Publications by authors named "Jeffrey R Infante"

121 Publications

Avelumab as second-line therapy for metastatic, platinum-treated urothelial carcinoma in the phase Ib JAVELIN Solid Tumor study: 2-year updated efficacy and safety analysis.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 10;8(2)

Florida Cancer Specialists/Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Sarasota, Florida, USA.

Background: Anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death 1 antibodies have shown clinical activity in platinum-treated metastatic urothelial carcinoma, resulting in regulatory approval of several agents, including avelumab (anti-PD-L1). We report ≥2-year follow-up data for avelumab treatment and exploratory subgroup analyses in patients with urothelial carcinoma.

Methods: Patients with previously treated advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma, pooled from two cohorts of the phase Ib JAVELIN Solid Tumor trial, received avelumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or withdrawal. End points included best overall response and progression-free survival (PFS) per RECIST V.1.1, overall survival (OS) and safety. Post hoc analyses included objective response rates (ORRs) in subgroups defined by established high-risk/poor-prognosis characteristics and association between time to response and outcome.

Results: 249 patients received avelumab; efficacy was assessed in 242 postplatinum patients. Median follow-up was 31.9 months (range 24-43), and median treatment duration was 2.8 months (range 0.5-42.8). The confirmed ORR was 16.5% (95% CI 12.1% to 21.8%; complete response in 4.1% and partial response in 12.4%). Median duration of response was 20.5 months (95% CI 9.7 months to not estimable). Median PFS was 1.6 months (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7 months) and the 12-month PFS rate was 16.8% (95% CI 11.9% to 22.4%). Median OS was 7.0 months (95% CI 5.9 to 8.5 months) and the 24-month OS rate was 20.1% (95% CI 15.2% to 25.4%). In post hoc exploratory analyses, avelumab showed antitumor activity in high-risk subgroups, including elderly patients and those with renal insufficiency or upper tract disease; ORRs were numerically lower in patients with liver metastases or low albumin levels. Objective response achieved by 3 months versus later was associated with longer OS (median not reached (95% CI 18.9 months to not estimable) vs 7.1 months (95% CI 5.2 to 9.0 months)). Safety findings were consistent with previously reported 6-month analyses.

Conclusions: After ≥2 years of follow-up, avelumab showed prolonged efficacy and acceptable safety in patients with platinum-treated advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma, including high-risk subgroups. Survival appeared longer in patients who responded within 3 months. Long-term safety findings were consistent with earlier reports with avelumab treatment in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549450PMC
October 2020

Immunologic and tumor responses of pegilodecakin with 5-FU/LV and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Invest New Drugs 2021 Feb 10;39(1):182-192. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX, USA.

Background Treatment options for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are limited and checkpoint blockade inhibitors have been disappointing in this disease. Pegilodecakin has demonstrated single agent anti-tumor activity in immune-sensitive tumors. Phase 1 and preclinical data indicate synergy of pegilodecakin with 5-FU and platins. We assessed the safety and activity of pegilodecakin+FOLFOX in patients with PDAC. Methods IVY (NCT02009449) was an open-label phase 1b trial in the United States. Here we report on all enrolled patients from cohort C. Heavily pretreated patients were treated with pegilodecakin (self-administered subcutaneously daily at 2.5, 5, or 10 μg/kg) + 5-flurouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), dosed per manufacturers prescribing information, until tumor progression. Eligible patients had measurable disease per immune-related response criteria (irRC), were ≥ 18 years of age, and had ECOG performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were evaluated for primary(safety) and secondary (tumor response per irRC) endpoints. Results From 5 August 2014-12 July 2016, 39 patients enrolled in cohort C. All patients were evaluable for safety. In this advanced population, regimen had manageable toxicities with no immune-related adverse events (irAEs) greater than grade 1. The most common grade 3/4/5 TEAEs were thrombocytopenia (21[53.8%] of 39) and anemia (17[43.6%] of 39). In evaluable PDAC patients, the best overall response of pegilodecakin+FOLFOX was 3(14%) with CRs in 2(9%) patients. Conclusions Pegilodecakin+FOLFOX had an acceptable tolerability profile in PDAC, with no substantial irAEs seen, and promising efficacy with the combination yielding a 2-year OS of 24% (95% CI 10-42). These data led to the phase 3 study with pegilodecakin+FOLFOX as second-line therapy of PDAC (SEQUOIA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-020-01000-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Safety and Clinical Activity of MEDI1873, a Novel GITR Agonist, in Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Dec 4;26(23):6196-6203. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Purpose: The safety and preliminary efficacy of MEDI1873, an agonistic IgG1 fusion protein targeting glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein (GITR), were evaluated in an open-label, first-in-human, phase I, dose escalation study in previously treated patients with advanced solid tumors.

Patients And Methods: Two single-patient cohorts at 1.5 and 3 mg i.v. were followed by 3+3 dose escalation in six cohorts at 7.5, 25, 75, 250, 500, and 750 mg, all every 2 weeks, for up to 52 weeks. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and MTD. Secondary endpoints included antitumor activity, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics.

Results: Forty patients received MEDI1873. Three experienced DLTs: grade 3 worsening tumor pain (250 mg); grade 3 nausea, vomiting, and headache (500 mg); and grade 3 non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (750 mg). An MTD was not reached and treatment was well tolerated up to 500 mg. Most common treatment-related adverse events were headache (25%), infusion-related reaction (17.5%), and decreased appetite (17.5%). MEDI1873 exposure was dose proportional. Antidrug-antibody incidence was low. MEDI1873 increased peripheral CD4 effector memory T-cell proliferation as well as cytokines associated with effector T-cell activation at dose levels ≥75 mg. The best response was stable disease (SD) in 17 patients (42.5%), including 1 unconfirmed partial response. Eight patients (20.0%) had SD ≥24 weeks.

Conclusions: MEDI1873 showed acceptable safety up to 500 mg i.v. every 2 weeks with pharmacodynamics activity, and prolonged SD in some patients. However, further development is not planned because of lack of demonstrated tumor response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0452DOI Listing
December 2020

Tebentafusp, A TCR/Anti-CD3 Bispecific Fusion Protein Targeting gp100, Potently Activated Antitumor Immune Responses in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Nov 18;26(22):5869-5878. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, Yale, Connecticut.

Purpose: Tebentafusp is a first-in-class bispecific fusion protein designed to target gp100 (a melanoma-associated antigen) through a high affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) binding domain and an anti-CD3 T-cell engaging domain, which redirects T cells to kill gp100-expressing tumor cells. Here, we report a multicenter phase I/II trial of tebentafusp in metastatic melanoma (NCT01211262) focusing on the mechanism of action of tebentafusp.

Patients And Methods: Eighty-four patients with advanced melanoma received tebentafusp. Treatment efficacy, treatment-related adverse events, and biomarker assessments were performed for blood-derived and tumor biopsy samples obtained at baseline and on-treatment.

