Publications by authors named "Jenö Kisch"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Immediate Loading and Delayed Loading of Single-Tooth Implants: 5-Year Results.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 5;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, 214 21 Malmö, Sweden.

The aim of this prospective randomized clinical study was to compare the clinical treatment outcome for single dental implants submitted to either immediate loading (IL) or delayed loading (DL) after 5 years of follow-up. Fifty patients with a missing maxillary tooth (15-25) were randomly allocated to either the IL or DL. The treatment procedures included implant installation in healed sites, temporary screw-retained crown and replacement with a permanent single implant crown. The two groups were evaluated with regard to implant survival, marginal bone level, papillae index, pink and white esthetic score (PES, WES). At the 5-year follow-up the implant survival rate was 100% and 95.8% for IL and DL, respectively. Implant success rate was 91.7% and 83.3% for IL and DL, respectively. The mean ± SD marginal bone loss for IL and DL was -0.50 ± 0.73 mm and -0.54 ± 0.65 mm, respectively. ( = 0.782). Statistically significant less marginal bone loss was found non-smokers ( = 0.021). No statistically significant differences were found for IL and DL concerning papillae index PES and WES after 5 years. This study suggests that implant-supported single crowns in the maxillary aesthetic zone can present similar results with respect to either IL or DL after 5 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961588PMC
March 2021

Immediate Loading of Single Implants, Guided Surgery, and Intraoral Scanning: A Nonrandomized Study.

Int J Prosthodont 2020 Sep/Oct;33(5):513-522

Purpose: To compare clinical and esthetic outcomes between immediately loaded single implants placed with and without a fully guided surgical procedure.

Materials And Methods: Patients with a missing maxillary tooth (second premolar to second premolar) were considered for inclusion in this 1-year prospective nonrandomized study. Exclusion criteria were general health contraindications for oral surgery besides the need for bone grafting or ridge augmentation. One group received digital implant planning, fully guided surgery, and immediate loading (DIL). The other group received freehand surgery and immediate loading (IL). Outcome measures were implant survival, marginal bone loss, soft tissue changes, papilla index, pink and white esthetic scores (PES and WES, respectively), and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).

Results: Two of 21 implants failed in the DIL group soon after placement, resulting in a 1-year implant survival rate of 90.5%, while no implants failed in the IL group. Significantly higher papilla index scores and lower soft tissue changes were found for the DIL group compared to the IL group. No differences were found after 1 year regarding marginal bone loss, PES, WES, or PROMs.

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, immediate loading in combination with fully guided surgery might negatively affect implant survival. Immediate loading, fully guided surgery, and a digital workflow appear to have a positive effect on early soft tissue adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ijp.6701DOI Listing
September 2020

Retrospective study comparing the clinical outcomes of bar-clip and ball attachment implant-supported overdentures.

J Oral Sci 2020 Sep 26;62(4):397-401. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University.

The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of implant-supported overdentures (ODs) with either bar-clip or ball attachments. The implant, prosthesis failure, and technical complications were the outcomes analyzed in this retrospective clinical study conducted in a specialty clinic. Seventy-five patients with 242 implants supported by 76 ODs (36 maxillary, 40 mandibular) were included in the study and followed up for 88.8 ± 82.9 months (mean ± standard deviation). Bar-clip and ball attachments were used in 78.9% and 21.1% of the cases, respectively. Forty-three implant failures (17.8%) in 17 prostheses (17/76; 22.4%) were observed in this study. The average period of implant failure was 43.3 ± 41.0 months, and most of them were maxillary turned implants. The bar-clip system demonstrated more complications in the attachment parts compared to the ball attachment system. Poor retention of the prosthesis was similar between the two systems. Loss of implants resulted in the failure of 10 ODs in this study. ODs opposed by natural dentition or fixed prostheses presented with more complications. The Cox proportional hazards model did not show a significant effect on prosthesis failure for any of the factors. These findings indicated that patients with ODs need constant maintenance follow-ups to address the technical complications and perform prosthodontic maintenance regardless of the attachment system used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.19-0412DOI Listing
September 2020

Analysis of technical complications and risk factors for failure of combined tooth-implant-supported fixed dental prostheses.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2020 Aug 10;22(4):523-532. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: The oral rehabilitation with fixed restorations supported by the combination of teeth and dental implants has been advocated in some cases.

