Publications by authors named "Jehan Bakht"

42 Publications

Antimicrobial efficacy and prevalence of colicinogenic E. coli in faecal matter of human, cow and sheep.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Jan 13;57(1):106221. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Colicinogenic Escherichia coli in the human or animal gut prevent pathogen accumulation, thereby protecting against severe gut infections. This ability of commensal human and animal E. coli to restrain Gram-negative pathogens was evaluated invitro. Approximately 13.2% of E. coli isolates inhibited the growth of target pathogens. The greatest inhibition of 36% was observed against E. coli O157:H7 followed by 35%, 27%, 24% and 13% inhibition against E. coli O26:H11, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. Detection of 20 colicin determinants in colicinogenic E. coli revealed that >50% isolates exhibited multiple colicin genes. Among all isolates, 70.4% of E. coli had the col E6 gene followed by col Ib (66.4%), E4 (53.6%), E7 (49.9%), J (35.3%) and M (35.2%) determinants. The frequency of col D (8.8%), Ia (27.9%), S4 (12%), E3 (13.2%) and E9 (2.9%) was greater in human samples compared with samples from cows and sheep, whereas col10 (5.8%) and E5 (4.4%) were produced only by cow-derived E. coli. Colicinogenic E. coli belonging to phylogenetic group B2 (52.8%) were more prevalent followed by D1 (16%), B1 (13.2%), A1 (11.6%) and A0 (5.8%). The 16S rRNA sequencing of all colicinogenic E. coli provided 27 non-clinical variants of E. coli that can be further explored for their probiotic properties to minimize risk of gut diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106221DOI Listing
January 2021

Antibacterial activity of the crude extracts from medicinally important Thuja occidentalis.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Mar;33(2):627-630

Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The present research was carried out at the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, KPK Pakistan. In this study crude methanolic extracts from Thuja occidentalis were tested for their antimicrobial activity against five different bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Xanthomonas sp. and Staphylococcus aureus) at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg/ml) using disc diffusion assay. The results showed that Klebsiella pneumoniae was most sensitive to crude extracted sample from leaves at both low and high concentrations measuring 37 and 57% zone of inhibition respectively and Xanthomonas and Staphylococcus aureus was found to be more resistant to the crude extracted samples from leaves at both concentrations. Similarly, Klebsiella pneumoniae was most sensitive to crude extracted samples from seeds at high concentration followed by E. coli at both concentrations. Staphylococcus aureus on the other hand was found to be more resistant to the crude extracted samples at low and high concentrations. These results suggested that extracts prepared from the leaves and seeds of Thuja occidentalis can be used as natural remedy for the treatment of various bacterial infections.
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March 2020

Antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracted samples from the leaves and fruits of Capsicum annuum.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Jan;33(1):27-32

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The current research describes the antimicrobial potential of methanol, n-hexane, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracted samples from the leaves and fruits tissues of Capsicum annuum. Different solvent extracted samples were screened against six pathogenic microorganisms including five bacterial and one fungal specie by disc diffusion susceptibility assay using 1, 2 and 3 mg disc-1 concentrations. When analyzed statistically the data showed that different solvent extracted samples from both leaves and fruits of Capsicum annuum revealed varying degrees of antibacterial and antifungal activities. n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracted fractions from both leaves and fruits showed significant inhibition of growth against all the tested microorganisms at 1, 2 and 3 mg disc concentrations. Escherichia coli were completely resistant to aqueous extracts obtained from the leaves at all the three concentrations. Klebsiella pneumonia was resistant to n-hexane extracted fraction from leaves at 1mg disc concentration, however, was susceptible at 2 and 3 mg disc concentrations. The growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were effectively inhibited by all the solvent extracted fractions from the fruits while aqueous fraction was not able to inhibit the growth of Bacillus subtilis. The growth of Candida albicans was effectively inhibited by ethyl acetate extracted fraction from leaves at 3 mg disc concentration.
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January 2020

Anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic activities of Tamarix dioica.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Sep;32(5):2083-2089

Department of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology Bannu, KPK, Pakistan.