Results: Tebentafusp was generally well-tolerated and active in both patients with metastatic uveal melanoma and patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. A 1-year overall survival rate of 65% was achieved for both patient cohorts. On-treatment cytokine measurements were consistent with the induction of IFNγ pathway-related markers in the periphery and tumor. Notably, tebentafusp induced an increase in serum CXCL10 (a T-cell attractant) and a reduction in circulating CXCR3 CD8 T cells together with an increase in cytotoxic T cells in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, increased serum CXCL10 or the appearance of rash (likely due to cytotoxic T cells targeting gp100-expressing skin melanocytes) showed a positive association with patient survival.

Conclusions: These data suggest that redirecting T cells using a gp100-targeting TCR/anti-CD3 bispecific fusion protein may provide benefit to patients with metastatic melanoma. Furthermore, the activity observed in these two molecularly disparate melanoma classes hints at the broad therapeutic potential of tebentafusp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1247DOI Listing
November 2020

Pegilodecakin combined with pembrolizumab or nivolumab for patients with advanced solid tumours (IVY): a multicentre, multicohort, open-label, phase 1b trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 11 25;20(11):1544-1555. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: IL-10 has anti-inflammatory and CD8+ T-cell stimulating activities. Pegilodecakin (pegylated IL-10) is a first-in-class, long-acting IL-10 receptor agonist that induces oligoclonal T-cell expansion and has single-agent activity in advanced solid tumours. We assessed the safety and activity of pegilodecakin with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody inhibitors in patients with advanced solid tumours.

Methods: We did a multicentre, multicohort, open-label, phase 1b trial (IVY) at 12 cancer research centres in the USA. Patients were assigned sequentially into cohorts. Here, we report on all enrolled patients from two cohorts treated with pegilodecakin combined with anti-PD-1 inhibitors. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years with histologically or cytologically confirmed advanced malignant solid tumours refractory to previous therapies, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients with uncontrolled infectious diseases were excluded. Pegilodecakin was provided in single-use 3 mL vials and was self-administered subcutaneously by injection at home at 10 μg/kg or 20 μg/kg once per day in combination with pembrolizumab (2 mg/kg every 3 weeks or 200 mg every 3 weeks) or nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 240 mg every 2 weeks or 480 mg every 4 weeks at the approved dosing), both of which were given intravenously at the study site. Patients received pembrolizumab or nivolumab with pegilodecakin until disease progression, toxicity necessitating treatment discontinuation, patient withdrawal of consent, or study end. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, assessed in all patients enrolled in the study who received any amount of study medication including at least one dose of pegilodecakin, and pharmacokinetics (previously published). Secondary endpoints included objective response by immune-related response criteria in all patients who were treated and had evaluable measurements. The study is active but no longer recruiting, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02009449.

Findings: Between Feb 13, 2015, and Sept 12, 2017, 111 patients were enrolled in the two cohorts. 53 received pegilodecakin plus pembrolizumab, and 58 received pegilodecakin plus nivolumab. 34 (31%) of 111 patients had non-small-cell lung cancer, 37 (33%) had melanoma, and 38 (34%) had renal cell carcinoma; one (<1%) patient had triple-negative breast cancer and one (<1%) had bladder cancer. Data cutoff was July 1, 2018. Median follow-up was 26·9 months (IQR 22·3-31·5) for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, 33·0 months (29·2-35·1) for those with melanoma, and 22·7 months (20·9-27·0) for those with renal cell carcinoma. At least one treatment-related adverse event occurred in 103 (93%) of 111 patients. Grade 3 or 4 events occurred in 73 (66%) of 111 patients (35 [66%] of 53 in the pembrolizumab group and 38 [66%] of 58 in the nivolumab group), the most common of which were anaemia (12 [23%] in the pembrolizumab group and 16 [28%] in the nivolumab group), thrombocytopenia (14 [26%] in the pembrolizumab group and 12 [21%] in the nivolumab group), fatigue (11 [21%] in the pembrolizumab group and 6 [10%] in the nivolumab group) and hypertriglyceridaemia (three [6%] in the pembrolizumab group and eight [14%] in the nivolumab group). There were no fatal adverse events determined to be related to the study treatments. Of the patients evaluable for response, objective responses were 12 (43%) of 28 (non-small-cell lung cancer), three (10%) of 31 (melanoma), and 14 (40%) of 35 (renal cell carcinoma).

Interpretation: In this patient population, pegilodecakin with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies had a manageable toxicity profile and preliminary antitumour activity. Pegilodecakin with pembrolizumab or nivolumab could provide a new therapeutic opportunity for previously treated patients with renal cell carcinoma and non-small-cell carcinoma.

Funding: ARMO BioSciences, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30514-5DOI Listing
November 2019

Phase Ia Study of Anti-NaPi2b Antibody-Drug Conjugate Lifastuzumab Vedotin DNIB0600A in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 01 20;26(2):364-372. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: This phase I trial assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary antitumor activity of lifastuzumab vedotin (LIFA), an antibody-drug conjugate of anti-NaPi2b mAb (MNIB2126A) and a potent antimitotic agent (monomethyl auristatin E).

Patients And Methods: LIFA was administered to patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC), once every 3 weeks, by intravenous infusion. The starting dose was 0.2 mg/kg in this 3+3 dose-escalation design, followed by cohort expansion at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D).

Results: Overall, 87 patients were treated at doses between 0.2 and 2.8 mg/kg. The MTD was not reached; 2.4 mg/kg once every 3 weeks was selected as the RP2D based on overall tolerability profile. The most common adverse events of any grade and regardless of relationship to study drug were fatigue (59%), nausea (49%), decreased appetite (37%), vomiting (32%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (29%). Most common treatment-related grade ≥3 toxicities among patients treated at the RP2D ( = 63) were neutropenia (10%), anemia (3%), and pneumonia (3%). The pharmacokinetic profile was dose proportional. At active doses ≥1.8 mg/kg, partial responses were observed in four of 51 (8%) patients with NSCLC and 11 of 24 (46%) patients with PROC per RECIST. All RECIST responses occurred in patients with NaPi2b-high by IHC. The CA-125 biomarker assessed for patients with PROC dosed at ≥1.8 mg/kg showed 13 of 24 (54%) had responses (≥50% decline from baseline).

Conclusions: LIFA exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and an acceptable safety profile, with encouraging activity in patients with PROC at the single-agent RP2D of 2.4 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3965DOI Listing
January 2020

Phase I study of the anti-endothelin B receptor antibody-drug conjugate DEDN6526A in patients with metastatic or unresectable cutaneous, mucosal, or uveal melanoma.

