Publications by authors named "Jeho Jeong"

11 Publications

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The relative biological effectiveness of carbon ion radiation therapy for early stage lung cancer.

Radiother Oncol 2020 Dec 23;153:265-271. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA.

Background And Purpose: Carbon ion radiation therapy (CIRT) is recognized as an effective alternative treatment modality for early stage lung cancer, but a quantitative understanding of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photon therapy is lacking. In this work, a mechanistic tumor response model previously validated for lung photon radiotherapy was used to estimate the RBE of CIRT compared to photon radiotherapy, as a function of dose and the fractionation schedule.

Materials And Methods: Clinical outcome data of 9 patient cohorts (394 patients) treated with CIRT for early stage lung cancer, representing all published data, were included. Fractional dose, number of fractions, treatment schedule, and local control rates were used for model simulations relative to standard photon outcomes. Four parameters were fitted: α, α/β, and the oxygen enhancement ratios of cells either accessing only glucose, not oxygen (OER), or cells dying from starvation (OER). The resulting dose-response relationship of CIRT was compared with the previously determined dose-response relationship of photon radiotherapy for lung cancer, and an RBE of CIRT was derived.

Results: Best-fit CIRT parameters were: α = 1.12 Gy [95%-CI: 0.97-1.26], α/β = 23.9 Gy [95%-CI: 8.9-38.9], and the oxygen induced radioresistance of hypoxic cell populations were characterized by OER = 1.08 [95%-CI: 1.00-1.41] (cells lacking oxygen but not glucose), and OER = 1.01 [95%-CI: 1.00-1.44] (cells lacking oxygen and glucose). Depending on dose and fractionation, the derived RBE ranges from 2.1 to 1.5, with decreasing values for larger fractional dose and fewer number of fractions.

Conclusion: Fitted radiobiological parameters were consistent with known carbon in vitro radiobiology, and the resulting dose-response curve well-fitted the reported data over a wide range of dose-fractionation schemes. The same model, with only a few fitted parameters of clear mechanistic meaning, thus synthesizes both photon radiotherapy and CIRT clinical experience with early stage lung tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.09.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7770609PMC
December 2020

Preclinical murine platform to evaluate therapeutic countermeasures against radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 10 24;116(41):20672-20678. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Cancer, Biology, and Genetics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065;

Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) is a limiting factor for therapeutic abdominopelvic radiation and is predicted to be a major source of morbidity in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological terrorism. In this study, we developed an in vivo mouse-modeling platform that enables spatial and temporal manipulation of potential RIGS targets in mice following whole-abdomen irradiation without the confounding effects of concomitant hematopoietic syndrome that occur following whole-body irradiation. We then tested the utility of this platform to explore the effects of transient Wnt pathway activation on intestinal regeneration and animal recovery following induction of RIGS. Our results demonstrate that intestinal epithelial suppression of adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) mitigates RIGS lethality in vivo after lethal ionizing radiation injury-induced intestinal epithelial damage. These results highlight the potential of short-term Wnt agonism as a therapeutic target and establish a platform to evaluate other strategies to stimulate intestinal regeneration after ionizing radiation damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906611116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789742PMC
October 2019

A theoretical investigation of adequate range uncertainty margins in proton treatment planning to preserve tumor control probability.

Acta Oncol 2019 Oct 26;58(10):1446-1450. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , New York , NY , USA.

Proton dose distributions are sensitive to range uncertainties, resulting in margins added to ensure adequate tumor control probability (TCP). We investigated the required margin and dose shape needed to ensure adequate TCP, for representative tumor cell distributions in the clinical target volume (CTV). A mechanistic tumor response model, validated for lung tumors, was used to estimate TCP. The tumor cell distribution ( ) was assumed to decrease exponentially in the CTV with decay parameter toward the outer border ( ). It was investigated if a gradual dose fall-off could reduce the dose to normal tissues outside the CTV, while achieving adequate TCP. For various values of and we derived adequate uniform dose margins ( ), coupled to linear dose fall-off regions ( cm), that ensured while delivering the least mean dose outside the CTV. To account for variabilities in patients and tumor types, variable probabilities ( ) of finding tumor cells in the non-GTV part of the CTV for a given patient were also tested. Dose from a single beam or two opposing beams was simulated under the influence of a typical stopping power ratio uncertainty of 3.5%. For large and a dose distribution with a shallower dose fall-off ( ) was advantageous, and could be smaller than In the case of small values, however, a conventional dose distribution ( ) would generally perform better. For no CTV, cm in the case of two opposing beams, while it was 0.7 cm for a single beam, however, for two opposing beams cm ( cm), while it was zero for a single beam. The details of the underlying cancer cell distribution characteristics do impact the adequate dose arrangements, and for opposing beams a non-conventional dose distribution shape is often advantageous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2019.1627415DOI Listing
October 2019

