Publications by authors named "Jeffrey Stanton"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The human IL-15 superagonist N-803 promotes migration of virus-specific CD8+ T and NK cells to B cell follicles but does not reverse latency in ART-suppressed, SHIV-infected macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2020 03 12;16(3):e1008339. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Vaccine & Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America.

Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to halt viral replication and slow disease progression, this treatment is not curative and there remains an urgent need to develop approaches to clear the latent HIV reservoir. The human IL-15 superagonist N-803 (formerly ALT-803) is a promising anti-cancer biologic with potent immunostimulatory properties that has been extended into the field of HIV as a potential "shock and kill" therapeutic for HIV cure. However, the ability of N-803 to reactivate latent virus and modulate anti-viral immunity in vivo under the cover of ART remains undefined. Here, we show that in ART-suppressed, simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)SF162P3-infected rhesus macaques, subcutaneous administration of N-803 activates and mobilizes both NK cells and SHIV-specific CD8+ T cells from the peripheral blood to lymph node B cell follicles, a sanctuary site for latent virus that normally excludes such effector cells. We observed minimal activation of memory CD4+ T cells and no increase in viral RNA content in lymph node resident CD4+ T cells post N-803 administration. Accordingly, we found no difference in the number or magnitude of plasma viremia timepoints between treated and untreated animals during the N-803 administration period, and no difference in the size of the viral DNA cell-associated reservoir post N-803 treatment. These results substantiate N-803 as a potent immunotherapeutic candidate capable of activating and directing effector CD8+ T and NK cells to the B cell follicle during full ART suppression, and suggest N-803 must be paired with a bona fide latency reversing agent in vivo to facilitate immune-mediated modulation of the latent viral reservoir.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093032PMC
March 2020

Viral opportunistic infections in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation mirror human transplant infectious disease complications.

Xenotransplantation 2020 07 13;27(4):e12578. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and xenotransplantation are accompanied by viral reactivations and virus-associated complications resulting from immune deficiency. Here, in a Mauritian cynomolgus macaque model of fully MHC-matched allogeneic HSCT, we report reactivations of cynomolgus polyomavirus, lymphocryptovirus, and cytomegalovirus, macaque viruses analogous to HSCT-associated human counterparts BK virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human cytomegalovirus. Viral replication in recipient macaques resulted in characteristic disease manifestations observed in HSCT patients, such as polyomavirus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis or lymphocryptovirus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. However, in most cases, the reconstituted immune system, alone or in combination with short-term pharmacological intervention, exerted control over viral replication, suggesting engraftment of functional donor-derived immunity. Indeed, the donor-derived reconstituted immune systems of two long-term engrafted HSCT recipient macaques responded to live attenuated yellow fever 17D vaccine (YFV 17D) indistinguishably from untransplanted controls, mounting 17D-targeted neutralizing antibody responses and clearing YFV 17D within 14 days. Together, these data demonstrate that this macaque model of allogeneic HSCT recapitulates clinical situations of opportunistic viral infections in transplant patients and provides a pre-clinical model to test novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/xen.12578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354885PMC
July 2020

Single-dose bNAb cocktail or abbreviated ART post-exposure regimens achieve tight SHIV control without adaptive immunity.

Nat Commun 2020 01 7;11(1):70. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Vertical transmission accounts for most human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children, and treatments for newborns are needed to abrogate infection or limit disease progression. We showed previously that short-term broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) therapy given 24 h after oral exposure cleared simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in a macaque model of perinatal infection. Here, we report that all infants given either a single dose of bNAbs at 30 h, or a 21-day triple-drug ART regimen at 48 h, are aviremic with almost no virus in tissues. In contrast, bNAb treatment beginning at 48 h leads to tight control without adaptive immune responses in half of animals. We conclude that both bNAbs and ART mediate effective post-exposure prophylaxis in infant macaques within 30-48 h of oral SHIV exposure. Our findings suggest that optimizing the treatment regimen may extend the window of opportunity for preventing perinatal HIV infection when treatment is delayed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13972-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946664PMC
January 2020

Blood and Blood Product Conservation: Results of Strategies to Improve Clinical Outcomes in Open Heart Surgery Patients at a Tertiary Hospital.

