga).

Conclusion: Prenatal yoga may relieve pain and help women be more connected to their bodies. Prenatal yoga may also help women become more aware of their health behaviors and increases their physical activity which may have important implications for reducing EGWG.
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May 2021

Evaluation of Mood Check-in Feature for Participation in Meditation Mobile App Users: Retrospective Longitudinal Analysis.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 04 23;9(4):e27106. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, United States.

Background: Mindfulness meditation smartphone apps may improve mental health but lack evidence-based behavioral strategies to encourage their regular use for attaining mental health benefits. In October 2019, the Calm mindfulness meditation app introduced a mood check-in feature, but its effects on participation in meditation have yet to be tested.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate how a mood check-in feature impacts meditation behavior in Calm app subscribers.

Methods: This was a retrospective longitudinal analysis of mobile app usage data from a random sample of first-time subscribers to the Calm app (n=2600) who joined in summer 2018 or summer 2019. The mood check-in feature allows users to rate their mood using an emoji after completing a meditation session and displays a monthly calendar of their past mood check-ins. Regression analyses were used to compare the rate of change in meditation behavior before and after the introduction of mood check-ins and to estimate how usage of mood check-ins was associated with individuals' future meditation behavior (ie, intent-to-treat effects). Additional regression models examined the heterogenous effect of mood check-ins between subscribers who were active or inactive users prior to the introduction to mood check-ins (ie, above or below the median number of weeks with any meditation within their cohort). In order to confirm the specific associations between mood check-ins and meditation engagement, we modeled the direct relationship between the use of mood check-ins in previous weeks and subsequent meditation behavior (ie, treatment on the treated effects).

Results: During the first 9 months of their subscription, the 2019 cohort completed an average of 0.482 more sessions per week (95% CI 0.309 to 0.655) than the 2018 cohort; however, across both cohorts, average weekly meditation declined (-0.033 sessions per week, 95% CI -0.035 to -0.031). Controlled for trends in meditation before mood check-ins and aggregate differences between the 2018 and 2019 samples, the time trend in the number of weekly meditation sessions increased by 0.045 sessions among the 2019 cohort after the introduction of mood check-ins (95% CI 0.039 to 0.052). This increase in meditation was most pronounced among the inactive subscribers (0.063 sessions, 95% CI 0.052 to 0.074). When controlled for past-week meditation, use of mood check-ins during the previous week was positively associated with the likelihood of meditating the following week (odds ratio 1.132, 95% CI 1.059 to 1.211); however, these associations were not sustained beyond 1 week.

Conclusions: Using mood check-ins increases meditation participation in Calm app subscribers and may be especially beneficial for inactive subscribers. Mobile apps should consider incorporating mood check-ins to help better engage a wider range of users in app-based meditation, but more research is warranted.
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April 2021

Testing a mindfulness meditation mobile app for the treatment of sleep-related symptoms in adults with sleep disturbance: A randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(1):e0244717. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology and Mindful Awareness Research Center, Jane and Terry Semel Insitute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to test whether a commercially available, mindfulness meditation mobile app, (i.e., Calm app), was effective in reducing fatigue (primary outcome), pre-sleep arousal, and daytime sleepiness (secondary outcomes) in adults with sleep disturbance (Insomnia Severity Index Score >10) as compared to a wait-list control group. Associations between the use of the Calm app (i.e., adherence to the intervention) and changes in sleep quality was also explored in the intervention group only. Adults with sleep disturbance were recruited (N = 640). Eligible and consenting participants (N = 263) were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 124) or a wait-list control (n = 139) group. Intervention participants were asked to meditate using the Calm app ≥10 minutes/day for eight weeks. Fatigue, daytime sleepiness, and pre-sleep arousal were assessed at baseline, mid- (4-weeks) and post-intervention (8-weeks) in both groups, whereas sleep quality was evaluated only in the intervention group. Findings from intent-to-treat analyses suggest the use of the Calm app for eight weeks significantly decreased daytime fatigue (p = .018) as well as daytime sleepiness (p = .003) and cognitive (p = .005) and somatic (p < .001) pre-sleep arousal as compared to the wait-list control group. Within the intervention group, use of the Calm app was associated with improvements in sleep quality (p < .001). This randomized controlled trial demonstrates that the Calm app can be used to treat fatigue, daytime sleepiness, and pre-sleep arousal in adults with sleep disturbance. Given that the Calm app is affordable and widely accessible, these data have implications for community level dissemination of a mobile app to improve sleep-related symptoms associated with sleep disturbance. Trial registration: NCT04045275.
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May 2021

Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Engagement in a Consumer-Based Meditation Mobile App: Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

JMIR Pediatr Parent 2020 Nov 13;3(2):e24536. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, United States.

Background: In the United States, nearly half (48%) of school-aged children experience sleep disturbance that results in less than the recommended sleep duration, which may negatively impact mental health and behavior. Mindfulness interventions may improve sleep and mental health in youth. However, there are gaps in the literature regarding how children (2-12 years) and adolescents (13-17 years) practice mindfulness and the extent to which they benefit from these practices.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine parents' perceptions of their children's engagement with a consumer-based mindfulness meditation app and the extent to which they believe their children have benefitted from using the app, particularly with regard to sleep.

Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey in adult subscribers (N=11,108) to the mindfulness meditation mobile app Calm. Participants who indicated that they had a child or children younger than 18 years (2944/11,108) who used the Calm app were asked additional questions related to their perceptions of their children's engagement with Calm. Descriptive statistics were used to assess children's app engagement, and chi-square tests and binary logistic regression models were used to assess differences in children's usage based on gender and age.

Results: Among the survey respondents, approximately half of the parents (1537/2944, 52.21%) reported that their children used Calm. Children used Calm mostly for (1) sleep (1168/1537, 75.99%), (2) stress (491/1537, 31.95%), (3) depression or anxiety (430/1537, 27.98%), and (4) improvement of overall health (215/1537,13.99%). Older children were more likely to begin using Calm to reduce stress, depression, or anxiety, whereas younger children were more likely begin using Calm to improve sleep. Most children used Calm when lying down to go to bed (1113/1529, 72.79%). Children were most likely to use sleep stories at night (1144/1207, 94.78%), followed by music and soundscapes (749/1114, 67.24%), meditations (736/1120, 65.71%), and breathing exercises (610/1092, 55.86%). Nearly all parents believed that using sleep stories was helpful for their children's sleep (1090/1128, 96.63%), and the majority of parents felt that the other components were also helpful for their children's sleep (music and soundscapes [570/728, 78.30%], meditations [445/696, 63.94%], and breathing exercises [610/1092, 55.86%]).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore parents' perceptions of how their children or adolescents use a popular consumer-based mindfulness mobile app (ie, Calm). As the majority of children use the app for sleep, mindfulness meditation mobile apps should consider incorporating age-appropriate sleep content to meet the needs of this audience. More research is needed to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of mindfulness meditation apps for improving sleep and mental health in children and adolescents.
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November 2020

Online yoga to reduce post traumatic stress in women who have experienced stillbirth: a randomized control feasibility trial.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Jun 5;20(1):173. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Arizona State University, Tempe, USA.

Background: About 1 in every 150 pregnancies end in stillbirth. Consequences include symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety. Yoga has been used to treat PTSD in other populations and may improve health outcomes for stillbirth mothers. The purpose of this study was to determine: (a) feasibility of a 12-week home-based, online yoga intervention with varying doses; (b) acceptability of a "stretch and tone" control group; and (c) preliminary efficacy of the intervention on reducing symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, depression, perinatal grief, self-compassion, emotional regulation, mindfulness, sleep quality, and subjective health.

Methods: Participants (N = 90) were recruited nationally and randomized into one of three groups for yoga or exercise (low dose (LD), 60 min per week; moderate dose (MD), 150 min per week; and stretch-and-tone control group (STC)). Baseline and post-intervention surveys measured main outcomes (listed above). Frequency analyses were used to determine feasibility. Repeated measures ANCOVA were used to determine preliminary efficacy. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine a dose-response relationship between minutes of yoga and each outcome variable.

Results: Over half of participants completed the intervention (n = 48/90). Benchmarks (≥70% reported > 75% satisfaction) were met in each group for satisfaction and enjoyment. Participants meeting benchmarks (completing > 90% of prescribed minutes 9/12 weeks) for LD and MD groups were 44% (n = 8/18) and 6% (n = 1/16), respectively. LD and MD groups averaged 44.0 and 77.3 min per week of yoga, respectively. The MD group reported that 150 prescribed minutes per week of yoga was too much. There were significant decreases in PTSD and depression, and improvements in self-rated health at post-intervention for both intervention groups. There was a significant difference in depression scores (p = .036) and grief intensity (p = .009) between the MD and STC groups. PTSD showed non-significant decreases of 43% and 56% at post-intervention in LD and MD groups, respectively (22% decrease in control).

Conclusions: This was the first study to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an online yoga intervention for women after stillbirth. Future research warrants a randomized controlled trial.

Trial Registration: NCT02925481. Registered 10-04-16.
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June 2020

An iterative design process to develop a randomized feasibility study and inform recruitment of minority women after stillbirth.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2019 27;5:140. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

4School of Social Work, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central 8th Floor, Phoenix, AZ 85004 USA.

Background: Yearly, approximately 25,000 US women experience stillbirth and African American women have a 2.2 fold increased risk of stillbirth compared with white women. After stillbirth, women are subject to a sevenfold increased risk of post-traumatic stress compared with women after a live-birth. This paper presents findings from phase one of a National Institutes of Health funded, two-phase feasibility study to examine an online yoga intervention to reduce symptoms of post-traumatic stress in mothers after stillbirth. An iterative design was used to (1) inform the development of the online yoga intervention and (2) inform recruitment strategies to enroll minority women into phase two.