Medicinal and aromatic plants contribute to major portion of the flora. The plant materials obtained from these plants are used in the pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and drug industries. Tamarix dioica is locally used in the management of splenic and hepatic inflammation as well as diuretic and carminative. It also possesses cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic activities of the crude methanolic extract from Tamarix dioica. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema and Xylene Induced Ear Edema methods. Pyrexia induction with Brewer's yeast assay was used to determine antipyretic activity and analgesic activity was estimated by acetic acid induced writhing and hot plate methods. The data indicated that anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic activities of the crude methanolic extract from Tamarix dioica was dose and time dependent when measured by different assays. Exposure of model animal to increasing concentrations of the plant extract for longer period increased their anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic activities. Significantly highest anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and analgesic activities were noted at highest doses of the crude methanolic extract for longer exposure compared with their respective controls.
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September 2019

GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds present in medicinally important Periploca hydaspidis.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jul;32(4):1615-1619

International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

The present study investigates the pharmaceutically bioactive compounds in Methanol, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracted samples from the root of Periploca hydaspidis through Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy analysis. The mass spectrum obtained was compared with the data base of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) which contains more than 62000 patterns of the mass spectrum. During matching with NIST library the match factor greater than 700 was considered only for better and pure results. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various important compounds in the extracts like Lupeol, Furanol, Decanal, Decanoic acid, Dioxane and Oxirane. Besides these compounds the analysis also revealed the presence of antibiotics, fatty acids and protein.
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July 2019

Bioinspired synthesis and characterization of gold nano-particles from medicinally important Periploca hydaspidis and their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 May;32(3):1069-1080

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

This research investigates the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles from Periploca hydaspidis and their antimicrobial and anti oxidant activity. The synthesis of AuNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and structure by a high resolution atomic force microscope. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy was used to study the crystallite size and different functional groups. DPPH radical scavenging activity and disc diffusion protocol was applied for the determination of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. A ratio of 1:8 of 1mM AuCl solutions with plant boiled extract used for synthesis of gold nano-particles. The formation of the gold nano-particles was determined by the color change from yellow to dark purple which were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Gold nano-particles were stable between 24°C and 39°C, mM concentration of the salt and neutral pH. The groups responsible for the synthesis of gold nano-paricles were Alkenes and aliphatic amines. The AuNP were cubic in nature and the nanocrystallite size was 6.99nm. Gold nano-particles revealed good antioxidant activity and controlled the growth of K. pnemoniae, E. coli, X. compestris, C. albicans and P. chrysogenum.
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May 2019

In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of different solvent extracted samples from medicinally important Litsea glutinosa.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Mar;32(2):515-519

Department of Botany, Islamia College Peshawar, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The present research work investigate the antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extracted samples from the leaves of Litsea glutinosa against different microorganisms through disc diffusion assay applied in two different concentrations of 1 and 2mg disc1. The tested microbial species included B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and C. albicans. The crude methanolic extract was applied in two different concentrations of 1 and 2mg disc1. Analysis of the data revealed that crude methanolic extracted samples showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities against all the tested microbes at both concentrations. Maximum growth inhibition was measured against gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by the fungal specie Candida albicans. In case of Petroleum extracted fractions maximum growth reduction was measured in Candida albicans at higher concentration. Similarly, growth inhibition was more in Pseudomonas aeruginosa at higher concentration of aqueous extracted samples. Different solvent extracted samples showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins, fats, oils, tannins, carbohydrates, sterols and saponins.
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March 2019

Huperzine-A response to cognitive impairment and task switching deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

J Chin Med Assoc 2019 Jan;82(1):40-43

Department of Applied Psychology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Background: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is associated with cognitive decline due to various pathological mechanisms. There are several acetylcholinesterase inhibitor compounds which can improve cognition, but Huperzine-A is a natural sesquiterpene alkaloid extracted from Chinese herb (Huperzia Serrata) which has rapid action.