J Extra Corpor Technol 2017 12;49(4):273-282

Sutter Health Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, Oakland, California.

Blood product usage is a quality outcome for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. To address an increase in blood product usage since the discontinuation of aprotinin, blood conservation strategies were initiated at a tertiary hospital in Oakland, CA. Improving transfusion rates for open heart surgery patients requiring Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) involved multiple departments in coordination. Specific changes to conserve blood product usage included advanced CPB technology upgrades, and precise individualized heparin dose response titration assay for heparin and protamine management. Retrospective analysis of blood product usage pre-implementation, post-CPB changes and post-Hemostasis Management System (HMS) implementation was done to determine the effectiveness of the blood conservation strategies. Statistically significant decrease in packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelet usage over the stepped implementation of both technologies was observed. New oxygenator and centrifugal pump technologies reduced active circuitry volume and caused less damage to blood cells. Individualizing heparin and protamine dosing to a patient using the HMS led to transfusion reductions as well. Overall trends toward reductions in hospital length of stay and intensive care unit stay, and as a result, blood product cost and total hospitalization cost are positive over the period of implementation of both CPB circuit changes and HMS implementation. Although they are multifactorial in nature, these trends provide positive enforcement to the changes implemented.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5737420PMC
December 2017

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in fully MHC-matched Mauritian cynomolgus macaques recapitulates diverse human clinical outcomes.

Nat Commun 2017 11 10;8(1):1418. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, 505 NW 185th Avenue, Beaverton, OR, 97006, USA.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a critically important therapy for hematological malignancies, inborn errors of metabolism, and immunodeficiency disorders, yet complications such as graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD) limit survival. Development of anti-GvHD therapies that do not adversely affect susceptibility to infection or graft-vs.-tumor immunity are hampered by the lack of a physiologically relevant, preclinical model of allogeneic HSCT. Here we show a spectrum of diverse clinical HSCT outcomes including primary and secondary graft failure, lethal GvHD, and stable, disease-free full donor engraftment using reduced intensity conditioning and mobilized peripheral blood HSCT in unrelated, fully MHC-matched Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques. Anti-GvHD prophylaxis of tacrolimus, post-transplant cyclophosphamide, and CD28 blockade induces multi-lineage, full donor chimerism and recipient-specific tolerance while maintaining pathogen-specific immunity. These results establish a new preclinical allogeneic HSCT model for evaluation of GvHD prophylaxis and next-generation HSCT-mediated therapies for solid organ tolerance, cure of non-malignant hematological disease, and HIV reservoir clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01631-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5681693PMC
November 2017

Ventricular Parasystole in a Neonatal Rhesus Macaque ().

Comp Med 2016 12;66(6):489-493

Division of Comparative Medicine, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, Oregon.

A 6-d-old Indian-origin female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) presented with bradycardia shortly after sedation with ketamine. No other cardiac abnormalities were apparent. Approximately 2 wk after the initial presentation, the macaque was again bradycardic and exhibited a regularly irregular arrhythmia on a prestudy examination. ECG, echocardiography, blood pressure measurement, SpO2 assessment, and a CBC analysis were performed. The echocardiogram and bloodwork were normal, but the infant was hypotensive at the time of echocardiogram. The ECG revealed ventricular parasystole. Ventricular parasystole is considered a benign arrhythmia caused by an ectopic pacemaker that is insulated from impulses from the sinus node. Given this abnormality, the macaque was transferred to a short-term study protocol, according to veterinary recommendation. On the final veterinary exam, a grade 3 systolic murmur and a decrease in arrhythmia frequency were noted. Gross cardiac lesions were not identified at necropsy the following day. Cardiac tissue sections were essentially normal on microscopic examination. This infant did not display signs of cardiovascular insufficiency, and a review of the medical record indicated normal growth, feed intake and activity levels. This case demonstrates the importance of appropriate screening of potential neonatal and juvenile research candidates for occult cardiovascular abnormalities. Whether the arrhythmia diagnosed in this case was truly innocuous is unclear, given the documented hypotension and the development of a systolic heart murmur.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5157965PMC
December 2016

Early short-term treatment with neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies halts SHIV infection in infant macaques.