Purpose: To assess the clinical outcomes of these prostheses. Fixed restorations supported by the combination of teeth and dental implants.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included all patients treated with combined tooth-implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) at one specialist clinic. Abutment/prosthesis failure and technical complications were the outcomes analyzed.

Results: A total of 85 patients with 96 prostheses were included, with a mean follow-up of 10.5 years. Twenty prostheses failed. The estimated cumulative survival rate was 90.7%, 84.8%, 69.9%, and 66.2% at 5, 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. The failure of tooth and/or implant abutments in key positions affected the survival of the prostheses. There were seven reasons for prostheses failure, with the loss of abutments exerting a significant influence. Bruxism was possibly associated with failures. Prostheses with cantilevers did not show a statistically significant higher failure rate. No group had a general higher prevalence of technical complications in comparison to the other groups.

Conclusions: Although combined tooth-implant-supported FDPs are an alternative treatment option, this study has found that across 20 years of service nearly 35% the prostheses may fail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12927DOI Listing
August 2020

Retrospective evaluation of implant-supported full-arch fixed dental prostheses after a mean follow-up of 10 years.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2020 Jul 6;31(7):634-645. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Objective: To assess the outcomes of implant-supported full-arch fixed dental prostheses (ISFAFDPs) and the supporting implants.

Material And Methods: This retrospective study included patients treated with ISFAFDPs at one specialist clinic. Implant/prosthesis failure and complications were the outcomes analyzed. Survival analysis methods were used.

Results: A total of 709 patients with 869 ISFAFDPs (4,797 implants) were included, with a mean ± SD follow-up of 10.7 ± 7.2 years. A total of 353 implants and 62 prostheses failed. Estimated cumulative survival rates were as follows: 93.3% (95% CI 91.3, 95.3) after 10 years and 87.1% (95% CI 83.4, 90.8) after 20 years. Implants installed in bruxers, smokers, and maxilla had a lower survival than implants installed in non-bruxers, non-smokers, and mandible, respectively. A total of 415 ISFAFDPs (47.8%) presented technical complications, of which 67 (7.7%) presented only occurrences of loss/fracture of implant access hole sealing. Bruxism was a factor to exert a higher risk of screw loosening (HR 3.302; also in younger patients), screw fracture (HR 4.956), ceramic chipping/fracture (HR 5.685), and loss/fracture of acrylic teeth (HR 2.125; this last complication with higher risk also in men, in maxillae, and when the opposing jaw presented natural dentition or fixed prostheses). Patients with bruxism had a statistically significant higher risk of prosthesis failure than non-bruxers (HR 3.276).

Conclusions: ISFAFDPs presented good long-term prognosis. Failure of several supporting implants was the main reason for failure. The results of the present study strongly suggest that bruxism is an important contributor to implant and prosthesis failure, as well as to an increased prevalence of technical complications in ISFAFDPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/clr.13600DOI Listing
July 2020

Retrospective clinical evaluation of 2- to 6-unit implant-supported fixed partial dentures: Mean follow-up of 9 years.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2020 Apr 11;22(2):201-212. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Implant-supported fixed partial dentures (ISFPDs) are one of the most common options to rehabilitate partially edentulous patients.

Purpose: To assess the clinical outcomes of ISFPDs.

Methods: This retrospective study included all patients treated with ISFPDs with 2 to 6 prosthetic units at one specialist clinic. Implant/prosthesis failure and technical complications were the outcomes analyzed.