Methods: Double blind study was conducted. Participants included 50 patients with AD and 50 healthy individuals. Patients were recruited from Civil and BV hospital Bahawalpur and Nishter hospital Multan, Pakistan during May 2017 until February 2018 who were stable on Huperzine-A medication. Patients were tested twice. First, at the time of diagnosis to determine baseline scores. Second, post eight weeks of Huperzine-A treatment. Healthy individuals had single testing session. Participants completed Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination and Trail Making Test.

Results: Patients with AD showed cognitive and task switching deficits in contrast with healthy individuals. There was significant improvement in cognition and task switching abilities post Huperzine-A treatment compared with baseline performance.

Conclusion: Huperzine-A is effective in reducing cognitive and task switching deficits in patients with AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcma.2018.07.004DOI Listing
January 2019

Effect of different solvent extracted samples from the leaves and fruits of Datura stramonium on the growth of bacteria and fungi.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jan;32(1):177-184

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

Different solvent extracted samples from the leaves and fruits tissues of D. stramonium were tested against five pathogenic microorganisms by disc diffusion susceptibility method using 1, 2 and 3mg disc concentrations. Methanol and chloroform extracted fractions from both leaves and fruits measured good growth inhibition of all the tested microorganisms at all concentrations. Bacillus subtilis was very resistant to n-butanol and aqueous extracted fractions of fruits tissues at all the tested three concentrations. The growths of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pnuemonia were efficiently reduced by all the solvent extracted fractions from the fruits while aqueous fraction was unable to restrain the growth of Bacillus subtilis. The growth of Candida albicans was effectively reduced by aqueous extracted fraction from the leaves tissue at the highest concentration. Maximum growth reduction of (77%) was shown by chloroform extracted fractions from the leaves against Klebsiella pneumonia at 3mg disc-1 concentration. Minimum zone of inhibition (35.4%) was measured by n-butanol extracted fractions from the leaves against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the lowest concentrations of 1mg disc. In case of leaves the most vulnerable bacteria was Bacillus subtilis while in case of fruits Klebsiella pneumonia was the most susceptible while Bacillus subtilis was the most resistant one.
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January 2019

In vitro antibacterial activity and phyto-chemistry of samples from the roots of Viola pilosa.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Nov;31(6):2523-2527

Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

Anti-microbial activity and phytochemical analysis of samples from the roots of Viola pilosa was studied against six strains of bacteria. Data indicated that the tested bacterial strain differed in its sensitivity to the root extracts of Viola pilosa. The results showed that Xanthomonas campestris, Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus were more susceptible to butanol extracted fraction. S. aureus was totally resistant to aqueous extracted fraction at all concentrations and .Xanthomonas campestris and Bacillus subtilis were least susceptible to the same fraction at 0.5 mg disc. Similarly, ethyl acetate at 2 mg disc concentrations was effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Klebsiella pneumoniae was completely resistant to all the tested concentrations. Phytochemical analysis of the different solvent extracted samples suggested the presence or absence of different various metabolites including alkaloids, saponins, tannins, sterols, flavonoids, protein, carbohydrates and fats.
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November 2018

Extraction and isolation of important bioactive compounds from the fruit of Physalis ixocarpa.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Nov;31(6):2463-2469

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The current study investigates pharmaceutically important bioactive compounds in the fruits of Physalis ixocarpa. Two different extractions methods were used to study its effect on percent extract yield, recovery of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The data indicated that Soxhlet extraction had high efficiency of recovery than maceration method for extracting compounds; percent extract yield and antioxidant activity of the extracts. In maceration, the percent extract yield was found to be in order of water >methanol >ethyl acetate whereas in Soxhlet extraction, it was in order of methanol >water >ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate extract produced by Soxhlet extraction showed strong antioxidant activity of 59.7% (250ppm) as compared to other extracts. Analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of Triglyceride. GC-MS study of triglyceride revealed the presence of trilinoleinic acid (9,12-Octadecdienoic acid), tripalmitin (hexadecanoic acid) and trioleinic acid (9-Octa decenoic acid). Four impure and three pure compounds were isolated from crude methanol extract of the fruit. The structure of pure compounds were identified by NMR and characterized as sugar, glucose and fructose.
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November 2018