Invest New Drugs 2020 06 5;38(3):844-854. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, PPLC, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background Endothelin B receptor (ETR) is involved in melanoma pathogenesis and is overexpressed in metastatic melanoma. The antibody-drug conjugate DEDN6526A targets ETR and is comprised of the humanized anti-ETR monoclonal antibody conjugated to the anti-mitotic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). Methods This Phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and anti-tumor activity of DEDN6526A (0.3-2.8 mg/kg) given every 3 weeks (q3w) in patients with metastatic or unresectable cutaneous, mucosal, or uveal melanoma. Results Fifty-three patients received a median of 6 doses of DEDN6526A (range 1-49). The most common drug-related adverse events (>25% across dose levels) were fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, diarrhea, alopecia, and chills. Three patients in dose-escalation experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (infusion-related reaction, increased ALT/AST, and drug-induced liver injury). Based on cumulative safety data across all dose levels, the recommended Phase II dose (RP2D) for DEDN6526A was 2.4 mg/kg intravenous (IV) q3w. The pharmacokinetics of antibody-conjugated MMAE and total antibody were dose-proportional at doses ranging from 1.8-2.8 mg/kg. A trend toward faster clearance was observed at doses of 0.3-1.2 mg/kg. There were 6 partial responses (11%) in patients with metastatic cutaneous or mucosal melanoma, and 17 patients (32%) had prolonged stable disease ≥6 months. Responses were independent of BRAF mutation status but did correlate with ETR expression. Conclusion DEDN6526A administered at the RP2D of 2.4 mg/kg q3w had an acceptable safety profile and showed evidence of anti-tumor activity in patients with cutaneous, mucosal, and uveal melanoma. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01522664.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00832-1DOI Listing
June 2020

Atezolizumab plus cobimetinib and vemurafenib in BRAF-mutated melanoma patients.

Nat Med 2019 06 6;25(6):929-935. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Melanoma treatment has progressed in the past decade with the development and approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, as well as small molecule inhibitors of BRAF and/or MEK for the subgroup of patients with BRAF mutations. BRAF/MEK-targeted therapies have effects on the tumor microenvironment that support their combination with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. This phase Ib study (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01656642 ) evaluated the safety and anti-tumor activity of combining atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) with vemurafenib (BRAF inhibitor), or cobimetinib (MEK inhibitor) + vemurafenib, in patients with BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma. Triple combination therapy with atezolizumab + cobimetinib + vemurafenib, after a 28-d run-in period with cobimetinib + vemurafenib, had substantial but manageable toxicity. Exploratory biomarker data show that the cobimetinib + vemurafenib run-in was associated with an increase in proliferating CD4 T-helper cells but not with an increase in T-regulatory cells, as observed in the vemurafenib-only run-in period. The confirmed objective response rate was 71.8% (95% confidence interval 55.1-85.0). The estimated median duration of response was 17.4 months (95% confidence interval 10.6-25.3) with ongoing response in 39.3% of patients after 29.9 months of follow-up. Further investigation in a phase III trial is underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0474-7DOI Listing
June 2019

Avelumab (anti-PD-L1) as first-line switch-maintenance or second-line therapy in patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer: phase 1b results from the JAVELIN Solid Tumor trial.

J Immunother Cancer 2019 02 4;7(1):30. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Brown University, Providence, USA.

Background: We evaluated the antitumor activity and safety of avelumab, a human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 antibody, as first-line switch-maintenance (1 L-mn) or second-line (2 L) treatment in patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal cancer (GC/GEJC) previously treated with chemotherapy.

Methods: In a phase 1b expansion cohort, patients without (1 L-mn) or with (2 L) disease progression following first-line chemotherapy for advanced GC/GEJC received avelumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks. Endpoints included best overall response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety.

Results: Overall, 150 patients were enrolled (1 L-mn, n = 90; 2 L, n = 60) and median follow-up in the 1 L-mn and 2 L subgroups was 36.0 and 33.7 months, respectively. The confirmed objective response rate was 6.7% in both subgroups (95% CI, 2.5-13.9% and 1.8-16.2%, respectively), including complete responses in 2.2% of the 1 L-mn subgroup (n = 2). In the 1 L-mn and 2 L subgroups, median duration of response was 21.4 months (95% CI, 4.0-not estimable) and 3.5 months (95% CI, 2.8-8.3) and disease control rates were 56.7 and 28.3%, respectively. Median PFS in the 1 L-mn and 2 L subgroups was 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.3-4.1) and 1.4 months (95% CI, 1.3-1.5), with 6-month PFS rates of 23.0% (95% CI, 14.7-32.4%) and 7.9% (95% CI, 2.6-17.2%), and median OS was 11.1 months (95% CI, 8.9-13.7) and 6.6 months (95% CI, 5.4-9.4), respectively. In the 1 L-mn subgroup, median OS measured from start of 1 L chemotherapy was 18.7 months (95% CI, 15.4-20.6). Across both subgroups, 20.7% had an infusion-related reaction of any grade. Other common treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) of any grade included fatigue (10.0%) and nausea (6.7%). Treatment-related serious adverse events occurred in 4.0% of patients. Overall, 8.7% had a grade ≥3 TRAE, including 1 treatment-related death.

Conclusion: Avelumab showed clinical activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with GC/GEJC.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01772004 ; registered 21 January 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40425-019-0508-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362598PMC
February 2019

A phase 2 study of glembatumumab vedotin, an antibody-drug conjugate targeting glycoprotein NMB, in patients with advanced melanoma.

Cancer 2019 04 28;125(7):1113-1123. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Glembatumumab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate that produced preliminary clinical activity against advanced melanoma in a phase 1 dose-escalation trial. The objective of the current study was to investigate further the antitumor activity of glembatumumab vedotin at the recommended phase 2 dose in heavily pretreated patients with melanoma.

Methods: This single-arm, phase 2 study enrolled patients with stage IV melanoma who were refractory to checkpoint inhibition and to B-raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF)/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibition (in the presence of a BRAF valine mutation at codon 600). Patients received 1.9 mg/kg glembatumumab vedotin intravenously every 3 weeks until they developed disease progression or intolerance. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR), which was determined according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response, overall survival (OS), safety, and clinical efficacy versus tumor glycoprotein NMB (gpNMB) expression. Tumor expression of gpNMB was assessed using immunohistochemistry.

Results: In total, 62 patients received treatment. The ORR was 11% and the median response duration was 6.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 months to not reached). The median PFS was 4.4 months (95% CI, 2.6-5.5 months), and the median OS was 9.0 months (95% CI, 6.1-11.7 months). For patients who developed rash during the first cycle versus those who did not, the ORR was 21% versus 7%, respectively, and there was an overall improvement in PFS (hazard ratio, 0.43; P = .013) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.43; P = .017). The most frequent adverse events were alopecia, neuropathy, rash, fatigue, and neutropenia. With one exception, all evaluable tumors were positive for gpNMB, and 46 of 59 tumors (76%) had 100% gpNMB-positive epithelial cells.

Conclusions: Glembatumumab vedotin had modest activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with advanced melanoma who were refractory to checkpoint inhibitors and MEK/BRAF inhibition. Treatment-related rash may be associated with response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31892DOI Listing
April 2019

PEGylated IL-10 (Pegilodecakin) Induces Systemic Immune Activation, CD8 T Cell Invigoration and Polyclonal T Cell Expansion in Cancer Patients.