Results: Six hundred and forty-two patients with 876 ISFPDs (2241 implants) were included, followed up for 108.0 ± 76.2 months. Eighty-eight prostheses and 112 implants (26 before, 86 after prosthesis installation) failed. The estimated CSR of ISFPDs at 30 years was 72.7%. Smokers presented lower implant survival than nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-nine ISFPDs (33.2%) presented technical complications. Bruxism was a factor to exert a higher risk of screw and implant fracture, and ceramic chipping. ISFPDs with cantilever presented higher risk of failure, and screw loosening/fracture. Prostheses supported by implants with internal abutment connection or with two pontics had higher risk of presenting ceramic chipping. Extension of the prosthesis did not seem to exert influence on prosthesis failure/complications.

Conclusions: ISFPDs presented good long-term prognosis. Implant failure was the main reason for ISFPD failure. The results suggest that bruxism and the presence of cantilever may contribute to the increased rate of mechanical complications and prosthesis failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12889DOI Listing
April 2020

Retrospective clinical evaluation of implant-supported single crowns: Mean follow-up of 15 years.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2019 Jul 17;30(7):691-701. Epub 2019 May 17.

Faculty of Odontology, Department of Prosthodontics, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Objective: To retrospectively assess the clinical outcomes of implant-supported single crowns and the supporting implants.

Material And Methods: This retrospective study included all patients treated with implant-supported single crowns at one specialist clinic. Implant and prosthesis failure, and mechanical/technical complications (ceramic fracture/chipping; crown loss of retention/mobility; crown failure/fracture; loosening/loss/fracture of prosthetic screw; and implant failure/fracture) were the outcomes analyzed. Any condition/situation that led to the removal/replacement of crowns was considered prosthesis failure.

Results: A total of 438 patients with 567 crowns were included. Mean ± SD follow-up of 183.4 ± 69.3 months. A total of 37 implants (6.5%) and 54 crowns (9.5%) failed. If only technical problems were considered, the crown failure rate decreased to 4.1% (23/567). Most common reasons for crown failure: esthetic issue (n = 12), crown constantly mobile (n = 9), change to another type of prosthesis together with other implants (n = 8), crown fracture (n = 7), and crown in infraposition in comparison with adjacent teeth (n = 7). The odds of crown failure were shown to be statistically significantly higher for the following factors: younger patients, maxillary crowns, and screw-retained crowns. Loose prosthetic screw was much more prevalent in screw-retained than in cemented crowns. Ceramic fracture/chipping was more prevalent in screw-retained crowns, maxillae, females. Crown fracture was more prevalent in ceramic crowns, screw-retained crowns, maxillae, posterior region, females. However, these differences were statistically significant only for crown fractures in females.

Conclusions: The odds of crown failure were significant for some factors, but one must keep in mind that non-technical complications are as common as technical ones as reasons for the replacement of implant-supported single crowns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/clr.13454DOI Listing
July 2019

Factors influencing the fracture of dental implants.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2018 Feb 6;20(1):58-67. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Prosthodontics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: Implant fractures are rare but offer a challenging clinical situation.

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of implant fracture and the possible risk factors predisposing an implant to a higher fracture risk.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study is based on 2670 patients consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses. Anatomical-, patient-, and implant-related factors were collected. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were performed. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) evaluated the effect of explanatory variables on implant fracture.

Results: Forty-four implants (out of 10 099; 0.44%) fractured. The mean ± standard deviation time for fracture to occur was 95.1 ± 58.5 months (min-max, 3.8-294.7). Half of the occurrences of fracture happened between 2 and 8 years after implantation. Five factors had a statistically significant influence on the fracture of implants (increase/decrease in fracture probability): use of higher grades of titanium (decrease 72.9%), bruxism (increase 1819.5%), direct adjacency to cantilever (increase 247.6%), every 1 mm increase in implant length (increase 22.3%), every 1 mm increase in implant diameter (decrease 96.9%).