GC-MS profile of bioactive compounds from medicinally important Periploca hydaspidis.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Sep;31(5):1967-1973

HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

The aim of the present study was to investigate bioactive compounds in different solvent extracted samples from the stem tissues of P. hydaspidis using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy techniques. GC-mass spectrum was compared with the data base of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) containing more than 62000 patterns of the mass spectrum. During matching with NIST library the match factor greater than 700 was considered only for better and pure results. The results revealed that different solvent extracted samples analyzed through GC-MS contained appreciable quantities of different bioactive molecules including antibiotics, fatty acids and protein which have important pharmacological significance.
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September 2018

Impact of different solvent extracts from leaves and fruits of Eucalyptus globulus on growth of different bacteria and fungi.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Sep;31(5):1845-1852

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar KPK, Pakistan.

The present research investigates the antimicrobial activities of the samples extracted from the leaves and fruits of Eucalyptus globulus through disc diffusion susceptibility assay using 1, 2 and 3mg disc-1 concentrations. Different extracted samples from the leaves and fruits of Eucalyptus globulus exhibited different degrees of antimicrobial. The data indicated that n-butanol and ethyl acetate extracted fraction of both the leaves and fruits inhibited the growth of all microorganisms at all the tested concentrations. Aqueous extracted sample of the leaves inhibited the growth of Candida albicans while the same fraction from the fruits showed no activity against Bacillus subtilis at any concentration. N-hexane extracted samples of the leaves inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the tested concentrations while no activity was recorded against Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida albicans and Stephylococcus aureus. N-butanol extracted samples from the leaves and fruits showed activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the tested concentrations. In case of leaves, the most susceptible bacteria was Bacillus subtilis (gram positive) and Stephylococcus aureus (gram positive) was the most resistant one. In case of fruits the most susceptible bacteria was Stephylococcus aureus (gram positive) and E. coli (Gram negative) was the most resistant one.
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September 2018

Antinociceptive, antimicrobial potential and phytochemical screening of different solvent extracted samples from the stem of Acer pentapomicum.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Jul;31(4(Supplementary)):1457-1461

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture. Peshawar. KPK. Pakistan.

The present study investigates the antinociceptive, antimicrobial activity and phytochemical assessment of samples from A. pentapomicum. Different microbes were tested using disc diffusion assay at three concentrations (1, 2 and 3 mg/disc). Antinociceptive activity was determined by acetic acid induced and hot plate methods. The tested plant extracts revealed significant antinociceptive activity at dose dependent manner when measured by acetic acid induced method. The growth of all the tested microbes was inhibited by methanol, butanol, and ethyl acetate extracted samples at all concentrations. Chloroform, n-hexane and aqueous extracts inhibited the growth of the different microbes at high concentration. The most susceptible microbe was P. aeruginosa measuring 94% and 79% zone of inhibition by butanol and ethyl acetate extracts at 3mg /disc. C. fruendii, however, was the most resistant bacterium followed by S. aureus. The presence of alkaloids, proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and fats were confirmed in phytochemical screening of different extracts.
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July 2018

Green synthesis and characterization of silver nano-particles from pharmaceutically important Periploca hydaspidis and their biological activity.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Jul;31(4):1267-1277

HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

The present study describes the synthesis, characterization of nano-particles from Periploca hyaspidis and their in vitro biological activity. The synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and structure by atomic force microscope. The crystallite size and different functional groups was determined by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activity was carried out by disc diffusion and DPPH radical scavenging protocol respectively. Silver nano-particles (AgNPs) were synthesized by mixing 1mM AgNO3 solutions with plant boiled extract in 1:9. The color change from yellow to dark brown indicated the synthesis of the nano-particles. The AgNPs were more stable at 25°C to 45°C, 1mM concentration of the salt and neutral to slightly basic pH. The results revealed that aromatic amines were responsible for the synthesis of AgNPs. The crystallite size was 7.50 nm, cubic and in nanorgime. AgNPs showed good anti-oxidant activity and was effective against K. pnemoniae, E. coli, X. compestris, C. albicans and P. chrysogenum.
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July 2018