Modeling the Cellular Response of Lung Cancer to Radiation Therapy for a Broad Range of Fractionation Schedules.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Sep 24;23(18):5469-5479. Epub 2017 May 24.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

To demonstrate that a mathematical model can be used to quantitatively understand tumor cellular dynamics during a course of radiotherapy and to predict the likelihood of local control as a function of dose and treatment fractions. We model outcomes for early-stage, localized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), by fitting a mechanistic, cellular dynamics-based tumor control probability that assumes a constant local supply of oxygen and glucose. In addition to standard radiobiological effects such as repair of sub-lethal damage and the impact of hypoxia, we also accounted for proliferation as well as radiosensitivity variability within the cell cycle. We applied the model to 36 published and two unpublished early-stage patient cohorts, totaling 2,701 patients. Precise likelihood best-fit values were derived for the radiobiological parameters: α [0.305 Gy; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.120-0.365], the α/β ratio (2.80 Gy; 95% CI, 0.40-4.40), and the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) value for intermediately hypoxic cells receiving glucose but not oxygen (1.70; 95% CI, 1.55-2.25). All fractionation groups are well fitted by a single dose-response curve with a high value, indicating consistency with the fitted model. The analysis was further validated with an additional 23 patient cohorts ( = 1,628). The model indicates that hypofractionation regimens overcome hypoxia (and cell-cycle radiosensitivity variations) by the sheer impact of high doses per fraction, whereas lower dose-per-fraction regimens allow for reoxygenation and corresponding sensitization, but lose effectiveness for prolonged treatments due to proliferation. This proposed mechanistic tumor-response model can accurately predict overtreatment or undertreatment for various treatment regimens. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-3277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5600831PMC
September 2017

Results of a 10-year survey of workload for 10 treatment vaults at a high-throughput comprehensive cancer center.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2017 May 19;18(3):207-214. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, York Ave, NY, USA.

The workload for shielding purposes of modern linear accelerators (linacs) consists of primary and scatter radiation which depends on the dose delivered to isocenter (cGy) and leakage radiation which depends on the monitor units (MUs). In this study, we report on the workload for 10 treatment vaults in terms of dose to isocenter (cGy), monitor units delivered (MUs), number of treatment sessions (Txs), as well as, use factors (U) and modulation factors (CI) for different treatment techniques. The survey was performed for the years between 2006 and 2015 and included 16 treatment machines which represent different generations of Varian linear accelerators (6EX, 600C, 2100C, 2100EX, and TrueBeam) operating at different electron and x-ray energies (6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electrons and, 6 and 15 MV x-rays). An institutional review board (IRB) approval was acquired to perform this study. Data regarding patient workload, dose to isocenter, number of monitor units delivered, beam energies, gantry angles, and treatment techniques were exported from an ARIA treatment management system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, Ca.) into Excel spreadsheets and data analysis was performed in Matlab. The average (± std-dev) number of treatment sessions, dose to isocenter, and number of monitor units delivered per week per machine in 2006 was 119 ± 39 Txs, (300 ± 116) × 10 cGys, and (78 ± 28) × 10 MUs respectively. In contrast, the workload in 2015 was 112 ± 40 Txs, (337 ± 124) × 10 cGys, and (111 ± 46) × 10 MUs. 60% of the workload (cGy) was delivered using 6 MV and 30% using 15 MV while the remaining 10% was delivered using electron beams. The modulation factors (MU/cGy) for IMRT and VMAT were 5.0 (± 3.4) and 4.6 (± 1.6) respectively. Use factors using 90° gantry angle intervals were equally distributed (~0.25) but varied considerably among different treatment techniques. The workload, in terms of dose to isocenter (cGy) and subsequently monitor units (MUs), has been steadily increasing over the past decade. This increase can be attributed to increased use of high dose hypo-fractionated regimens (SBRT, SRS) and the increase in use of IMRT and VMAT, which require higher MUs per cGy as compared to more conventional treatment (3DCRT). Meanwhile, the patient workload in terms of treatment sessions per week remained relatively constant. The findings of this report show that variables used for shielding purposes still fall within the recommendation of NCRP Report 151.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.12076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5689849PMC
May 2017

A radiobiological model of radiotherapy response and its correlation with prognostic imaging variables.