Nat Med 2016 Apr 21;22(4):362-8. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major objective where antenatal care is not readily accessible. We tested HIV-1-specific human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NmAbs) as a post-exposure therapy in an infant macaque model for intrapartum MTCT. One-month-old rhesus macaques were inoculated orally with the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF162P3. On days 1, 4, 7 and 10 after virus exposure, we injected animals subcutaneously with NmAbs and quantified systemic distribution of NmAbs in multiple tissues within 24 h after antibody administration. Replicating virus was found in multiple tissues by day 1 in animals that were not treated. All NmAb-treated macaques were free of virus in blood and tissues at 6 months after exposure. We detected no anti-SHIV T cell responses in blood or tissues at necropsy, and no virus emerged after CD8(+) T cell depletion. These results suggest that early passive immunotherapy can eliminate early viral foci and thereby prevent the establishment of viral reservoirs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.4063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983100PMC
April 2016

Detection of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection among healthy Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in South India.

J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr 31;50(2):279-87. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

1  Center for Comparative Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Of the seven known EEHV species, EEHV1 is recognized as the most common cause of hemorrhagic disease among Asian elephants in human care worldwide. Recent data collected from ex situ Asian elephants located in multiple North American and European institutions suggest that subclinical EEHV1 infection is common in this population of elephants. Although fatal EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease has been reported in range countries, data are lacking regarding the prevalence of subclinical EEHV infections among in situ Asian elephants. We used previously validated EEHV-specific quantitative real-time PCR assays to detect subclinical EEHV infection in three regionally distinct Asian elephant cohorts, totaling 46 in situ elephants in South India, during October and November 2011. Using DNA prepared from trunk washes, we detected EEHV1, EEHV3/4, and EEHV5 at frequencies of 7, 9, and 20% respectively. None of the trunk washes was positive for EEHV2 or 6. At least one EEHV species was detectable in 35% (16/46) of the samples that were screened. These data suggest that subclinical EEHV infection among in situ Asian elephants occurs and that Asian elephants may be natural hosts for EEHV1, EEHV3 or 4, and EEHV5, but not EEHV2 and EEHV6. The methodology described in this study provides a foundation for further studies to determine prevalences of EEHV infection in Asian elephants throughout the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2012-09-236DOI Listing
April 2014

Acute phase protein expression during elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 viremia in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

J Zoo Wildl Med 2013 Sep;44(3):605-12

Center for Comparative Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Infection of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can be associated with rapid, lethal hemorrhagic disease and has been documented in elephant herds in human care and in the wild. Recent reports describe real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays used to monitor clinically ill elephants and also to detect subclinical EEHV1 infection in apparently healthy Asian elephants. Acute phase proteins have been demonstrated to increase with a variety of infectious etiologies in domesticated mammals but have not yet been described in elephants. In addition, the immune response of Asian elephants to EEHV1 infection has not been described. In this study, whole blood and trunk wash samples representing repeated measures from eight elephants were examined for the presence of EEHV1 using a qPCR assay. Elephants were classified into groups, as follows: whole blood negative and positive and trunk wash negative and positive. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (HP) levels were compared between these groups. A significant difference in SAA was observed with nearly a threefold higher mean value during periods of viremia (P=0.011). Higher values of SAA were associated with >10,000 virus genome copies/ml EEHV1 in whole blood. There were no significant differences in HP levels, although some individual animals did exhibit increased levels with infection. These data indicate that an inflammatory process is stimulated during EEHV1 viremia. Acute phase protein quantitation may aid in monitoring the health status of Asian elephants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2012-0174R1.1DOI Listing
September 2013

Prenatal passive transfer of maternal immunity in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2013 Jun 26;153(3-4):308-11. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants exhibit characteristics of endotheliochorial placentation, which is common in carnivore species and is associated with modest maternal to fetal transplacental antibody transfer. However, it remains unknown whether the bulk of passive immune transfer in elephants is achieved prenatally or postnatally through ingestion of colostrum, as has been documented for horses, a species whose medical knowledgebase is often extrapolated for elephants. To address this issue, we took advantage of the fact that many zoo elephants are immunized with tetanus toxoid and/or rabies vaccines as part of their routine health care, allowing a comparison of serum antibody levels against these antigens between dams and neonates. Serum samples were collected from 3 newborn Asian elephant calves at birth (before ingestion of colostrum); 2-4 days after birth; and 2-3 months of age. The findings indicate that the newborns had anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-rabies titers that were equivalent to or higher than the titers of their dams from birth to approximately 3 months of age, suggesting that the majority of maternal-to-fetal transfer is transplacental and higher than expected based on the architecture of the Asian elephant placenta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.03.008DOI Listing
June 2013