Cancer Cell 2018 11;34(5):775-791.e3

ARMO BioSciences, Eli Lilly and Company, Redwood City, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Tumor-reactive T cell exhaustion prevents the success of immune therapies. Pegilodecakin activates intratumoral CD8 T cells in mice and induces objective tumor responses in patients. Here we report that pegilodecakin induces hallmarks of CD8 T cell immunity in cancer patients, including elevation of interferon-γ and GranzymeB, expansion and activation of intratumoral CD8 T cells, and proliferation and expansion of LAG-3 PD-1 CD8 T cells. On pegilodecakin, newly expanded T cell clones, undetectable at baseline, become 1%-10% of the total T cell repertoire in the blood. Elevation of interleukin-18, expansion of LAG-3 PD-1 T cells and novel T cell clones each correlated with objective tumor responses. Combined pegilodecakin with anti-PD-1 increased the expansion of LAG-3 PD-1 CD8 T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2018.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098754PMC
November 2018

A phase I, open-label, two-stage study to investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the oral AKT inhibitor GSK2141795 in patients with solid tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2018 12 3;36(6):1016-1025. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background We sought to determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and schedule of GSK2141795, an oral pan-AKT kinase inhibitor. Patients and Methods Patients with solid tumors were enrolled in the dose-escalation phase. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis after a single dose (Cycle 0) informed dose escalation using accelerated dose titration. Once one grade 2 toxicity or dose-limiting toxicity was observed in Cycle 1, the accelerated dose titration was terminated and a 3 + 3 dose escalation was started. Continuous daily dosing was evaluated along with two intermittent regimens (7 days on/7 days off and 3 times per week). In the expansion phase at RP2D, patients with endometrial or prostate cancer, as well as those with select tumor types with a PIK3CA mutation, AKT mutation or PTEN loss, were enrolled. Patients were evaluated for adverse events (AEs), PK parameters, blood glucose and insulin levels, and tumor response. Results The RP2D of GSK2141795 for once-daily dosing is 75 mg. The most common (>10%) treatment-related AEs included diarrhea, fatigue, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Most AEs were low grade. The frequency of hyperglycemia increased with dose; however, at the RP2D, grade 3 hyperglycemia was only reported in 4% of patients and no grade 4 events were observed. PK characteristics were favorable, with a prolonged half-life and low peak-to-trough ratio. There were two partial responses at the RP2D in patients with either a PIK3CA mutation or PTEN loss. Conclusion GSK2141795 was safe and well-tolerated, with clinical activity seen as monotherapy at the RP2D of 75 mg daily. NCT00920257.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-018-0591-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6170741PMC
December 2018

Ensartinib (X-396) in ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results from a First-in-Human Phase I/II, Multicenter Study.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 06 21;24(12):2771-2779. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Department of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Evaluate safety and determine the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of ensartinib (X-396), a potent anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), and evaluate preliminary pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity in a first-in-human, phase I/II clinical trial primarily in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In dose escalation, ensartinib was administered at doses of 25 to 250 mg once daily in patients with advanced solid tumors; in dose expansion, patients with advanced -positive NSCLC were administered 225 mg once daily. Patients who had received prior ALK TKI(s) and patients with brain metastases were eligible. Thirty-seven patients enrolled in dose escalation, and 60 enrolled in dose expansion. The most common treatment-related toxicities were rash (56%), nausea (36%), pruritus (28%), vomiting (26%), and fatigue (22%); 23% of patients experienced a treatment-related grade 3 to 4 toxicity (primarily rash and pruritus). The maximum tolerated dose was not reached, but the RP2D was chosen as 225 mg based on the frequency of rash observed at 250 mg without improvement in activity. Among the -positive efficacy evaluable patients treated at ≥200 mg, the response rate (RR) was 60%, and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.2 months. RR in ALK TKI-naïve patients was 80%, and median PFS was 26.2 months. In patients with prior crizotinib only, the RR was 69% and median PFS was 9.0 months. Responses were also observed in the central nervous system, with an intracranial RR of 64%. Ensartinib was active and generally well tolerated in patients with -positive NSCLC. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-2398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6004248PMC
June 2018

Safety profile of avelumab in patients with advanced solid tumors: A pooled analysis of data from the phase 1 JAVELIN solid tumor and phase 2 JAVELIN Merkel 200 clinical trials.

Cancer 2018 05 22;124(9):2010-2017. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Antibodies targeting the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) checkpoint may cause adverse events (AEs) that are linked to the mechanism of action of this therapeutic class and unique from those observed with conventional chemotherapy.

Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumors who were enrolled in the phase 1 JAVELIN Solid Tumor (1650 patients) and phase 2 JAVELIN Merkel 200 (88 patients) trials received avelumab, a human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 antibody at a dose of 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) were graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.0). In post hoc analyses, immune-related AEs (irAEs) were identified via an expanded AE list and medical review, and infusion-related reactions (IRRs) occurring ≤2 days after infusion and symptoms occurring ≤1 day after infusion and resolving ≤2 days after onset were identified based on prespecified Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terms.

Results: Of the 1738 patients analyzed, grade ≥3 TRAEs occurred in 177 (10.2%); the most common were fatigue (17 patients; 1.0%) and IRR (10 patients; 0.6%). TRAEs led to discontinuation in 107 patients (6.2%) and death in 4 patients (0.2%). Grade ≥3 irAEs occurred in 39 patients (2.2%) and led to discontinuation in 34 patients (2.0%). IRRs or related symptoms occurred in 439 patients (25.3%; grade 3 in 0.5% [9 patients] and grade 4 in 0.2% [3 patients]). An IRR occurred at the time of first infusion in 79.5% of 439 patients who had an IRR, within the first 4 doses in 98.6% of 439 patients who had an IRR, and led to discontinuation in 35 patients (2.0%).

Conclusions: Avelumab generally was found to be well tolerated and to have a manageable safety profile. A minority of patients experienced grade ≥3 TRAEs or irAEs, and discontinuation was uncommon. IRRs occurred mainly at the time of first infusion, and repeated events were infrequent. Cancer 2018;124:2010-7. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.31293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5947549PMC
May 2018

Phase I Dose-Escalation Trial of PT2385, a First-in-Class Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2α Antagonist in Patients With Previously Treated Advanced Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