Phys Med Biol 2017 04 31;62(7):2658-2674. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Radiobiological models of tumour control probability (TCP) can be personalized using imaging data. We propose an extension to a voxel-level radiobiological TCP model in order to describe patient-specific differences and intra-tumour heterogeneity. In the proposed model, tumour shrinkage is described by means of a novel kinetic Monte Carlo method for inter-voxel cell migration and tumour deformation. The model captures the spatiotemporal evolution of the tumour at the voxel level, and is designed to take imaging data as input. To test the performance of the model, three image-derived variables found to be predictive of outcome in the literature have been identified and calculated using the model's own parameters. Simulating multiple tumours with different initial conditions makes it possible to perform an in silico study of the correlation of these variables with the dose for 50% tumour control ([Formula: see text]) calculated by the model. We find that the three simulated variables correlate with the calculated [Formula: see text]. In addition, we find that different variables have different levels of sensitivity to the spatial distribution of hypoxia within the tumour, as well as to the dynamics of the migration mechanism. Finally, based on our results, we observe that an adequate combination of the variables may potentially result in higher predictive power.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/aa5d42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5512557PMC
April 2017

Impact of source position on high-dose-rate skin surface applicator dosimetry.

Brachytherapy 2016 Sep-Oct;15(5):650-60. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Purpose: Skin surface dosimetric discrepancies between measured and treatment planning system predicted values were traced to source position sag inside the applicator and to source transit time. We quantified their dosimetric impact and propose corrections for clinical use.

Methods And Materials: We measured the dose profiles from the Varian Leipzig-style high-dose-rate (HDR) skin applicator, using EBT3 film, photon diode, and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter for three different GammaMedplus HDR afterloaders. The measured dose profiles at several depths were compared with BrachyVision Acuros calculated profiles. To assess the impact of the source sag, two different applicator orientations were considered. The dose contribution during source transit was assessed by comparing diode measurements using an HDR timer and an electrometer timer.

Results: Depth doses measured using the three dosimeters were in good agreement, but were consistently higher than the Acuros dose calculations. Measurements with the applicator face up were significantly (exceeding 10%) lower than those in the face down position, due to source sag inside the applicator. Based on the inverse square law, the effective source sag was evaluated to be about 0.5 mm from the planned position. The additional dose during source transit was evaluated to be about 2.8% for 30 seconds of treatment with a 40700 U (10 Ci) source.

Conclusion: With a very short source-to-surface distance, the small source sag inside the applicator has a significant dosimetric impact. This effect is unaccounted for in the vendor's treatment planning template and should be considered before the clinical use of the applicator. Further investigation of other applicators with large source lumen diameter may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2016.04.389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5499667PMC
July 2017

Reverse-Contrast Imaging and Targeted Radiation Therapy of Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Models.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015 Oct 9;93(2):444-53. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

Department of Medical Physics, MSKCC, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of delivering experimental radiation therapy to tumors in the mouse pancreas. Imaging and treatment were performed using combined CT (computed tomography)/orthovoltage treatment with a rotating gantry.

Methods And Materials: After intraperitoneal administration of radiopaque iodinated contrast, abdominal organ delineation was performed by x-ray CT. With this technique we delineated the pancreas and both orthotopic xenografts and genetically engineered disease. Computed tomographic imaging was validated by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Therapeutic radiation was delivered via a 1-cm diameter field. Selective x-ray radiation therapy of the noninvasively defined orthotopic mass was confirmed using γH2AX staining. Mice could tolerate a dose of 15 Gy when the field was centered on the pancreas tail, and treatment was delivered as a continuous 360° arc. This strategy was then used for radiation therapy planning for selective delivery of therapeutic x-ray radiation therapy to orthotopic tumors.

Results: Tumor growth delay after 15 Gy was monitored, using CT and ultrasound to determine the tumor volume at various times after treatment. Our strategy enables the use of clinical radiation oncology approaches to treat experimental tumors in the pancreas of small animals for the first time. We demonstrate that delivery of 15 Gy from a rotating gantry minimizes background healthy tissue damage and significantly retards tumor growth.

Conclusions: This advance permits evaluation of radiation planning and dosing parameters. Accurate noninvasive longitudinal imaging and monitoring of tumor progression and therapeutic response in preclinical models is now possible and can be expected to more effectively evaluate pancreatic cancer disease and therapeutic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4575601PMC
October 2015