Phytochemical analysis, phytotoxic and insecticidal activities of medicinally important Periploca hydaspidis.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 May;31(3):841-849

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The present study investigates the phyto-chemical analysis, phytotoxic activity and insecticidal activity of the stem and root tissues of medicinally important Periploca hydaspidis. All the extracted samples exhibited the phytotoxic activity. The data confirmed that water was the best solvent to extract the phytotoxic compounds from stem and root tissues. Roots extracted with different solvents exhibited better phytotoxic potential than samples obtained from the stem tissues. Samples extracted in methanol and water from both stems and roots tissues were active against the subject insects while hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracted samples in both parts exhibited no insecticidal activity. Water extracted samples of the stem and root exhibited better insecticidal activity compared with methanol extracted samples. Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica were more sensitive in both the cases than Callosobruchus maculates. The plant contained alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrate, proteins and saponins.
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May 2018

Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of different solvent extracted samples of Arisaema jacquemontii.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Jan;31(1):75-81

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The current research was carried out to assess the antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of the methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol soluble fractions and aqueous extracts of the tubers of Arisaema jacquemontii. All the extracts were tested for their antibacterial potential at 1, 2 and 3 mg disc concentrations against 6 bacterial strains through disc diffusion suseptibility assay. The data suggested that different extracts showed varying degree of growth inhibition against the tested microbes. Statistical analysis revealed that n-hexane and ethyl acetate soluble fractions significantly inhibited the growth of all the bacterial strains at the tested concentrations. Moderate activities were recorded for n-butanol and methanolic extracted samples at different concentrations against all the tested strains of bacteria. P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and X. campestris showed resistance to all the tested concentrations of the aqueous extract. B. subtilis and K. pneumoniae were resistant at 1 and 2 mg disc-1 concentrations of the aqueous extract and 3 mg disc-1 of the same extract reduced the growth of the same bacteria. Phytochemical analysis of the different solvent extracted samples suggested the presence or absence of various metabolites including alkaloids, saponins, tannins, sterols, flavonoids, protein, carbohydrates and fats.
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January 2018

Characterization of pathogens involved in ventilator associated pneumonia in surgical and medical intensive care units - A single center experience.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Nov;30(6):2091-2099

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan.

In the present study 60 samples were collected from lower respiratory tract of patients suffering from Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) admitted in surgical and medical Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. Recovered pathogens were characterized and their susceptibility pattern against commonly used antibacterial agents investigated. Most frequent bacterial pathogen found was methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (40%) followed by members of Enterobacteriaceae (22%; of which Escherichia coli (50%), Klebsiella pneumonia (30%), Enterobacter cloacae (10%) and Citrobacter freundii (10%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20% and Acinetobacter baumannii 18%. Majority of the specimens yielded polymicrobial growth (85.75% polymicrobial growth compared to 14.25% specimens yielding monomicrobial growth). The susceptibility pattern showed that A. baumannii was the most resistant bacterial pathogen. Based on the results of susceptibility pattern obtained in the present study, combination of linezolid with meropenem and colistin has been found to be the best combination option for empirical therapy for VAP pathogens in this region.
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November 2017

Report - Screening of medicinally important Berberis lyceum for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion assay.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Sep;30(5):1783-1789

Department of Botany, Islamia College Peshawar KPK, Pakistan.

The present research was focused on the anti-microbial activities of different solvent extracted fractions from commercial available and fresh plants of Berberis lyceum against Gram positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi using 1 and 2 mg disc concentrations. Our results showed that fractions from both sources revealed different degree of antimicrobial activities. Our result indicated that Escherichia coli, Citorbacter freundii and Candida albicans were more susceptible to crude methanolic extract and the same microbes were resistant to water extracted fractions. Similarly, maximum reduction in the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Xanthomonas campestris was measured by hexane-extracted fractions and minimum growth inhibition by water-extracted fractions. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were more susceptible to ethyl acetate fraction. Majority of the tested microbes were resistant to water and butanol extracted samples. Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible gram-positive bacteria and Bacillus subtilis was resistant one. Among Gram-negative bacteria, Citorbacter freundii showed maximum susceptibility while Xanthomonas campestris revealed resistivity.
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September 2017

Synthesis of secondary metabolites by Cladosporium resinae (NRL-6437) under different growth media and chemical inducers and their pharmaceutical activity.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Sep;30(5):1617-1624

Alvi-armani, 2680 Matheson Blvd. East, Suite 102, Mississauga, ON L4W 0A5, Canada.