J Clin Oncol 2018 03 19;36(9):867-874. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Kevin D. Courtney and James Brugarolas, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Naseem J. Zojwalla, Ann M. Lowe, Keshi Wang, Eli M. Wallace, and John A. Josey, Peloton Therapeutics, Dallas, TX; Jeffrey R. Infante, TN Oncology and Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN; Elaine T. Lam, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO; Robert A. Figlin, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA; Brian I. Rini, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH; Toni K. Choueiri, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Purpose The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor is inactivated in the majority of clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs), leading to inappropriate stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α). PT2385 is a first-in-class HIF-2α antagonist. Objectives of this first-in-human study were to characterize the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy, and to identify the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of PT2385. Patients and Methods Eligible patients had locally advanced or metastatic ccRCC that had progressed during one or more prior regimens that included a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor. PT2385 was administered orally at twice-per-day doses of 100 to 1,800 mg, according to a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design, followed by an expansion phase at the RP2D. Results The dose-escalation and expansion phases enrolled 26 and 25 patients, respectively. Patients were heavily pretreated, with a median of four (range, one to seven) prior therapies. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed at any dose. On the basis of safety, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic profiling, the RP2D was defined as 800 mg twice per day. PT2385 was well tolerated, with anemia (grade 1 to 2, 35%; grade 3, 10%), peripheral edema (grade 1 to 2, 37%; grade 3, 2%), and fatigue (grade 1 to 2, 37%; no grade 3 or 4) being the most common treatment-emergent adverse events. No patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. Complete response, partial response, and stable disease as best response were achieved by 2%, 12%, and 52% of patients, respectively. At data cutoff, eight patients remained in the study, with 13 patients in the study for ≥ 1 year. Conclusion PT2385 has a favorable safety profile and is active in patients with heavily pretreated ccRCC, validating direct HIF-2α antagonism for the treatment of patients with ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.74.2627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5946714PMC
March 2018

First-in-Class ERK1/2 Inhibitor Ulixertinib (BVD-523) in Patients with MAPK Mutant Advanced Solid Tumors: Results of a Phase I Dose-Escalation and Expansion Study.

Cancer Discov 2018 02 15;8(2):184-195. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Ulixertinib (BVD-523) is an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor with potent preclinical activity in BRAF- and RAS-mutant cell lines. In this multicenter phase I trial (NCT01781429), 135 patients were enrolled to an accelerated 3 + 3 dose-escalation cohort and six distinct dose-expansion cohorts. Dose escalation included 27 patients, dosed from 10 to 900 mg twice daily and established the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of 600 mg twice daily. Ulixertinib exposure was dose proportional to the RP2D, which provided near-complete inhibition of ERK activity in whole blood. In the 108-patient expansion cohort, 32% of patients required dose reduction. The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (48%), fatigue (42%), nausea (41%), and dermatitis acneiform (31%). Partial responses were seen in 3 of 18 (17%) patients dosed at or above maximum tolerated dose and in 11 of 81 (14%) evaluable patients in dose expansion. Responses occurred in patients with -, V600-, and non-V600 -mutant solid tumors. Here, we describe the first-in-human dose-escalation study of an ERK1/2 inhibitor for the treatment of patients with advanced solid tumors. Ulixertinib has an acceptable safety profile with favorable pharmacokinetics and has shown early evidence of clinical activity in - and V600- and non-V600-mutant solid-tumor malignancies. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-1119DOI Listing
February 2018

Evaluation of the effect of dabrafenib and metabolites on QTc interval in patients with BRAF V600-mutant tumours.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 04 23;84(4):764-775. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.

Aims: The effect of repeat oral supratherapeutic dosing of the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib on QTc interval was assessed in patients with BRAF V600-mutant tumours.

Methods: Part 1 of this phase 1, multicentre, 2-part study (BRF113773/NCT01738451) assessed safety/tolerability of dabrafenib 225 or 300 mg twice daily (BID) to inform part 2 dosing. Patients in part 2 received dabrafenib-matched placebo on day -1, single-dose dabrafenib 300 mg on day 1, 300 mg BID on days 2 to 7, and 300 mg on day 8 (morning), followed by 24-h Holter electrocardiographic monitoring and pharmacokinetics sample collection each dose day. Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics analysis assessed combined dabrafenib and metabolite effects on QTc interval.

Results: Part 1 (n = 12) determined supratherapeutic dosing, 300 mg BID, for part 2. Thirty-one patients completed part 2. Mean maximum ΔΔQTcF occurred on day 8, 10 h postdose (2.86 msec; 90% CI, -1.36 to 7.07). Categorical analysis showed no placebo and dabrafenib outliers (increase >60 msec; QTcF >500 msec). Day 1 dabrafenib 300 mg C and AUC were ≈ 2-fold higher than with single-dose 150 mg. Day 8 AUC with 300 mg BID was ≈ 2.7-fold higher than with 150 mg BID. Dabrafenib metabolites showed similar trends. Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modelling/simulation showed that median QTc increase was <5 msec (upper 90% CI, <10 msec). No unexpected toxicities occurred with supratherapeutic dosing.

Conclusion: Repeat oral supratherapeutic dabrafenib 300 mg BID dosing had no clinically relevant effect on QTc interval, with no new safety signals seen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867134PMC
April 2018

Avelumab in metastatic urothelial carcinoma after platinum failure (JAVELIN Solid Tumor): pooled results from two expansion cohorts of an open-label, phase 1 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2018 01 5;19(1):51-64. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Magnuson Clinical Center, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The approval of anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and anti-programmed death 1 agents has expanded treatment options for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Avelumab, a human monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody, has shown promising antitumour activity and safety in this disease. We aimed to assess the safety profile in patients (both post-platinum therapy and cisplatin-naive) treated with avelumab and to assess antitumour activity of this drug in post-platinum patients.

Methods: In this pooled analysis of two cohorts from the phase 1 dose-expansion JAVELIN Solid Tumor study, patients aged 18 years and older with histologically or cytologically confirmed locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma that had progressed after at least one previous platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled from 80 cancer treatment centres or hospitals in the USA, Europe, and Asia. Eligible patients had adequate end-organ function, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, life expectancy of at least 3 months, and at least one measurable lesion. Cisplatin-ineligible patients who might have been previously treated in the perioperative setting, including platinum-naive patients, were also eligible. Patients unselected for PD-L1 expression received avelumab (10 mg/kg, 1 h intravenous infusion) every 2 weeks until confirmed disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or other criterion for withdrawal. The primary endpoint for this efficacy expansion cohort was confirmed best overall response (according to RECIST version 1.1), adjudicated by independent review. Safety analysis was done in all patients who received at least one dose of avelumab. Antitumour activity was assessed in post-platinum patients who received at least one dose of avelumab. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01772004; enrolment in this cohort of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma is closed and the trial is ongoing.

Findings: Between Sept 3, 2014, and March 15, 2016, 329 patients with advanced metastatic urothelial carcinoma were screened for enrolment into this study; 249 patients were eligible and received treatment with avelumab for a median of 12 weeks (IQR 6·0-19·7) and followed up for a median of 9·9 months (4·3-12·1). Safety and antitumour activity were evaluated at data cutoff on June 9, 2016. In 161 post-platinum patients with at least 6 months of follow-up, a best overall response of complete or partial response was recorded in 27 patients (17%; 95% CI 11-24), including nine (6%) complete responses and 18 (11%) partial responses. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events (any grade in ≥10% patients) were infusion-related reaction (73 [29%]; all grade 1-2) and fatigue (40 [16%]). Grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events occurred in 21 (8%) of 249 patients, the most common of which were fatigue (four [2%]), and asthenia, elevated lipase, hypophosphataemia, and pneumonitis in two (1%) patients each. 19 (8%) of 249 patients had a serious adverse event related to treatment with avelumab, and one treatment-related death occurred (pneumonitis).