Conclusions: It is suggested that 5 factors could influence the incidence of implant fractures: grade of titanium, implant diameter and length, cantilever, bruxism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12572DOI Listing
February 2018

A retrospective study on clinical and radiological outcomes of oral implants in patients followed up for a minimum of 20 years.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2018 Apr 6;20(2):199-207. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Department of Prosthodontics, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: Very long-term follow-up of oral implants is seldom reported in the literature.

Purpose: To assess oral implant failure rates and marginal bone loss (MBL) of patients followed up for a minimum of 20 years.

Materials And Methods: Implants placed in patients followed up for 20+ years were included. Descriptive statistics, survival analyses, generalized estimating equations were performed. Three-hundred implants were randomly selected for MBL.

Results: 1,045 implants (227 patients) were included. Implant location, irradiation, and bruxism affected the implant survival rate. Thirty-five percent of the failures occurred within the first year after implantation, and another 26.8% in the second/third year. There was a cumulative survival rate of 87.8% after 36 years of follow-up. In the last radiological follow up, 35 implants (11.7%) had bone gain, and 35 implants (11.7%) presented at least 3 mm of MBL. Twenty-six out of 86 failed implants with available radiograms presented severe MBL in the last radiological register before implant failure.

Conclusions: Most of the implant failures occurred at the first few years after implantation, regardless of a very long follow up. MBL can be insignificant in long-term observations, but it may, nevertheless, be the cause of secondary failure of oral implants in some cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12571DOI Listing
April 2018

Impact of Different Surgeons on Dental Implant Failure.

Int J Prosthodont 2017 September/October;30(5):445–454. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Purpose: To assess the influence of several factors on the prevalence of dental implant failure, with special consideration of the placement of implants by different dental surgeons.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study is based on 2,670 patients who received 10,096 implants at one specialist clinic. Only the data of patients and implants treated by surgeons who had inserted a minimum of 200 implants at the clinic were included. Kaplan-Meier curves were stratified with respect to the individual surgeon. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used to account for the fact that repeated observations (several implants) were placed in a single patient. The factors bone quantity, bone quality, implant location, implant surface, and implant system were analyzed with descriptive statistics separately for each individual surgeon.

Results: A total of 10 surgeons were eligible. The differences between the survival curves of each individual were statistically significant. The multivariate GEE model showed the following variables to be statistically significant: surgeon, bruxism, intake of antidepressants, location, implant length, and implant system. The surgeon with the highest absolute number of failures was also the one who inserted the most implants in sites of poor bone and used turned implants in most cases, whereas the surgeon with the lowest absolute number of failures used mainly modern implants. Separate survival analyses of turned and modern implants stratified for the individual surgeon showed statistically significant differences in cumulative survival.

Conclusion: Different levels of failure incidence could be observed between the surgeons, occasionally reaching significant levels. Although a direct causal relationship could not be ascertained, the results of the present study suggest that the surgeons' technique, skills, and/or judgment may negatively influence implant survival rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/ijp.5151DOI Listing
December 2017

Intake of Proton Pump Inhibitors Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Dental Implant Failure.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2017 September/October;32(5):1097–1102. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Purpose: To investigate the association between the intake of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the risk of dental implant failure.

Materials And Methods: The present retrospective cohort study is based on patients consecutively treated between 1980 and 2014 with implant-supported/retained prostheses at one specialist clinic. Modern endosseous dental implants with cylindrical or conical design were included, and only complete cases were considered; ie, only those implants with information available for all variables measured were included in the regression model analysis. Zygomatic implants and implants detected in radiographies but without basic information about them in the patients' files were excluded from the study. Implant- and patient-related data were collected. Multilevel mixed-effects parametric survival analysis was used to test the association between PPI exposure (predictor variable) and risk of implant failure (outcome variable), adjusting for several potential confounders.