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 5, a newly recognized elephant herpesvirus associated with clinical and subclinical infections in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

J Zoo Wildl Med 2013 Mar;44(1):136-43

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, One Baylor Plaza, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute hemorrhagic disease with high mortality rates in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Recently, a new EEHV type known as EEHV5 has been described, but its prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. In this report, an outbreak of EEHV5 infection in a herd of captive Asian elephants in a zoo was characterized. In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. The elephant had a leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was treated with flunixin meglumine, famciclovir, and fluids. Clinical signs of illness resolved gradually over 2 wk, and the white blood cell count and platelets rebounded to higher-than-normal values. EEHV5 viremia was detectable starting 1 wk before presentation and peaked at the onset of clinical illness. EEHV5 shedding in trunk secretions peaked after viremia resolved and continued for more than 2 mo. EEHV5 trunk shedding from a female herd mate without any detectable viremia was detected prior to onset of clinical disease in the 42-yr-old elephant, indicating reactivation rather than primary infection in this elephant. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. Unexpectedly, the two elephants most recently introduced into the herd 40 mo previously shed a distinctive EEHV5 strain from that seen in the other five elephants. This is the first report to document the kinetics of EEHV5 infection in captive Asian elephants and to provide evidence that this virus can cause illness in some animals.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746547PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/1042-7260-44.1.136DOI Listing
March 2013

Kinetics of viral loads and genotypic analysis of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 infection in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

J Zoo Wildl Med 2013 Mar;44(1):42-54

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, One Baylor Plaza, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elphas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3-8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7-21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746492PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/1042-7260-44.1.42DOI Listing
March 2013

Educating the Next Generation of Data Scientists.

Big Data 2013 Mar;1(1):21-7

3 Department of Research, Microsoft , Redmond, Washington.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/big.2013.1510DOI Listing
March 2013

Development and validation of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

J Virol Methods 2012 Dec 27;186(1-2):73-7. Epub 2012 Jul 27.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, One Baylor Plaza, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5log(10) concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2012.07.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3506426PMC
December 2012

Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

Am J Vet Res 2010 Aug;71(8):925-33

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Objective: To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay.

Animals: 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd.

Procedures: A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd.

Results: The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.71.8.925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725808PMC
August 2010

HIV risk and the internet: results of the Men's INTernet Sex (MINTS) Study.

AIDS Behav 2009 Aug 30;13(4):746-56. Epub 2008 May 30.

Department of Epidemiology & Community Health, Center for HIV/STI Intervention and Prevention Studies, University of Minnesota Medical School, 1300 S. 2nd Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.

This study assessed the feasibility of online recruitment of high-risk Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV prevention survey research and investigated the relationship between Internet use and unsafe sex. Participants (N = 1,026) were Internet-using Latino MSM living in the U.S. recruited using online banner advertisements. Respondents completed a cross-sectional, online survey in English or Spanish. Sample characteristics reflected national statistics within 5%. Nearly all (99%) reported having used the Internet to seek sex with another man. Two-thirds of respondents reported having unprotected anal sex with > or =1 man in the last year, 57% of these with multiple partners. Participants reported engaging in anal sex and unprotected anal sex with nearly twice as many men first met online versus offline, but risk proportions did not differ. Internet-based HIV prevention research is possible even with geographically-dispersed minority populations. Efficiency appears the primary risk associated with meeting partners online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-008-9399-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2718057PMC
August 2009

Characteristics of latino men who have sex with men on the internet who complete and drop out of an internet-based sexual behavior survey.

AIDS Educ Prev 2004 Dec;16(6):526-37

World Health Organization Center for Health Promotion and Prevention Research, School of Public Health, University of Texas, Houston 77225, USA.