Methods: Ten mothers ( = 5 stillbirth moms with no yoga experience, = 5 nonstillbirth moms with yoga experience) participated in a series of online yoga videos ( = 30) and were assessed for self-compassion (SC) and emotional regulation (ER) before and after each video. An independent group of five minority women who had experienced stillbirth were interviewed about cultural barriers to recruitment and perceptions/opinions of yoga. A mean was calculated for SC and ER scores for each video at pre- and post-time points. The percent change of the mean difference between pre-post SC and ER scores were used to select videos for phase two. Videos with a negative change score or that had a 0% change on SC or ER were not used. A combination of deductive and inductive coding was used to organize the interview data, generate categories, and develop themes.

Results: Five of the 30 tested yoga videos were not used. An additional 12 videos were developed, filmed, and used in the prescription for phase two. Topics from interview findings included perceived benefits/barriers of and interest in yoga, preferred yoga environment, suggested recruitment methods, content of recruitment material, and recommended incentives.

Conclusions: Online yoga may be beneficial for improving emotional regulation and self-compassion, but further testing is needed. Additionally, minority women express interest in online yoga but suggest that researchers apply culturally specific strategies regarding methods, content of material, and incentives to recruit minority women into a study.
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November 2019

Efficacy of the Mindfulness Meditation Mobile App "Calm" to Reduce Stress Among College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2019 06 25;7(6):e14273. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, United States.

Background: College students experience high levels of stress. Mindfulness meditation delivered via a mobile app may be an appealing, efficacious way to reduce stress in college students.

Objective: We aimed to test the initial efficacy and sustained effects of an 8-week mindfulness meditation mobile app-Calm-compared to a wait-list control on stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion in college students with elevated stress. We also explored the intervention's effect on health behaviors (ie, sleep disturbance, alcohol consumption [binge drinking], physical activity, and healthy eating [fruit and vegetable consumption]) and the feasibility and acceptability of the app.

Methods: This study was a randomized, wait-list, control trial with assessments at baseline, postintervention (8 weeks), and at follow-up (12 weeks). Participants were eligible if they were current full-time undergraduate students and (1) at least 18 years of age, (2) scored ≥14 points on the Perceived Stress Scale, (3) owned a smartphone, (4) were willing to download the Calm app, (5) were willing to be randomized, and (7) were able to read and understand English. Participants were asked to meditate using Calm at least 10 minutes per day. A P value ≤.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: A total of 88 participants were included in the analysis. The mean age (SD) was 20.41 (2.31) years for the intervention group and 21.85 (6.3) years for the control group. There were significant differences in all outcomes (stress, mindfulness, and self-compassion) between the intervention and control groups after adjustment for covariates postintervention (all P<.04). These effects persisted at follow-up (all P<.03), except for the nonreacting subscale of mindfulness (P=.08). There was a significant interaction between group and time factors in perceived stress (P=.002), mindfulness (P<.001), and self-compassion (P<.001). Bonferroni posthoc tests showed significant within-group mean differences for perceived stress in the intervention group (P<.001), while there were no significant within-group mean differences in the control group (all P>.19). Similar results were found for mindfulness and self-compassion. Effect sizes ranged from moderate (0.59) to large (1.24) across all outcomes. A significant group×time interaction in models of sleep disturbance was found, but no significant effects were found for other health behaviors. The majority of students in the intervention group reported that Calm was helpful to reduce stress and stated they would use Calm in the future. The majority were satisfied using Calm and likely to recommend it to other college students. The intervention group participated in meditation for an average of 38 minutes/week during the intervention and 20 minutes/week during follow-up.

Conclusions: Calm is an effective modality to deliver mindfulness meditation in order to reduce stress and improve mindfulness and self-compassion in stressed college students. Our findings provide important information that can be applied to the design of future studies or mental health resources in university programs.

Trial Registration: NCT03891810;
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June 2019

Relationship Between Mindfulness and Posttraumatic Stress in Women Who Experienced Stillbirth.

J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2018 11 5;47(6):760-770. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Objective: To explore the potential factors that mediate the relationship between mindfulness and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in women who experienced stillbirth.

Design: A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data before women's participation in an online mindfulness intervention (i.e., online yoga).

Setting: This was a national study, and women participated in their own homes.

Participants: Women who experienced stillbirth (N = 74) within the past 2 years and resided in the United States.

Methods: Women were recruited nationally, primarily through social media. Participants (N = 74) completed baseline assessments (self-report mental and physical health surveys) via a Web-based survey tool. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the COPE Inventory subscales to reduce the number of variables before entry into a mediation model. We then tested the mediation effects of sleep quality, self-esteem, resilience, and maladaptive coping on the relationship between mindfulness and PTS symptoms.

Results: Through the exploratory factor analysis we identified a two-factor solution. The first factor included nine subscales that represented adaptive coping strategies, and the second factor included five subscales that represented maladaptive coping strategies. Results from multiple mediation analysis suggested that mindfulness had a significant inverse relationship to PTS symptoms mediated by sleep quality.

Conclusion: Mindfulness practices may have potential benefits for grieving women after stillbirth. Evidence-based approaches to improve sleep quality also may be important to reduce PTS symptoms in women after stillbirth.
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November 2018