Results: A total of 3,559 implants were placed in 999 patients, with 178 implants reported as failures. The implant failure rates were 12.0% (30/250) for PPI users and 4.5% (148/3,309) for nonusers. A total of 45 out of 178 (25.3%) failed implants were lost up to abutment connection (6 in PPI users, 39 in nonusers), with an early-to-late failure ratio of 0.34:1. The intake of PPIs was shown to have a statistically significant negative effect for implant survival rate (HR 2.811; 95% CI: 1.139 to 6.937; P = .025). Bruxism, smoking, implant length, prophylactic antibiotic regimen, and implant location were also identified as factors with a statistically significant effect on the implant survival rate.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the intake of PPIs may be associated with an increased risk of dental implant failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/jomi.5662DOI Listing
June 2017

Esthetic and Patient-Centered Outcomes of Single Implants: A Retrospective Study.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2017 September/October;32(5):1065–1073. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Purpose: The aims of this clinical study were to retrospectively evaluate implant survival, patient satisfaction, and radiographic, clinical, and esthetic outcomes following single-implant treatment.

Materials And Methods: Eighty-seven patients, with a total of 126 implants (XiVE S, Dentsply Implants), who received single implant-retained crowns between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively evaluated. Implant survival, marginal bone levels (MBL), changes in implant/mesial tooth vertical relationship, pink esthetic score (PES), white esthetic score (WES), patient assessment of the esthetics (visual analog scale), and oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) were evaluated.

Results: Altogether, 59 patients with a total of 85 implants attended a final clinical and radiographic follow-up examination. The mean ages of males and females at implant placement were 19.78 and 22.58 years, respectively. The mean total follow-up time from the implant surgical date was 7.51 years. The 5-year implant clinical survival rate (CSR) was 98.4% (95% CI: 96.3%-100%), and crown CSR was 91.8% (95% CI: 86.3%-97.3%). The overall mean change in MBL was -0.19 mm. No significant differences were found between the different implant diameters (3.0, 3.4, and 3.8 mm) with regard to change in MBL. Mean increase in implant infraposition was 0.13 mm. With regard to esthetics, mean initial and final total PES were 9.61 and 11.49, respectively (P < .001). The mean WES was 6.48 at follow-up. Patients' mean assessment of soft tissue esthetics and implant-supported crown appearance were 73.5 and 82.1 (maximum score 100). At the follow-up examination, the additive OHIP-14 score was 16.11.

Conclusion: This retrospective study of XiVE S implants found excellent survival rates and showed good clinical outcomes concerning patient-centered findings, esthetics, and marginal bone preservation. In context, it is important to stress that this study consisted of mostly young patients with agenesis who were treated by experienced clinicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/jomi.5495DOI Listing
March 2017

Analysis of risk factors for cluster behavior of dental implant failures.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2017 Aug 22;19(4):632-642. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Some studies indicated that implant failures are commonly concentrated in few patients.

Purpose: To identify and analyze cluster behavior of dental implant failures among subjects of a retrospective study.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included patients receiving at least three implants only. Patients presenting at least three implant failures were classified as presenting a cluster behavior. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations analysis evaluated the effect of explanatory variables on the cluster behavior.

Results: There were 1406 patients with three or more implants (8337 implants, 592 failures). Sixty-seven (4.77%) patients presented cluster behavior, with 56.8% of all implant failures. The intake of antidepressants and bruxism were identified as potential negative factors exerting a statistically significant influence on a cluster behavior at the patient-level. The negative factors at the implant-level were turned implants, short implants, poor bone quality, age of the patient, the intake of medicaments to reduce the acid gastric production, smoking, and bruxism.

Conclusions: A cluster pattern among patients with implant failure is highly probable. Factors of interest as predictors for implant failures could be a number of systemic and local factors, although a direct causal relationship cannot be ascertained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12485DOI Listing
August 2017

Clinical and radiographic outcome following immediate loading and delayed loading of single-tooth implants: Randomized clinical trial.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2017 Jun 19;19(3):549-558. Epub 2017 Feb 19.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Immediate loading of single implants is generally considered a reliable procedure.