Interpretation: Avelumab showed antitumour activity in the treatment of patients with platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial carcinoma; a manageable safety profile was reported in all avelumab-treated patients. These data provide the rationale for therapeutic use of avelumab in metastatic urothelial carcinoma and it has received accelerated US FDA approval in this setting on this basis.

Funding: Merck KGaA, and Pfizer Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30900-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984727PMC
January 2018

Phase 1 trials of PEGylated recombinant human hyaluronidase PH20 in patients with advanced solid tumours.

Br J Cancer 2018 01 26;118(2):153-161. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

Mayo Clinic, 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA.

Background: Hyaluronan accumulation in tumour stroma is associated with reduced survival in preclinical cancer models. PEGPH20 degrades hyaluronan to facilitate tumour access for cancer therapies. Our objective was to assess safety and antitumour activity of PEGPH20 in patients with advanced solid tumours.

Methods: In HALO-109-101 (N=14), PEGPH20 was administered intravenously once or twice weekly (0.5 or 50 μg kg) or once every 3 weeks (0.5-1.5 μg kg). In HALO-109-102 (N=27), PEGPH20 was administered once or twice weekly (0.5-5.0 μg kg), with dexamethasone predose and postdose.

Results: Dose-limiting toxicities included grade ⩾3 myalgia, arthralgia, and muscle spasms; the maximum tolerated dose was 3.0 μg kg twice weekly. Plasma hyaluronan increased in a dose-dependent manner, achieving steady state by Day 8 in multidose studies. A decrease in tumour hyaluronan level was observed in 5 of the 6 patients with pretreatment and posttreatment tumour biopsies. Exploratory imaging showed changes in tumour perfusion and decreased tumour metabolic activity, consistent with observations in animal models.

Conclusions: The tumour stroma has emerging importance in the development of cancer therapeutics. PEGPH20 3.0 μg kg administered twice weekly is feasible in patients with advanced cancers; exploratory analyses indicate antitumour activity supporting further evaluation of PEGPH20 in solid tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5785735PMC
January 2018

Safety and Efficacy of Nivolumab in Combination With Ipilimumab in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: The CheckMate 016 Study.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Dec 5;35(34):3851-3858. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Hans J. Hammers, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD; Elizabeth R. Plimack, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA; Jeffrey R. Infante, Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN; Brian I. Rini, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH; David F. McDermott, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center, Boston, MA; Lionel D. Lewis, The Geisel School of Medicine and The Norris Cotton Cancer Center at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH; Martin H. Voss, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Padmanee Sharma, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX; Sumanta K. Pal, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA; Albiruni R. Abdul Razak, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario; Christian Kollmannsberger, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia; Daniel Y.C. Heng, Tom Baker Cancer Center, University of Calgary, Calgary; Jennifer Spratlin, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; M. Brent McHenry, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ; and Asim Amin, Levine Cancer Institute, Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC.

Purpose Combination treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors has shown enhanced antitumor activity compared with monotherapy in tumor types such as melanoma. The open-label, parallel-cohort, dose-escalation, phase I CheckMate 016 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in combination, and nivolumab plus a tyrosine kinase inhibitor in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Safety and efficacy results from the nivolumab plus ipilimumab arms of the study are presented. Patients and Methods Patients with mRCC received intravenous nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg (N3I1), nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg (N1I3), or nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg (N3I3) every 3 weeks for four doses followed by nivolumab monotherapy 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until progression or toxicity. End points included safety (primary), objective response rate, and overall survival (OS). Results All patients in the N3I3 arm (n = 6) were censored at the time of analysis as a result of dose-limiting toxicity or other reasons. Forty-seven patients were treated in both the N3I1 and the N1I3 arm, and baseline patient characteristics were balanced between arms. Grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 38.3% and 61.7% of the patients in the N3I1 and N1I3 arms, respectively. At a median follow-up of 22.3 months, the confirmed objective response rate was 40.4% in both arms, with ongoing responses in 42.1% and 36.8% of patients in the N3I1 and N1I3 arms, respectively. The 2-year OS was 67.3% and 69.6% in the N3I1 and N1I3 arms, respectively. Conclusion Nivolumab plus ipilimumab therapy demonstrated manageable safety, notable antitumor activity, and durable responses with promising OS in patients with mRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.72.1985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587408PMC
December 2017

A First-Time-in-Human Study of GSK2636771, a Phosphoinositide 3 Kinase Beta-Selective Inhibitor, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2017 Oct 23;23(19):5981-5992. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute UK, University College London Cancer Centre, London, United Kingdom.

The PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway is commonly activated in several tumor types. Selective targeting of p110β could result in successful pathway inhibition while avoiding the on- and off-target effects of pan-PI3K inhibitors. GSK2636771 is a potent, orally bioavailable, adenosine triphosphate-competitive, selective inhibitor of PI3Kβ. We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and antitumor activity of GSK2636771 to define the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). During the dose-selection and dose-escalation stages (parts 1 and 2), patients with -deficient advanced solid tumors received escalating doses of GSK2636771 (25-500 mg once daily) using a modified 3+3 design to determine the RP2D; tumor type-specific expansion cohorts (part 3) were implemented to further assess tumor responses at the RP2D. A total of 65 patients were enrolled; dose-limiting toxicities were hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemia. Adverse events included diarrhea (48%), nausea (40%), and vomiting (31%). Single- and repeat-dose exposure increased generally dose proportionally. GSK2636771 400 mg once daily was the RP2D. Phospho/total AKT ratio decreased with GSK2636771 in tumor and surrogate tissue. A castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patient harboring amplification had a partial response for over a year; an additional 10 patients derived durable (≥24 weeks) clinical benefit, including two other patients with CRPC with alterations (≥34 weeks). GSK2636771 400 mg once daily orally induced sufficient exposure and target inhibition with a manageable safety profile. Genomic aberrations of may be associated with clinical benefit from GSK2636771. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-0725DOI Listing
October 2017

Safety and Activity of Varlilumab, a Novel and First-in-Class Agonist Anti-CD27 Antibody, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Jun 2;35(18):2028-2036. Epub 2017 May 2.

Howard A. Burris and Jeffrey R. Infante, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN; Stephen M. Ansell, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; John J. Nemunaitis, Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas, TX; Geoffrey R. Weiss and Timothy Bullock, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA; Victor M. Villalobos and Branimir I. Sikic, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA; Matthew H. Taylor, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Donald W. Northfelt, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ; William E. Carson III, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; Thomas R. Hawthorne, Thomas A. Davis, Michael J. Yellin, and Tibor Keler, Celldex Therapeutics, Hampton, NJ.