Adaptation, Commissioning, and Evaluation of a 3D Treatment Planning System for High-Resolution Small-Animal Irradiation.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2016 06 6;15(3):460-71. Epub 2015 May 6.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Although spatially precise systems are now available for small-animal irradiations, there are currently limited software tools available for treatment planning for such irradiations. We report on the adaptation, commissioning, and evaluation of a 3-dimensional treatment planning system for use with a small-animal irradiation system. The 225-kV X-ray beam of the X-RAD 225Cx microirradiator (Precision X-Ray) was commissioned using both ion-chamber and radiochromic film for 10 different collimators ranging in field size from 1 mm in diameter to 40 × 40 mm(2) A clinical 3-dimensional treatment planning system (Metropolis) developed at our institution was adapted to small-animal irradiation by making it compatible with the dimensions of mice and rats, modeling the microirradiator beam orientations and collimators, and incorporating the measured beam data for dose calculation. Dose calculations in Metropolis were verified by comparison with measurements in phantoms. Treatment plans for irradiation of a tumor-bearing mouse were generated with both the Metropolis and the vendor-supplied software. The calculated beam-on times and the plan evaluation tools were compared. The dose rate at the central axis ranges from 74 to 365 cGy/min depending on the collimator size. Doses calculated with Metropolis agreed with phantom measurements within 3% for all collimators. The beam-on times calculated by Metropolis and the vendor-supplied software agreed within 1% at the isocenter. The modified 3-dimensional treatment planning system provides better visualization of the relationship between the X-ray beams and the small-animal anatomy as well as more complete dosimetric information on target tissues and organs at risk. It thereby enhances the potential of image-guided microirradiator systems for evaluation of dose-response relationships and for preclinical experimentation generally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533034615584522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823181PMC
June 2016

Modeling the relationship between fluorodeoxyglucose uptake and tumor radioresistance as a function of the tumor microenvironment.

Comput Math Methods Med 2014 8;2014:847162. Epub 2014 Sep 8.

The Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.

High fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake in tumors has often been correlated with increasing local failure and shorter overall survival, but the radiobiological mechanisms of this uptake are unclear. We explore the relationship between FDG-PET uptake and tumor radioresistance using a mechanistic model that considers cellular status as a function of microenvironmental conditions, including proliferating cells with access to oxygen and glucose, metabolically active cells with access to glucose but not oxygen, and severely hypoxic cells that are starving. However, it is unclear what the precise uptake levels of glucose should be for cells that receive oxygen and glucose versus cells that only receive glucose. Different potential FDG uptake profiles, as a function of the microenvironment, were simulated. Predicted tumor doses for 50% control (TD50) in 2 Gy fractions were estimated for each assumed uptake profile and for various possible cell mixtures. The results support the hypothesis of an increased avidity of FDG for cells in the intermediate stress state (those receiving glucose but not oxygen) compared to well-oxygenated (and proliferating) cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/847162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4172889PMC
June 2015

Estimate of the impact of FDG-avidity on the dose required for head and neck radiotherapy local control.

Radiother Oncol 2014 Jun 12;111(3):340-7. Epub 2014 May 12.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: Although FDG-avid tumors are recognized as a potential target for dose escalation, there is no clear basis for selecting a boost dose to counter this apparent radioresistance. Using a novel analysis method, based on the new concept of an outcome-equivalent dose, we estimate the extra dose required to equalize local control between FDG-avid and non-avid head and neck tumors.

Materials And Methods: Based on a literature review, five reports of head and neck cancer (423 patients in total), along with an internal validation dataset from our institution (135 oropharynx patients), were used in this analysis. To compensate for the heterogeneity among multi-institutional patient cohorts and corresponding treatment techniques, local control data of the cohorts were fit to a single dose-response curve with a clinically representative steepness (γ50=2), thereby defining an 'outcome-equivalent dose' (OED) for each institutional cohort. Separate dose-response curves were then determined for the FDG-avid and FDG-non-avid patient cohorts, and the ratio of TD50 (tumor dose required for 50% of control) values between the high- and low-FDG-uptake groups (TD50,high/TD50,low) was estimated, resulting in an estimated metabolic dose-modifying factor (mDMF) due to FDG-avidity.

Results: For individual datasets, the estimated mDMFs were found to be in the range of 1.07-1.62, decreasing if the assumed slope (γ50) increased. Weighted logistic regression for the six datasets resulted in a mDMF of 1.19 [95% CI: 1.04-1.34] for a γ50 value of 2, which translates to a needed dose increase of about 1.5Gy per unit increase in the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVm) of FDG-PET [95% CI: 0.3-2.7]. Assumptions of lower or higher γ50 values (1.5 or 2.5) resulted in slightly different mDMFs: 1.26 or 1.15, respectively. A validation analysis with seven additional datasets, based on relaxed criteria, was consistent with the estimated mDMF.

Conclusions: We introduced a novel outcome-equivalent dose analysis method to estimate the dose-response modifying effect of FDG uptake variation. To reach equal response rates, FDG-avid tumors are likely to require 10% to 30% more dose than FDG-non-avid tumors. These estimates provide a rational starting point for selecting IMRT boosts for FDG-avid tumors. However, independent tests and refinements of the estimated dose-modifying effect, using high-quality prospective clinical trial data, are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2014.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4822492PMC
June 2014