Purpose: The objective of the present prospective randomized clinical study was to compare the overall treatment outcome following immediate loading (IL) and delayed loading (DL) of single implants after 1 year of follow-up.

Materials And Methods: Patients with a missing maxillary tooth (15-25) were randomly assigned to IL or DL. The protocol included implant installation in healed sites, immediate loading, delayed loading, temporary screw-retained restoration, and replacement with a permanent single implant crown. Outcome measures were implant survival, marginal bone level, soft tissue changes, papillae index, pink, and white esthetic score (PES and WES), patient judged aesthetics, and oral health impact profile (OHiP-14).

Results: Implant survival rate was 100% and 96% for IL and DL, respectively. Implant success rate was 96% and 88% for IL and DL, respectively. Statistically significant lower papilla index scores were found in the IL group at temporary crown and definitive crown placement. An overall statistically significant improvement after 12 months for PES, WES and OHIP-14 was found.

Conclusion: This prospective randomized study showed that single implants in the maxilla can present satisfactory results with respect to either immediate loading or delayed loading after 12 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12479DOI Listing
June 2017

Survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2017 Nov 14;28(11):1348-1353. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Objectives: To assess the survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants and to explore the possible factors that might affect the outcome of this reimplantation procedure.

Materials And Methods: Patients that had failed dental implants, which were replaced with the same implant type at the same site, were included. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants; survival analysis was also performed. The effect of systemic, environmental, and local factors on the survival of the reoperated implants was evaluated.

Results: 175 of 10,096 implants in 98 patients were replaced by another implant at the same location (159, 14, and 2 implants at second, third, and fourth surgeries, respectively). Newly replaced implants were generally of similar diameter but of shorter length compared to the previously placed fixtures. A statistically significant greater percentage of lost implants were placed in sites with low bone quantity. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.032) in the survival rates between implants that were inserted for the first time (94%) and implants that replaced the ones lost (73%). There was a statistically higher failure rate of the reoperated implants for patients taking antidepressants and antithrombotic agents.

Conclusions: Dental implants replacing failed implants had lower survival rates than the rates reported for the previous attempts of implant placement. It is suggested that a site-specific negative effect may possibly be associated with this phenomenon, as well as the intake of antidepressants and antithrombotic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/clr.12992DOI Listing
November 2017

Bruxism and dental implant treatment complications: a retrospective comparative study of 98 bruxer patients and a matched group.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2017 Jul 23;28(7):e1-e9. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Objectives: To analyze the complications of dental implant treatment in a group of patients with bruxism in comparison with a matched group of non-bruxers.

Material And Methods: Patients being diagnosed as bruxers were identified within a group of patients consecutively treated with implant-supported prostheses at one specialist clinic, based on the most recent listed sign and symptoms of bruxism according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. A diagnostic grading system of "possible," "probable," and "definite" sleep or awake bruxism was used, according to a recent published international consensus. A case-control matching model was used to match the bruxers with a group of non-bruxers, based on five variables. Implant-, prosthetic-, and patient-related data were collected, as well as 14 mechanical complications, and compared between groups.

Results: Ninety-eight of 2670 patients were identified as bruxers. The odds ratio of implant failure in bruxers in relation to non-bruxers was 2.71 (95% CI 1.25, 5.88). Considering the same number of patients with the same total number of implants equally distributed between groups, the bruxers group had a higher prevalence of mechanical complications in comparison with the non-bruxers group.

Conclusions: This study suggests that bruxism may significantly increase both the implant failure rate and the rate of mechanical and technical complications of implant-supported restorations. Other risk factors may also have influenced the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/clr.12844DOI Listing
July 2017

Intraoral Digital Impression Technique Compared to Conventional Impression Technique. A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Prosthodont 2016 Jun 30;25(4):282-7. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Folktandvården Skåne AB-Centre of Dental Specialist Care Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.