The role of different growth media and chemical enhancer on synthesis of secondary metabolites Cladosporium resinae (NRL-6437) was investigated for their in vitro biological activities. Cladosporium resinae (NRL-6437) were grown in various nutrient media (Czapeak-dox Broth (CB), Czapeak Yeast-extract Broth (CYB), Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES), Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and Czapeak-dox (supplemented with glucose and starch) Broth (CGSB) for the production of metabolites. Two chemical epigenetic modifiers (suberoyl-anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) were also used for the expression of silent genes for secondary metabolite production. Our results indicated that among different media, Czapeak yeast extract broth produced more secondary metabolites. Application of 15mM of both modifiers was effective for the expressions of silent genes resulting in an increased metabolites production. Secondary metabolites extracted in ethyl acetate and fractionized in n-Hexane were also tested for their biological activity. The secondary metabolites revealed varying degrees of growth inhibitions of the tested organisms. Similarly, these metabolites were also active against brine shrimps and Lemna.
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September 2017

Fractionation of crude extracts from controlled dried and commercially available stem bark of Juglans regia and their antimicrobial effects.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Sep;30(5):1581-1588

Department of Botany, Islamia College, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The current research investigates the anti-microbial activities of methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane , n-butanol and water extracted samples from controlled dried and commercial bark of walnut (Juglans regia) against five bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacilus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and one fungal pathogenic specie (Candida albicans) by discs diffusion susceptibility assay using 0.5 and 1mg disc- concentrations. Our results revealed that all the extracts from controlled dried and commercial bark of walnut showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activities. Ethyl acetate fraction from both sources exhibited maximum activity against all tested microbial species followed by n-butanol and crude methanolic extraxt. N-hexane and aqueous extracted samples from controlled dried bark reduced the growth of all studied microbes except Staphylococcus aureus in case of commercial available bark. Aqueous extracted sample showed inhibitory effects against all tested microbes except Candida albicans respectively in case of commercial bark. The most susceptible gram positive bacteria were S. aureus while Bacillus subtilis was the most resistant one. Among Gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most susceptibility while Klebsella pneumonia showed some resistively. Compared to commercial bark samples, controlled dried bark extract and fractions were found to be more active in reducing the growth of all the tested microbes at both concentrations.
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September 2017

In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of different solvent extracted samples from the stem of Euphorbia heliscopia.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Jul;30(4):1371-1376

Department of Botany, Islamia College, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

This paper presents the anti-microbial potentials of methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, butanol and water extracted samples from the stem of Euphorbia heliscopia against S. aureus (Gram positive), B. subtilis (Gram positive), P. aeruginosa (Gram negative), K. pneumonia (Gram negative), E. coli (Gram negative), C. albicans (fungal specie) by discs diffusion susceptibility assay using 0.5 and 1mg disc concentrations. Our results showed that all the extracted samples from the stem of E. heliscopia exhibited varying degree of antimicrobial activity. Ethyl acetate extracted samples measured maximum activity against the studies microbial species followed by the n-butanol and crude methanolic extract. n-hexane extracted samples inhibited the growth of all microbial species except P. aeruginosa and E. coli at lower concentration. Aqueous fractions showed inhibitory activity against B. subtilis, K. pneumonia and C. albicans. The most susceptible gram positive bacteria were S. aureus while B. subtilis was the most resistant one. Among Gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa showed more susceptibility while K. pneumonia was resistant.
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July 2017

Screening of leaves extracts from Calamus aromaticus for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion assay.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 May;30(3):793-800

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture Peshawar KPK Pakistan.