To identify biases and threats to validity of Internet survey data collection on HIV-related risk behaviors, we studied 1,546 Latino men who have sex with men on the Internet recruited through banner impressions on a leading national gay Internet site. The study could be completed in English or Spanish. Of those commencing, 33.6% dropped out before completing the 450-field questionnaire. None of the linguistic variables (level of use of Spanish or English) predicted dropout. However, dropouts were more likely to identify as Puerto Rican or Black, to reject the $20 compensation or offer it to a charity, to not have met men for sex on the Internet, to identify as bisexual or heterosexual, and to use Web sites or personal ads for contact and to use the Internet less at home than those who completed the study. Men in seroconcordant monogamous relationships and those who had not met a man for sex on the Internet were also more likely to drop out. These data suggest that there are no linguistic and few demographic and Internet use variables that are associated with dropout. Issues of compensation and respondent characteristics that make it likely that there will be a large number of inapplicable data fields in the questionnaire appear to be significant predictors of dropout. Although there were many data missing, the dropouts did not appear to be at greater HIV-associated risk than the completers. The fact that there appear to be few systematic demographic or Internet use biases in dropouts suggests that the completers do not represent a seriously skewed sample of those Latinos who commence the Internet survey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/aeap.16.6.526.53793DOI Listing
December 2004

Exploring security and privacy issues in hospital information system: an Information Boundary Theory perspective.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2003 :1059

School of Information Studies, Center for Science and Technology, Syracuse University, New York, USA.

A small community hospital (67 beds) in Central New York was undergoing a major technological change within the organization, as they move from the use of several legacy information systems to a hospital-wide information system. The focus of the present research is to explore the privacy and security information issues using a framework called Information Boundary Theory [Stanton, 2002]. IBT explains the motivational factors that lead to the revelation or disclosing of information.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1479969PMC
December 2004

A lengthy look at the daily grind: time series analysis of events, mood, stress, and satisfaction.

J Appl Psychol 2003 Dec;88(6):1019-33

Dept of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USA.

The present study investigated processes by which job stress and satisfaction unfold over time by examining the relations between daily stressful events, mood, and these variables. Using a Web-based daily survey of stressor events, perceived strain, mood, and job satisfaction completed by 14 university workers, 1,060 occasions of data were collected. Transfer function analysis, a multivariate version of time series analysis, was used to examine the data for relationships among the measured variables after factoring out the contaminating influences of serial dependency. Results revealed a contrast effect in which a stressful event associated positively with higher strain on the same day and associated negatively with strain on the following day. Perceived strain increased over the course of a semester for a majority of participants, suggesting that effects of stress build over time. Finally, the data were consistent with the notion that job satisfaction is a distal outcome that is mediated by perceived strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.6.1019DOI Listing
December 2003

Analytical method for the determination of atrazine and its dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites in water using SPE sample preparation and GC-MSD analysis.

J Agric Food Chem 2003 Dec;51(25):7252-8

Analytical Resources Group/Technology Support Department, Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc., Greensboro, North Carolina 27419-8300.

A method is reported for the determination of atrazine and its dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites in ground, surface, and deionized water. Water samples are adjusted to pH 3-4 prior to loading onto two SPE cartridges in series: C-18 and C-18/cation exchange mixed-mode polymeric phases. The analytes are eluted from each of the two cartridges separately, and the pooled and concentrated fraction is analyzed using gas chromatography-mass selective detection in the selected ion monitoring mode. The lower limit of method validation is 0.10 micrograms/L (ppb) for 2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (atrazine), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (G-30033, deethylatrazine), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazine (G-28279, deisopropylatrazine), and 2,4-diamino-6-chloro-s-triazine (G-28273, didealkyatrazine). The overall mean procedural recoveries (and standard deviations) are 96 (6.9), 96 (5.5), 95 (6.8), and 100% (10%) for atrazine, G-30033, G-28279, and G-28273, respectively (n = 49). The method validation study was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160. The reported procedure accounts for residues of G-28273 in water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0349578DOI Listing
December 2003

Lessons learned, current crises, and new directions in HIV prevention.

Minn Med 2003 Jul;86(7):49-52

Center for HIV/STI Intervention and Prevnetion Studies, University of Minnesota Medical School, USA.

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July 2003