Purpose: To compare digital and conventional impression techniques in a randomized clinical trial; specifically, procedure times, patient-centered outcomes, and clinical evaluation of the restorations.

Materials And Methods: Forty-two patients in need of tooth-supported single crowns and/or fixed partial prostheses up to six units were randomly allocated to one of the impression techniques. The procedure times, dentists' and patients' assessments using a visual analog scale (VAS), and clinical evaluation of the restorations were compared between the two groups.

Results: The mean total procedure times for digital and conventional impression technique were 14:33 ± 5:27 and 20:42 ± 5:42, respectively (p < 0.0001). Mean impression times were 7:33 ± 3.37 and 11:33 ± 1.56, respectively (p < 0.0001). Mean VAS scores for the dentist's assessment of difficulty (0 to 100; very difficult = 100) were 24.00 ± 18.02 and 48.02 ± 21.21, respectively (p < 0.0001). Mean VAS scores for the patients' assessment of discomfort (0 to 100; very discomforting = 100) was 6.50 ± 5.87 and 44.86 ± 27.13, respectively (p < 0.0001). Occlusal contacts showed a better result for the digital technique.

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the digital technique was more efficient and convenient than the conventional impression technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopr.12410DOI Listing
June 2016

Prosthetic Survival and Complication Rate of Single Implant Treatment in the Periodontally Healthy Patient after 16 to 22 Years of Follow-Up.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2016 Feb 5;18(1):117-28. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dental School, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Single implants were introduced in the 1980s, but long-term follow-up is scarce.

Purpose: The study aims to retrospectively investigate the prosthetic survival and complication rates of single implants in periodontally healthy patients after 16-22 years, and to evaluate the influence of different prosthetic procedures.

Materials And Methods: Patients with a single implant were recalled for clinical examination. Prosthetic procedures included single-tooth (ST) and CeraOne (CO) abutments supporting a porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM), all-ceramic (CER), or gold-acrylic (ACR) crown. Prosthetic survival, success, and occurrence of biological, technical, and aesthetic complications were obtained. Procedures were compared by log-rank tests.

Results: Fifty patients attended the examination. All implants were functional; however, 15% of abutments and 27% of crowns had been renewed. Replacements (1/4) were related to technical issues whereas the main cause was aesthetics. The abutment cumulative survival rate (CSR) differed significantly between ST-PFM (74%), ST-ACR (0%), and CO reconstructions (97%). The crown CSR was significantly lower for ST-ACR crowns (0%) compared with ST-PFM (68%) and CO (81%). Thirty-nine percent of implants remained complication free throughout the mean 18.5 years. Complications (1/3) required component replacement, and 53% occurred within 5 years after surgery.

Conclusion: Prosthetic survival rates of single implants are encouraging after 16 to 22 years. However, 66% of the patients encountered at least one complication during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12266DOI Listing
February 2016

Alterations in soft tissue levels and aesthetics over a 16-22 year period following single implant treatment in periodontally-healthy patients: a retrospective case series.

J Clin Periodontol 2013 Mar 9;40(3):311-8. Epub 2013 Jan 9.

Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Dental School, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.

Purpose: Long term studies on single implants are scarce and merely focus on clinical response parameters, complications and bone remodelling. The objective of this retrospective case series was to assess alterations in soft tissue levels and aesthetics over a 16-22 year period in periodontally-healthy patients.

Material And Methods: Patients who had received a single turned implant in the anterior maxilla/mandible at the Dental Specialist Clinic in Malmö between 1987 and 1993 were invited for a re-examination on the basis of a number of inclusion criteria. Both neighbouring teeth had to be present at re-examination and baseline clinical photographs (within the first year of function) had to be available for soft tissue evaluation. These photographs were superimposed onto final clinical photographs to assess longitudinal soft tissue alterations.