The current research investigates the anti-microbial activities of different solvent extracted samples from the leaves of Calamus aromaticus against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi using 500, 1000 and 2000 μg disc concentrations. Escherichia coli, Citorbacter freundii and Candida albicans showed resistivity to crude methanolic extract and the same microbes were more susceptible to water extracted fractions. Maximum activity was measured by hexane extracted fractions against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Xanthomonas campestris and minimum growth inhibition by water extracted fractions. Maximum growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus was measured by ethyl acetate fraction. Majority of the tested microbes were resistant to water and butanol extracted fractions. Staphylococcus aureus revealed maximum susceptibility among gram positive bacteria and Bacillus subtilis showed minimum. Among Gram negative bacteria, Citorbacter freundii was more susceptibile while Xanthomonas campestris revealed resistively.
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May 2017

Antimicrobial, antioxidant potential and phytochemical screening of Fagonia olivieri.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 May;30(3):697-703

Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Bannu, KPK Pakistan.

The present paper investigates antioxidant, antimicrobial and photochemical screening different extracts of Fagonia olivieri. Analysis of the data indicated that the subject plant contained a good amount of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids. Maximum concentrations of phenolic compounds was found in methanol fraction (29.0±6.12 mg GAE/g) while minimum (22.10±6.31mg GAE/g) in methylated spirit fraction. Similarly, ethanol fraction contained higher concentration of flavonoid content (135.4±7.63mg Quercetin/g) followed by methanol fraction (138.4±2.96 mg Quercetin/g). Analysis of the data revealed that maximum antioxidant activity was recorded in mthylated spirit fraction (IC= 10.69±1.66) followed by methanol fraction (IC= 9.10±0.76) while no activity was noted in hexane fraction. The data indicated good antibacterial and antifungal activity against S. typhi, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and A. flavus.
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May 2017

Screening of Aerva javanica and Linum ustitatissimum for their anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant activity.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Jan;30(1):67-73

Department of Chemistry, Bacha Khan University Charsadda, KPK, Pakistan.

The present study investigates anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant potentials of the aerial parts of Aerva javanica and seeds of Linum ustitatissimum. Our results revealed that maximum antioxidant activity was found in hexane fractions of both plants. Linum ustitatissimum recorded maximum antioxidant value of 15.77mmol/L while Aerva javanica had antioxidant activity of 16.07mmol/L. Anti-diabetic activities were also evaluated using normal rats, induced diabetic (untreated) rats and treated diabetic rats. Aerva javanica revealed a significant potential in decreasing blood glucose level to 77.08mg/dl and body weight 76.30mg/kg while Linum ustitatissimum reduced blood glucose level to 84.20mg/dl and body weight 83.090mg/kg. From these results it can be concluded that both plants possesses anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant activity.
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January 2017

Antioxidant activity and nutritional assessment of under-utilized medicinal plants.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2016 Nov;29(6):2039-2045

Department of Maths, Stats and Computer Science, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK Pakistan.

The present study investigates the nutritive and anti-nutritive composition of six species (Allium porrum, Amaranthus spinosis, Apium graveolens, Caralluma edulis, Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica). The studied species contained considerable amount of crude protein (4.53-11.41%), crude fat (1.25-3.74%), vitamin C (7.85-28.09mg 100 g) and β-Carotene (18.29-169.33mg 100g). The mineral profile of Chenopodium album is considered as potential source of Zn (14.51±1.14mg 100-1g), Mn (67.71±0.85mg 100g), Se (8.45±0.49mg 100g) and Fe (182.08±1.52mg 100-1g) and Caralluma edulis as potential source of Fe (7.28± 0.03mg 100g). Ca and P content ranged 63-306mg 100 g and 12-392mg 100 g in all studied plants with exceptionally high level was found in Chenopodium album (1084mg 100-1g) and (3924mg 100g), respectively. Similarly, total phenol, tannin and phytic acid were found in the range of 105-354, 5-90 and 10-85mg 100g, respectively. Total oxalates and soluble oxalates contents were below 200mg 100g in five examined plants with the exception of Chenopodium album (413mg 100g). Antioxidant activity of Caralluma edulis was found maximum while the rest of the examined plants had moderate levels.
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November 2016

Role of growth media and chemical enhancers in secondary metabolites production from Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) and their pharmaceutical potentials.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2016 Jul;29(4):1223-30

Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, KPK Pakistan.