Purpose CD27, a costimulatory molecule on T cells, induces intracellular signals that mediate cellular activation, proliferation, effector function, and cell survival upon binding to its ligand, CD70. Varlilumab is a novel, first-in-class, agonist CD27 antibody that stimulates the CD27 pathway, which results in T-cell activation and antitumor activity in tumor models. This first-in-human, dose-escalation and expansion study evaluated the safety, pharmacology, and activity of varlilumab in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods In a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design (n = 25), patients received a single dose of varlilumab (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 10 mg/kg intravenously) with a 28-day observation, followed by up to five multidose cycles (one dose per week for 4 weeks), depending on tumor response. Expansion cohorts were initiated at 3.0 mg/kg in patients with melanoma (n = 16) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC; n = 15). Primary objectives were to assess the safety and the maximum tolerated and optimal biologic doses of varlilumab. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical antitumor activity of varlilumab. Results Exposure to varlilumab was linear and dose proportional across dose groups. Only one patient experienced a dose-limiting toxicity-grade 3 transient asymptomatic hyponatremia at the 1.0-mg/kg dose level. Treatment-related adverse events were generally grade 1 or 2 in severity. Evidence of biologic activity consistent with CD27 stimulation-chemokine induction, T-cell stimulation, regulatory T cell depletion-was observed at all dose levels. A patient with metastatic RCC experienced a partial response (78% shrinkage, progression-free survival > 2.3 years). Eight patients experienced stable disease > 3 months, including a patient with metastatic RCC with progression-free survival of > 3.9 years. Conclusion Dose escalation of varlilumab to 10 mg/kg was well tolerated without identification of a maximum tolerated dose. Varlilumab was biologically and clinically active.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.70.1508DOI Listing
June 2017

A phase I dose-escalation study of Selumetinib in combination with Erlotinib or Temsirolimus in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2017 10 19;35(5):576-588. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Yale Cancer Center, 55 Park Street, Ste First Floor, New Haven, CT, 06519, USA.

Background Combinations of molecularly targeted agents may provide optimal anti-tumor activity and improve clinical outcomes for patients with advanced cancers. Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is an oral, potent and highly selective, allosteric inhibitor of MEK1/2, a component of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway which is constitutively activated in many cancers. We investigated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of selumetinib in combination with molecularly targeted drugs erlotinib or temsirolimus in patients with advanced solid tumors. Methods Two-part study: dose escalation, to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of selumetinib in combination with erlotinib 100 mg once daily (QD) or temsirolimus 25 mg once weekly, followed by dose expansion at the respective combination MTDs to further investigate safety and anti-tumor effects. Results 48 patients received selumetinib plus erlotinib and 32 patients received selumetinib plus temsirolimus. The MTD with erlotinib 100 mg QD was selumetinib 100 mg QD, with diarrhea being dose limiting. The most common all grade adverse events (AEs): diarrhea, rash, nausea, and fatigue. Four (8.3%) patients had ≥12 weeks stable disease. The MTD with temsirolimus 25 mg once weekly was selumetinib 50 mg twice daily (BID), with mucositis and neutropenia being dose limiting. The most commonly reported AEs: nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, and mucositis. Ten (31.3%) patients had ≥12 weeks stable disease. The combination PK profiles were comparable to previously observed monotherapy profiles. Conclusions MTDs were established for selumetinib in combination with erlotinib or temsirolimus. Overlapping toxicities prevented the escalation of selumetinib to its recommended phase II monotherapy dose of 75 mg BID.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00600496; registered 8 July 2009.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-017-0459-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613062PMC
October 2017

Avelumab, an Anti-Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Antibody, In Patients With Refractory Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Results From a Multicenter, Phase Ib Study.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Jul 4;35(19):2117-2124. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Andrea B. Apolo and James L. Gulley, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; Jeffrey R. Infante, Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN; Ani Balmanoukian, The Angeles Clinic & Research Institute; Alain C. Mita, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles; Karen Kelly, University of California-Davis, Sacramento; Marko Srdanov, Dako North America, Carpinteria, CA; Manish R. Patel, Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Sarasota, FL; Ding Wang, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI; Anthony E. Mega, The Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University; Howard Safran, The Miriam Hospital, Providence; Howard Safran, Newport Hospital, Newport, RI; Carolyn D. Britten, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC; Alain Ravaud, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Thomas E. Stinchcombe, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Arnold B. Gelb and Kevin Chin, EMD Serono, Billerica, MA; and Michael Schlichting, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany.

Purpose We assessed the safety and antitumor activity of avelumab, a fully human anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) IgG1 antibody, in patients with refractory metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Methods In this phase Ib, multicenter, expansion cohort, patients with urothelial carcinoma progressing after platinum-based chemotherapy and unselected for PD-L1 expression received avelumab 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks. The primary objectives were safety and tolerability. Secondary objectives included confirmed objective response rate (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] version 1.1), progression-free survival, overall survival (OS), and PD-L1-associated clinical activity. PD-L1 positivity was defined as expression by immunohistochemistry on ≥ 5% of tumor cells. Results Forty-four patients were treated with avelumab and followed for a median of 16.5 months (interquartile range, 15.8 to 16.7 months). The data cutoff was March 19, 2016. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events of any grade were fatigue/asthenia (31.8%), infusion-related reaction (20.5%), and nausea (11.4%). Grades 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in three patients (6.8%) and included asthenia, AST elevation, creatine phosphokinase elevation, and decreased appetite. The confirmed objective response rate by independent central review was 18.2% (95% CI, 8.2% to 32.7%; five complete responses and three partial responses). The median duration of response was not reached (95% CI, 12.1 weeks to not estimable), and responses were ongoing in six patients (75.0%), including four of five complete responses. Seven of eight responding patients had PD-L1-positive tumors. The median progression-free survival was 11.6 weeks (95% CI, 6.1 to 17.4 weeks); the median OS was 13.7 months (95% CI, 8.5 months to not estimable), with a 12-month OS rate of 54.3% (95% CI, 37.9% to 68.1%). Conclusion Avelumab was well tolerated and associated with durable responses and prolonged survival in patients with refractory metastatic UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.71.6795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5493051PMC
July 2017

A phase I dose-escalation study of selumetinib in combination with docetaxel or dacarbazine in patients with advanced solid tumors.

BMC Cancer 2017 03 6;17(1):173. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway is constitutively activated in many cancers. Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is an oral, potent and highly selective, allosteric MEK1/2 inhibitor with a short half-life that has shown clinical activity as monotherapy in phase I and II studies of advanced cancer. Preclinical data suggest that selumetinib may enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) in combination with docetaxel or dacarbazine in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Methods: This study was a phase I, open-label, multicenter study in patients aged ≥18 years with advanced solid tumors who were candidates for docetaxel or dacarbazine treatment. Part A of the study (dose escalation) evaluated safety, tolerability, PK, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of selumetinib twice daily (BID) with docetaxel 75 mg/m or dacarbazine 1000 mg/m administered every 21 days. Patients receiving docetaxel could be administered primary prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor according to standard guidelines. Part B of the study (dose expansion) further evaluated safety, tolerability, and PK in 12 additional patients at the MTD combinations determined in part A.