Results: Twenty-one patients (nine females; mean age 23, range 16-41) treated with 24 single implants met the criteria for soft tissue evaluation. Peri-implant soft tissue levels (papillae, midfacial level) remained stable over a 16-22 year observation period (p ≥ 0.372). However, neighbouring teeth demonstrated midfacial recession and eruption pointing to a major distortion with the implant crown (> 1 mm) in 5/24 (21%) and 10/24 (42%) of the cases, respectively. Baseline aesthetics was considered poor (mean Pink Esthetic Score 7.42, mean White Esthetic Score 5.43), yet a significant time effect could not be demonstrated (p ≥ 0.552). Implant and tooth bone loss was low (mean 0.6 mm and 0.4 mm, respectively) over a 16-22 year period.

Conclusions: This limited case series demonstrated stable peri-implant soft tissue levels and aesthetics in the long term following single implant treatment in periodontally-healthy patients. However, midfacial recession and eruption may be expected at neighbouring teeth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12049DOI Listing
March 2013

Long-term follow-up of turned single implants placed in periodontally healthy patients after 16 to 22 years: microbiologic outcome.

J Periodontol 2013 Jul 30;84(7):880-94. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Survival rates in implant dentistry today are high, although late failures do occur for many reasons, including peri-implant infections. The primary objective of this study is to investigate microbiota around single turned implants after 16 to 22 years. Secondary objectives are to compare teeth and implants and to correlate microbiologic, radiographic, and clinical parameters.

Methods: A total of 46 patients with single implants were invited for a clinical examination. Clinical data were collected from implants and contralateral natural teeth. Radiographic bone level was measured around implants. Microbiologic samples were taken from implants, contralateral teeth, and the deepest pocket per quadrant. Samples were analyzed with DNA-DNA hybridization including 40 species. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, McNemar tests, and Spearman correlation coefficients with a 0.05 significance level.

Results: Mean follow-up was 18.5 years (range 16 to 22 years). Tannerella forsythia (1.5 × 10(5)) and Veillonella parvula (1.02 × 10(5)) showed the highest concentrations around implants and teeth, respectively. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and T. forsythia were significantly more present around implants than teeth. Mean counts were significantly higher around implants than teeth for Parvimonas micra, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythia, and Treponema denticola. Total DNA count was correlated to interproximal bleeding index (r = 0.409) and interproximal probing depth (r = 0.307). No correlations were present with plaque index or radiographic bone level.

Conclusions: In the present study, bacterial counts around single implants in periodontally healthy patients are rather low. Although pathogenic bacteria are present, some in higher numbers around implants than teeth (five of 40), the majority of implants present with healthy peri-implant tissues without progressive bone loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1902/jop.2012.120187DOI Listing
July 2013

Implant periapical lesion. A case series report.

Swed Dent J 2009 ;33(2):49-58

Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden.

One complication in implant dentistry is the implant periapical lesion-IPL--which is a lesion around the apex of a stable implant diagnosed radiographically as a radioluscency in the bone at the apical part of an implant.The IPL can perform with or without clinical symptoms such as tenderness, swelling, suppuration and fistulation. This report describes 4 cases of IPL which were treated surgically with sectioning and removal of the affected portion of a stable implant and thorough debridement of the granulomatous tissue around it. This treatment was, up to 4 years after treatment, successful in all 4 cases. It can also from this report be concluded that IPL is a rather rare condition and that it can occur at any stage of implant treatment, in these cases from 4 months up to 11 years after implant installation. Finally there is a discussion about the aetiology of IPL and a comparison to findings in other reports on IPL and it is concluded that it is difficult to claim that there is a single cause to IPL. Rather it is evident that the condition might be a sequel of the summation of many possible causes.This summation exceeds the local biological threshold for the individual patient.
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September 2009