The present study investigates the effect of different growth media and chemical enhancer on silent genes in Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) for secondary metabolites production and its in vitro biological activities. Results revealed that Aspergillus carbonarius (NRL-369) grown in Czapeak yeast extract broth medium produced more metabolites compared with other media. Chemical epigenetic modifiers (suberoyl-anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) at concentration of 15mM were effective for the expression of silent genes resulting in increased secondary metabolites production. Secondary metabolites extracted in ethyl acetate and fractionized in n-Hexane showed variable degree of growth inhibitions of the tested microorganisms. Similarly, these samples were also active against brine shrimps and Lemna.
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July 2016

Antimicrobial potentials and phytochemical analysis of desert cotton (A. Javanica) and flax (L. Ustitatissimum).

Pak J Pharm Sci 2016 May;29(3):861-8

Department of Weed Science, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The present study reveals antimicrobial potentials and phytochemical analysis of A. javanica and L. ustitatissimum. Phytochemical analysis indicated that the tested plants contained a substantial amount of flavonoids, terpenoids and steroids while saponins and tannins were absent in L. ustitatissimum, however, tannins were present in A. javanica. L. ustitatissimum contained maximum total phenolic content of 166.36mg/g in methylated spirit fraction while its ethyl acetate fraction contained highest quantity of flavonoids 27.6mg/g in case of Aerva javanica. Antimicrobial potentials of the subject plants revealed that L. ustitatissimum had maximum antibacterial activity (MIC=4.33μg/ml) while A. javanica was most effective against fungal strains (MIC=2.66μg/ml).
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May 2016

Antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracted samples from Physalis ixocarpa.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2016 Mar;29(2):467-75

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

The present study investigates the antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracted samples isolated from different parts of Physalis ixocarpa through disc diffusion assay using three different concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that different parts of the plant showed varying degree of inhibition against different bacteria at different concentrations. Different solvent extracted samples from the calyx showed inhibitory activity against most of the bacteria under study. Extracts from leaf and fruit samples showed activity against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae and extracts from the stem tissues were effective to control the growth of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Crude methanolic extract from the stem and n-butanol extracted samples from fruit exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae at highest concentrations. Antifungal activity was observed only in crude methanol extract from the leaf against Rhizopus stolinifer, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum.
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March 2016

In vitro antimicrobial activities of different solvent extracted samples from Iris germinica.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2016 Jan;29(1):145-50

Department of Agriculture, University of Haripur, KPK, Pakistan.

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of different solvents extracted samples of Iris germinica were carried out through disc diffusion assay. For this purpose five different solvent extracts were prepared with two concentrations (1 and 2 mg disc(-1)) and their antimicrobial activity was tested using disc diffusion assay against eight pathogenic bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, B. subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Erwinia carotovara, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and one fungal specie (Candida albicans). Butanol and ethyl acetate fraction were more effective to control the growth of different pathogens followed by chloroform, hexane and aqueous fractions respectively. C. albicans, S. aureus E. carotovara, B. atrophaeus and E. coli were comparatively susceptible inhibited by all extracts of I. germinica compared with the rest of microbes. Maximum activity was shown by ethyl acetate extracted samples against B. atrophaeus followed by the same solvent against E. carotovara. Butanol extracted samples were effective against B. subtilis showing 62% reduction in growth at 1 or 2mg disc(-1) concentration. From these results it can be concluded that different solvent extracted samples from the leaves of I. germinica possess varying degree of antimicrobial against different micro-organisms and can be a good sources of antibiotics for the treatment of certain bacterial and fungal diseases.
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January 2016