Results: A total of 35 patients received selumetinib plus docetaxel, and 25 received selumetinib plus dacarbazine. The MTD of selumetinib was 75 mg BID in combination with either docetaxel (two dose-limiting toxicity [DLT] events: neutropenia with fever, and thrombocytopenia) or dacarbazine (one DLT event: thrombocytopenia). Common adverse events occurring with each treatment combination were diarrhea, peripheral/periorbital edema, fatigue, and nausea. PK parameters for selumetinib and docetaxel or dacarbazine were similar when administered alone or in combination. Partial responses were reported in 6/35 patients receiving selumetinib plus docetaxel and 4/25 patients receiving selumetinib plus dacarbazine.

Conclusions: The combinations of selumetinib plus docetaxel and selumetinib plus dacarbazine demonstrated manageable safety and tolerability profiles and preliminary signs of clinical activity in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00600496; registered 8 July 2009.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3143-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5340007PMC
March 2017

A phase 1 dose-escalation and expansion study of binimetinib (MEK162), a potent and selective oral MEK1/2 inhibitor.

Br J Cancer 2017 Feb 2;116(5):575-583. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Clinical Research, South Texas Accelerated Research Therapeutics (START), 4383 Medical Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

Background: Binimetinib (MEK162; ARRY-438162) is a potent and selective oral MEK 1/2 inhibitor. This phase 1 study determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, and preliminary anti-tumour activity of binimetinib in patients with advanced solid tumours, with expansion cohorts of patients with biliary cancer or KRAS- or BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer.

Methods: Binimetinib was administered twice daily. Expansion cohorts were enroled after MTD determination following a 3+3 dose-escalation design. Pharmacokinetic properties were determined from plasma samples. Tumour samples were assessed for mutations in RAS, RAF, and other relevant genes. Pharmacodynamic properties were evaluated in serum and skin punch biopsy samples.

Results: Ninety-three patients received binimetinib (dose-escalation phase, 19; expansion, 74). The MTD was 60 mg twice daily, with dose-limiting adverse events (AEs) of dermatitis acneiform and chorioretinopathy. The dose for expansion patients was subsequently decreased to 45 mg twice daily because of the frequency of treatment-related ocular toxicity at the MTD. Common AEs across all dose levels included rash (81%), nausea (56%), vomiting (52%), diarrhoea (51%), peripheral oedema (46%), and fatigue (43%); most were grade 1/2. Dose-proportional increases in binimetinib exposure were observed and target inhibition was demonstrated in serum and skin punch biopsy samples. Three patients with biliary cancer had objective responses (one complete and two partial).

Conclusions: Binimetinib demonstrated a manageable safety profile, target inhibition, and dose-proportional exposure. The 45 mg twice daily dose was identified as the recommended phase 2 dose. The three objective responses in biliary cancer patients are encouraging and support further evaluation in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5344293PMC
February 2017

Two Phase 1 dose-escalation studies exploring multiple regimens of litronesib (LY2523355), an Eg5 inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2017 Feb 17;79(2):315-326. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: This first-in-human report examined the recommended Phase 2 dose and schedule of litronesib, a selective allosteric kinesin Eg5 inhibitor.

Methods: Two concurrent dose-escalation studies investigated litronesib across the dose range of 0.125-16 mg/m/day, evaluating the following schedules of administration on a 21-day cycle: Days 1, 2, 3; Days 1, 5, 9; Days 1, 8; Days 1, 5; or Days 1, 4, with or without pegfilgrastim. Best overall response was defined per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST Version 1.0). Pharmacokinetic (PK) evaluations were performed. Exploratory PK/pharmacodynamic analyses investigated the relationship between litronesib plasma exposure and changes in phosphohistone H3 (pHH3) levels.

Results: One hundred and seventeen patients with advanced malignancies were enrolled. Neutropenia was the primary dose-limiting toxicity. Prophylactic pegfilgrastim reduced neutropenia frequency and severity, allowing administration of higher litronesib doses, but increases in the incidences of mucositis and stomatitis were observed. Among 86 response-evaluable patients, 2 patients (2%) achieved partial response, both on the Days 1, 2, 3 regimen (5 and 6 mg/m/day with pegfilgrastim), and 17 patients (20%) maintained stable disease for ≥6 cycles. Dose-dependent increases in litronesib plasma exposure were observed, with minor intra- and inter-cycle accumulation, along with exposure-dependent increases in pHH3 expression in tumor and skin biopsies.

Conclusions: On the basis of the results of these studies, two regimens were selected for Phase 2 exploration: 6 mg/m/day on Days 1, 2, 3 plus pegfilgrastim and 8 mg/m/day on Days 1, 5, 9 plus pegfilgrastim, both on a 21-day cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-016-3205-5DOI Listing
February 2017

A Phase 1/1b Study Evaluating Trametinib Plus Docetaxel or Pemetrexed in Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

J Thorac Oncol 2017 03 19;12(3):556-566. Epub 2016 Nov 19.

Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Objectives: This two-part study evaluated trametinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor, in combination with anticancer agents. Inhibition of MEK, a downstream effector of KRAS, demonstrated preclinical synergy with chemotherapy in KRAS-mutant NSCLC cell lines. Part 1 of this study identified recommended phase 2 doses of trametinib combinations. Part 2, reported herein, evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of trametinib combinations in patients with NSCLC with and without KRAS mutations.

Methods: Phase 1b evaluated trametinib plus docetaxel with growth factor support (trametinib, 2.0 mg once daily, and docetaxel, 75 mg/m every 3 weeks) or pemetrexed (trametinib, 1.5 mg once daily, and pemetrexed, 500 mg/m every 3 weeks). Eligibility criteria for the expansion cohorts included metastatic NSCLC with measurable disease, known KRAS mutation status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1 or lower, and no more than two prior regimens.

Results: The primary end point of overall response rate (ORR) was met for both combinations. A confirmed partial response (PR) was observed in 10 of the 47 patients with NSCLC who received trametinib plus docetaxel (21%). The ORR was 18% (four PRs in 22 patients) in those with KRAS wild-type NSCLC versus 24% (six PRs in 25 patients) in those with KRAS-mutant NSCLC. Of the 42 patients with NSCLC treated with trametinib plus pemetrexed, six (14%) had a PR; the ORR was 17% (four of 23) in patients with KRAS-mutated NSCLC versus 11% (two of 19) in KRAS wild-type NSCLC. Adverse events-most commonly diarrhea, nausea, and fatigue-were manageable.

Conclusions: Trametinib-plus-chemotherapy combinations were tolerable. Clinical activity exceeding the ORRs previously reported with docetaxel or pemetrexed alone in KRAS-mutated NSCLC and meeting prespecified criteria was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2016.11.2218DOI Listing
March 2017